At higher compressionratio (19.5:1), break thermal efficiency (BTE) for E10 decreases and for E20, E30 and E40 increases. Increasing the ethanol percentage leads to unstable operation. At high compressionratio, ethanol also meets same pressure as compared to diesel. While increasing compressionratio upto 19.5 and higher loads, peak pressure increase upto E10, E20, E30 and then decreases for E40. At high compressionratio, due to early starting of combustion and complete burning of the fuel ethanol almost reaches the peak pressure of biodiesel though it is having low caloriﬁc value. By increasing the compressionratio to 19.5:1, auto ignition occurs due to lower CN of ethanol and higher vaporization of ethanol resulting in better fuel conversion efficiency upto E40 compared to diesel. At compression ratios of 19.5 with the variousethanolblends, heat release rate (HRR) increases gradually upto E30 but suddenly drops for E40.The heat release is also due to low CN and high volatility. Enhanced oxygen reaction kinetics in ethanol leads to increased heat release & formation of CO 2 . Increased ethanol proportion
technology continues to open new areas of exploration. At the same time, the indiscriminate extraction of fossil fuels also may results in depletion of petroleum deposits. Diesel being the main transport fuel in India, finding suitable alternative to diesel in an urgent need. Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum resources have caused interests in development of alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel fuel, environment friendly and biodegradable and is produced from either edible or non-edible oils. In this context, waste plastic solid is currently receiving renewed interest. Waste plastic oil is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in India because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively lower scale degradation. The present investigation was to study the effect of plastic oil blend with B20 rubber biodiesel and B20 honge biodiesel on four stroke, single cylinder direct Injection dieselengine. Experimental results show that performancecharacteristics were found to be comparable with diesel. The emissioncharacteristics shows that NOx emission levels are slightly higher and other emissions like CO, HC are compatible with diesel modes of operation. Hence plastic oil can be used as substitute fuel in place of conventional diesel fuel.
The use of alcohol additives include methanol and ethanol are very practical in the biodieselblends due to its miscibility with the pure biodiesel  . Alcohol additives are very helpful to reduce the viscosity and density of the biodiesel which is higher compared to standard mineral diesel. The alcohol additives improve the combustion efficiency and produce lower exhaust emission when fuelled the diesel engines. Ethanol and methanol has approximately 35% and 30% higher oxygen in basis as compared to mineral diesel that help dieselengine to achieve higher complete combustion . For the developing countries of the world, fuels of bio-origin can provide a feasible solution to the crisis. The fuels of bio-origin may be alcohol, vegetable oils, biomass, and biogas. Biodiesel is a nonpetroleum-based fuel defined as fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters derived from vegetable oils or animal fats and it is used in diesel engines and heating systems. Thus, this fuel could be regarded as mineral diesel substitute with the advantage of reducing greenhouse emissions because it is a renewable resource. However, the high cost of biodiesel is the major obstacle for its commercialization, the biodiesel produced from vegetable oil or animal fat is usually more expensive than petroleum- based diesel fuel from 10 to 40%. Moreover, during 2009, the prices of virgin vegetable oils have nearly doubled in relation to the early 2000. This is of great concern to
and shortage in supply have increased the interest in the field of alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Diesel engines are mostly trusted source of transportation and power generation. In present work, experimentation was carried out on single cylinder VCR dieselengine which is connected to the eddy current dynamometer, emission gas analyzer and smoke meter. The test was performed with four differentblends of sesame oil, ethanol and diesel in the ratios of 5%, 15%, 35% and 55% of sesame oil keeping ethanol at constant 5% and remaining diesel. The experimental results were compared for neat diesel operation with ethanol and sesame oil blends at compressionratio 16, 17 and 18. There is 12.23%, 13.55%, 9.93% and 6.68% improvement observed in brake thermal efficiency. Also, there is 9.52%, 11.90%, 7.69% and 5.76% reduction in specific fuel consumption at full load condition. Improvement was observed not only in performance parameters but also in emission reduction. There is an average 25%, 14%, 10%, and 8.97% reduction in HC and average 67%, 56%, 53% and 40% reduction in CO observed at full load condition. But increase in NO could not be prevented which was increased from220 ppm to 262 ppm and found decreased with varying blends of ethanol and sesame oil for higher compressionratio. The experimental results obtained shows that sesame oil, ethanol and dieselblends works better at higher compressionratio.
Modernization and increase in the number of automobiles worldwide, the consumption of diesel and gasoline has enormously increased. As petroleum is non renewable source of energy and the petroleum reserves are scarce now days, there is a need to search for alternative fuels for automobiles. The intensive search for alternative fuels for compression ignition engines has been focused attention on fuels which can be derived from bio mass in this regard karanja and jatropha seed oil is found to be a potential fuel for C.I Engines. The properties of karanja oil and jatropha oil are determined by using standard methods. The experiment is to be conduct when the engine fuelled with mixing of karanja oil(50%) and jatropha oil(50%) blend by volume and then investigate the performance and emissioncharacteristics of Multi Cylinder Four Stroke Compressed Ignition Engine at different brake power outputs, and then compared with that of diesel.
Abstract: - Nowadays the crude oil is depleting at a fast rate and cannot be produced in short duration of time as it is non-renewable source of energy,therefore it is high time to study & research over and to act towards the sustainable use of our natural resources like petroleum products.Biodiesel is a renewable alternative fuel created from vegetable oils, animal fats, and greases through a chemical process. The chemical process involves reaction of natural oils with an alcohol, and then refining the mixture to create molecules which can be easily burned in a diesel engine.In the present study,biodiesel extracted from mahua oil was taken & the evaluation of the performance, emission and combustioncharacteristics of a compression ignition engine fuelled with differentblends of biodiesel extracted from mahua oil biodiesel was done. The c.i. engine was single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled, and naturally aspirated direct injection (DI) diesel locomotive.
Jojoba seeds by mechanical expeller and Jojoba oil was transesterified with methanol using Sodium Hydroxide as a Catalyst to obtain Jojoba Biodiesel (Jojoba methyl Ester). A four stroke single cylinder water cooled constant speed dieselengine with different load conditions is used for the performance and emissioncharacteristics of Jojoba biodiesel and their blends with diesel for injection pressure of 200 bar and injection timing of 23 bTDC maintained constant throughout the experiment. Diesel and Jojoba biodieselblends (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) are used for the experiment of performance and emissioncharacteristics at variousengine loads (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%). The variations of all engineperformance parameters and exhaust emissions were plotted with respect to Brake Power. Among the blends JB20 (Jojoba biodiesel 20%+Diesel 80%) shows better performance with Brake Thermal Efficiency and Brake specific fuel consumption. Among the blends JB100 shows higher HC emission 92ppm at 50% load. The JB30, JB40 shows lower CO emissions at no load and 75% load when compared to diesel. In case of NOX emissions JB30 has lesser NOX emissions of 28, 572, 828, 967ppm respectively at 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% load compared to diesel fuel.
However, the above problems can be overcome with the use of esterified oils and their blends with diesel. Since the ester are less viscous than neat vegetable oils and, therefore, improved engineperformance through better atomization and combustion in the cylinder was observed when either neat esterified oils or their blends with diesel were used. The esterification reduces the viscosity and removes glycerol from the oil. Hence the problem of cold start, plugging of filters, fuel lines, injectors carbon deposition, oxidation and polymerization of lubricating oil are least associated particularly when blends of esterified fuel were used as engine fuel. In view of above, use of either esterified vegetable oil alone or their blends with diesel appear to be promising alternative fuels of the future.
Four Stroke VCR (Variable CompressionRatio) Research engine connected to an Eddy Current Dynamometer. It is provided with necessary instruments for Combustion Pressure, Crank-Angle, Air Flow, Fuel Flow, Temperatures and Load Measurements. These signals are interfaced to computer through high speed data acquisition device. The set up has stand- alone panel box consisting of Air Box, Twin Fuel Tank, Manometer, Fuel Measuring Unit, transmitter for Air and Fuel Flow measurements, Process Indicator and Piezo Powering Unit. Rotameter are provided for cooling water and Calorimeter Water Flow measurement. In Petrol Mode Engine works with programmable Open ECU, Throttle position sensor (TPS), Fuel Pump, Ignition Coil, Fuel Spray Nozzle, Trigger Sensor etc. The setup enables study of VCR EnginePerformance for both Diesel and Petrol mode and study of ECU programming. EnginePerformance study includes Brake Power, Indicated Power, Frictional Power, BMEP, IMEP, Brake Thermal Efficiency, Indicated Thermal Efficiency, Mechanical Efficiency, Volumetric Efficiency, Specific Fuel Consumption, Air Fuel Ratio, Heat
soot were 18.9%, 38.8%, 71.4% and 26.3%, respectively with B20 (90 ppm) compare to neat B20. The MWCNT acts as catalyst to accelerate burning rate which result in decreased ignition delay. The CeO2 nanoparticles act as oxygen donating catalyst which oxidize CO into CO2 and absorb oxygen for reduction of NOx into nitrogen. The activation energy of CeO2 burn off carbon deposits within the combustion chamber and hence lower HC and soot emission. Selvan et al  studied performance and emissioncharacteristics of VCR engine at optimum compression ration of 19:1 using diesterol (diesel-castor oil biodiesel – ethanol blend) - CeO 2 – CNT blends. They used CeO 2 and CNT of each 25, 50 and 100 ppm of concentrations added with
Following are the conclusions based on the experimental results obtained while operating single cylinder dieselengine fuelled with biodiesel from Jatropha oil and their blends. Jatropha Methyl esters can be directly used in dieselengine without any modifications.The maximum brake thermal efficiency is found to be JME20 in 27ºbTDC and 240bar at compressionratio 19:1. It is found that the combined increase of compressionratio, injection timing and injection pressure increases the BTHE and reduces BSFC while having lower emissions.Good mixture formation and lower smoke emission are the key factors for good CIengineperformance. These factors are highly influenced by viscosity, density, and volatility of the fuel. For bio-diesels, these factors are mainly decided by the effectiveness of the transesterification process. With properties close to diesel fuel, bio-diesel from Jatropha oil can provide a useful substitute for diesel thereby promoting our economy. Finally it can be concluded that JME20 could be used as alternative fuel for operating CIengine at compressionratio of 19:1, higher injector opening pressure of 240bar and advanced injection timing27ºbTDC with less emission of CO and HC and better engineperformance.
Abstract :The depletion of world petroleum reserves and increased environmental concern has stimulated the search of alternative fuel which is to be environment friendly. Bio-fuels have the potential to become alternative fuel for fossil fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, reliable, biodegradable and regarded as a clean alternative fuel to reduce exhaust emissions. In recent years, much research has been carried to find suitable alternative fuel to petroleum products. In the present investigationexperimental work has been carried out to analyze the performance and emissions characteristics of a single cylinder compression ignition DI engine fuelled with the blends of mineral diesel and biodiesel. The simarouba biodiesel is considered as alternative fuel to diesel. A large amount of tree borne oils and fats are available for biodiesel production in developing and under develop countries. Simarouba glauca oil is one of these oils.
Abstract: The experimentalinvestigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding oxygenated additive to fish oil biodiesel (FOBD) blends on a thermal barrier coated DI dieselengine on performance, emission and combustioncharacteristics. The test fuels are diesel, FOBD of different blending with diesel of 25%,50%, 75% and 100 % and FOBD with 10% V/V additive of 1, 4 dioxane with different blending with diesel of 25 %, 50% , 75% and 100%. Experiment was done in four stages namely, only diesel, diesel with FOBD, diesel with FOBD with additive (FOBD+A) and diesel with FOBD in a Thermal Barrier Ceramic (TBC) coated engine (FOBD+PC). Comparisons were done with differentblends namely of 25 %, 50%, 75% and 100%. Maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) attains for operating the engine on biodiesel with additive. Coating does not give any effect on BTE. Smoke density for FOBD+A gives less smoke than others for all load and all blends except 100% blend. Smoke density is higher for coated engine than uncoated engine.
Available Online at www.ijpret.com 249 thermal efficiency for test fuel. Also with the addition of alumina and cerium oxide nanoparticle to neat diesel, lower NOx emission. Prabhu L et al  carried out investigation on performance and emission analysis of tio2 nanoparticle as an additive for bio-dieselblends. The carbon monoxide and smoke emission decreases with biodieselblends when comparing with the neat diesel. The addition of titanium oxide further decreases the CO emission, HC emission and smoke emission when comparing with neat diesel. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of SBME blended with diesel along with Aluminium nanoparticle on the combustion, performance and emissioncharacteristics of dieselengine. For investigationvariousblends of Soya bean biodiesel with diesel were taken. The Aluminium nanoparticle was added with various proportions.
Abstract: Need for alternate fuel in CIengine for which a lot of experimental research is being done worldwide. Intense research is already done with biodiesel blended in diesel. And Dual biodiesel blended in diesel research is underway, which gain importance because feasibility to materialize locally available feed stock. In this contest the experimental research is being carried out to examine the performance and combustion of Waste Cooking Oil biodiesel (WCOBD) and Palm Stearin biodiesel (PSBD) blended in diesel. Result shows that B20 mixture stand close to pure diesel without much engine modification. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption differ by 12.99percent and 23.5percent. CO differs by 16.5% and HC differ by 3.09% that of pure diesel mode. Whereas NOx increased by 8.9% for optimal load and blend ratio. Peak in-cylinder pressure and net heat release rate differ by 2.05% and 3.1% respectively. Properties for pure diesel and dual biodieselblends of diesel are also enclosed.
Diesel fuels have an essential function in the industrial economy of a country with applications in heavy trucks, city transport buses, locomotives, electric generators, farm equipment, earthmoving and underground mining equipments . Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel, is made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats . Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages . A wider flammability limit, significant fuel oxygen content, lower viscosity, higher specific heat and higher latent heat of vaporization of methanol remains an advantage in terms of faster combustion, lower smoke and nitric oxide emissions as reported in literature [4-9]. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were the most commonly used alkali catalysts but higher yield was reported with KOH . Methanol and ethanol are the alcohols employed frequently in the transesterification process; but methanol is preferred owing to its low cost and higher reactivity when
F. Pradelle et al , experimented with the B15(15%biodiesel along with diesel) as base line comparative fuel. Compared this blend with the ethanol proportion from 5% to 20% in the B15 blend. Specific fuel increased by 5% for 5% ethanol B15 blend. Also reported that as ethanol percentage increase the ignition delay also increases owing the lower cetane number. Thermal energy conversion increases with the increase in the ethanol content.
Bio diesel acts as a promising alternative fuel to diesel oil.Vegetable oils are a very promising alternative to diesel oil since they are renewable and have similar properties. Many researchers have studied the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines. Vegetable oils offer almost the same power output with a slightly lower thermal efficiency when used in diesel engines. Reduction of engine emissions is a major research aspect in engine development with the increasing concern on environmental protection and the stringent exhaust gas recirculation. Biodiesel such as Jatropha, Karanja, sunflower, rapeseed are some of the popular biodiesel that are currently considered as substitutes for diesel. These are clean burning, renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environmentally friendly transportation fuels that can be used in neat form or blended with petroleum derived in diesel engines. Vegetable oil esters particularly karanja appear to be the best alternative fuel to diesel. Diesel engines have a negative effect on environment since they include high amounts of sulphur and aromatics. CO, SOX, NOX and smoke are produced from fossil fueled dieselengine exhaust emissions 
Viscous oil when injected to the cylinder do not atomize properly and may results in incomplete combustion of fuel, build- up of carbon deposits on injectors, cylinder head and piston. Some this unburnt fuel blow by the piston rings into crankcase causing dilution of lubricating oil to solidify due to oxidation and polymerization of vegetable oils which may result in complete failure of the lubricating oil and may ruin the engine.
As the population of the world increases consumption of the energy also increases tremendously. With the current consumption rate if it has been quoted that there will be great shortage of petroleum products in upcoming decades, it will not be wrong. For this reason people are looking for alternative fuels. As ethanol is the main bio-product in the many industries now-a-days, it is better to develop the engine which can work on pure ethanol or one can add ethanol in the petrol or diesel and use the blends of that. For this purpose, it is necessary to check the performancecharacteristics and emissions of the blends of ethanol and also necessary to compare with the pure form of fuels. Again it is necessary to check the effect of compressionratio on the blends of ethanol. So in this paper the same has been conducted at basic level.