66. The Dark Web is the part of the World Wide Web that is only accessible by means of special, albeit easily accessible, software, allowing users and website operators to remain anonymous or untraceable. Some argue that it is “vital for people living in countries where you can be arrested, tortured, and killed for the things you do online.” 63 However it is also used for illegal transactions, drug selling and child pornography. As a former cyber-crime professional stated with “no possibility to penetrate it, criminals can continue their crimes on a global network. It’s very, very difficult for the police to penetrate, so it’s risk-free crime.” The specific dangers to children were noted by the former Prime Minister, David Cameron, saying it is “where paedophiles and perverts are sharing images, not using the normal parts of the internet that we all use.” 64
21. However, it is unclear whether the Government has a systematic, long-term plan for how to encourage more teachers into areas where there is highest need. In the White Paper, Educational excellence everywhere, published in March 2016 plans were outlined for a National Teaching Service to “help schools by ensuring that great teachers are encouraged to work where they are most needed”.25 The National Teacher Service intended to match middle and senior leaders with the “schools that need them most” in areas of the country struggling most to recruit teachers.26 It was launched as a pilot focusing on the North West in January 2016 but was only able to recruit 54 teachers out of a target 100 and was dropped in December 2016.27
1993 and 2003 legacy schemes administered by the CSA and the new 2012 scheme, open to new applicants and administered by the CMS. The Government is introducing the 2012 scheme in phases, an approach that was praised by the Public Accounts Committee.14 The CMS began receiving a small number of new cases in December 2012 and took on all new applications from November 2013. The process of transitioning existing CSA cases is underway and scheduled for completion by the end of 2017.15 In keeping with the recommendation of the Henshaw report, cases are not directly transferred between schemes: the CSA case is closed and a new application, if necessary, is made to the CMS.16 11. When a case is selected for closure, the existing claimant (the PWC) receives a letter with a specified closure date in six to nine months’ time.17 Parents must then have a consultation with CMO before they can make an application to the CMS. CMO encourages them to establish a FBA and not to continue in the statutory scheme if possible.18 After the consultation, a PWC can then decide whether to open a new CMS case or not. There can be a substantial delay between the CSA case closing and the new CSA case opening, meaning there can be a break in payments even if the liability continues. We heard a number of concerns about access to the statutory scheme and consider these in more detail in chapter 3.
children who are at risk of, or suffering from, abuse and/or neglect. It is intended that the WWC will draw on the research and analytical skills of universities in order to develop a robust evidence base, and develop strong relationships with the academic community, as well as practitioners and decision-makers. It will commission new, high quality research and evaluations to fill gaps in our understanding around effective practice, and support its translation into better practice on the ground. Up to £4m will be made available each year up to 2019/20 to fund the WWC. It is anticipated that the WWC may attract additional funding once established. The WWC will have in scope the totality of support in the statutory space, from targeted early support all of the way through to permanence. This will include support for disabled children. We have engaged closely with universities, along with other sector stakeholders, in the development of the proposals. Further details on its initial priority focus areas and the set-up process will be made available in autumn 2016.
King Edward VI Foundation
1) The King Edward VI Foundation schools in Birmingham emerged as a case study during our session. The schools were noted as an example where an attempt had been made to address the low numbers of free school meal pupils in grammar schools. The Minister noted that this system has “different criteria for children from more disadvantaged backgrounds” and that it had been successful in increasing the proportion of children from those backgrounds attending those selective schools.95 Moreover, Dr Leunig highlighted the King Edward VI Foundation as an example of an “experiment”96 where its admissions testing was able to be tailored more closely according to background—a form of affirmative action, through which tutoring and affluence effects could be mitigated.97 2) Professor Jesson highlighted the significance of this example, noting that the Foundation had “so enhanced its rapport and its engagement with its local schools”98 that around one-third of the 120 pupils that go to this independent school are in fact from non-selective state primary schools.99 This experiment, Professor Jesson told us, has given local children and their families the taste for—and inclination to—taking part in an elite system.
57. We asked several witnesses whether Erasmus+ was replaceable if membership post- Brexit was unattainable. The response was mixed. Professor Alistair Fitt said that if we had to sacrifice something, Erasmus+ could be replaced with “Erasmus++” which could reach further around the world.120 Others expressed concern about how long it would take to rebuild a well-established programme, including setting up bilateral relationships with individual countries and ensuring widening participation.121 Estimating the cost of replacing Erasmus+ is not simple. The UK receives around €71 million a year for outward mobility.122 When the Swiss government set up the Swiss-European Mobility Programme to replace the loss of Erasmus+ membership, it spent around €23 million to fund 6,000 outward placements and close to 5,000 inward placements.123 A basic analysis is that UK higher education mobility is around four times bigger, so a UK equivalent might cost around €100 million a year. This would be higher if it were to target countries further afield.
Fig. 3.22: Sowing week (in SMW) with 20 mm assured rainfall at (a) 50% probability level and (b)75% probability over Bihar
At 50 per cent probability level, all the districts under Zone I registered water availability period ranging from 15 weeks in Vaishali to 19 weeks in West Champaran district. In Zone II, Araria district recorded the longest crop growing period (21 weeks) and the shortest (16 weeks) in Khagaria district. Such duration of water availability was found to prevail for 15 to 17 weeks in the districts under Zone IIIA and 13 to 16 weeks under Zone IIIB with a majority of the districts recording 14-week growing period. Thus, it is evident that at 50 per cent probability level, the length of rainfed crop growing period was the maximum in the districts under Zone II and the minimum was observed in the districts under Zone IIIB. Considering the entire state as a whole, at 50 per cent probability level, the longest water availability period of 22 weeks was observed in Kishanganj district in Zone II as against the shortest period of 13 weeks in Arwal district situated in Zone IIIB. Spatial distribution of duration of crop growing period at 50 per cent probability level has been given in Fig. 3.23a, which could help in selection of right type of crops to be grown under rainfed condition across various parts of the state. Map on duration of cropping periods at 75 per cent probability level have been presented in Fig. 3.23b.
35. Though it was not referred to in the Government’s written evidence, the UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES)—an executive, non-departmental body sponsored by the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy—reported on The Future of Work in 2014.69 The publication considered several scenarios for a more automated future, as well as the steps that policy makers, employers and individuals could take to prepare for tomorrow’s world of work. UKCES reports, however, do not receive a formal Government response, and the Government provided no indication that it had engaged with its findings. Instead, the Government announced on 21 July 2016 that “all operational activities of UKCES will be concluded by the end of 2016 and it is expected the organisation will be wound up in line with the end of its financial year, 2016–17”.70 36. Advances in robotics and AI hold the potential to reshape fundamentally the way we live and work. While we cannot yet foresee exactly how this ‘fourth industrial revolution’ will play out, we know that gains in productivity and efficiency, new services and jobs, and improved support in existing roles are all on the horizon, alongside the potential loss of well-established occupations. Such transitions will be challenging. As a nation, we must respond with a readiness to re-skill, and up-skill, on a continuing basis. This requires a commitment by the Government to ensure that our education and training systems are flexible, so that they can adapt as the demands on the workforce change, and are geared up for lifelong learning. Leadership in this area, however, has been lacking. It is disappointing that the Government has still not published its Digital Strategy and set out its plans for equipping the future workforce with the digital skills it needs to thrive.
2. We can be proud that the UK is already a global tech hub and a world leader in e-commerce: the online retail market accounted for 8.3% of GDP in 2010. 1 If as a nation we want to secure our position as a digital world leader, we need to ensure that investment in infrastructure, skills and cyber-security keeps up not only with the exponential growth of the sector but also with its restless innovation and creativity. Digital skills have no single definition, but have been variously described to include a general ability to use existing computers and digital devices to access digital services, “digital authoring skills” such as coding and software engineering, and the ability to critically evaluate media and to make informed choices about content and information—“to navigate knowingly through the negative and positive elements of online activity and make informed choices about the content and services they use”. 2 These skills are no longer sector specific. The rise of the Internet of Things, Big Data and robotics means that 65% of children entering primary school today will be working in roles that do not yet exist. 3 This means that our education and training system—whether teaching the next generation or continuously upskilling the existing workforce—will need to be more agile if it is going to meet the challenge of future-proofing the workplace.
The Wave 6 survey was conducted from November 19, 2012 to April 11, 2013. Participants in the Wave 1 survey were contacted via an email invitation and asked to complete the sixth wave of the study.
Screening was conducted at the beginning of the survey to confirm that the appropriate respondents participated. Parents entered their date of birth and gender at the start of the survey as well as their child’s date of birth and their entries were compared with those collected in Wave 1. Adult children entering the survey directly were asked to provide their gender and date of birth—their entries were also compared to those collected in Wave 1. Whether entered by the parent or the adult child, the child's age in Wave 6 had to be within 5-7 years of the age entered in Wave 1 in order to enter the survey. Upon entering the survey, children receiving the survey through their parent were asked to enter their gender and date of birth. The date of birth entered by the child was compared to and required to match the parent entry. In a few instances, follow-up was needed to clarify the screening information provided by respondents.
4.5 what makes an area ‘child-friendly’?
Respondents were asked what they thought made an area a good place in which to bring up children. Responses were chosen from a list of 15 items and parents were asked to nominate first and second choice. The most important issue by far was considered to be good schools which 38% of parents selected as their first choice and 15% selected as their second choice – overall around half of parents believed this to be important. A low level of crime was also principal in parents’ minds with around a third (32%) choosing this as were facilities for young children, a feature which is obviously particularly relevant to the GUS sample. Social aspects of the community were also considered important – 16% of parents selected a ‘strong sense of community spirit’ as something which made an area a good place in which to bring up children, and similarly, 16% suggested it was important to have friends and family close by. Access to services such as childcare, health services and housing were deemed less important, as were public transport and shopping facilities. Low levels of traffic and a clean local environment however were more prominent, each being selected by around 10% of respondents.
9.3.2 Formal and informal provision
The detailed childcare types were classified into ‘formal’ and ‘informal’ categories to allow an initial broad look at how types of provision differ across families.
At sweep 2, of those with regular childcare arrangements, 69% in the birth cohort and 45% in the child cohort, had a least one informal arrangement in place and 53% in the birth cohort and 99% in the child cohort had at least one formal arrangement. Between sweeps 1 and 2, within both cohorts, use of formal provision increased (particularly for the child cohort) and use of informal provision decreased (Figure 9-D). Informal provision was significantly more common, and formal provision less common, among families in the younger cohort than in the child cohort. Despite the almost blanket formal provision among the child cohort at sweep 2 however, it is notable that almost half of these children were also being cared for by an informal provider. Whilst this proportion has reduced since sweep 1, it nevertheless represents a significant minority of the child cohort. This further supports the scenarios suggested above where either parents in the older cohort have continued using existing informal arrangements, in some form, from sweep 1 and added the pre-school place or they have ‘topped up’ their childcare; that is, some families in the child cohort, particularly those where the mother is employed, have made additional informal childcare arrangements to allow them to make use of the statutory provision. For example, a child may be left with a grandparent who takes the child to his or her pre-school place and collects them afterwards.
A Postbank study shows that prices for apartments and houses in Germany’s big cities have increased by about 80% over the past decade. However, the growth rate could stagnate in the future due to demographic changes. In the last decade, two-thirds of the 36 cities surveyed grew, but only two in five will grow between now and 2030 – and without the influx of refugees, it would be only one third. In many cities, the influx of refugees cushions the population decline. Eastern Germany in particular can benefit from this trend, while major cities with rapidly growing populations will experience housing shortages that will further exacerbate scarcity in the real estate market in both eastern and western Germany.
those employed within Ofsted, and also valuable perspectives from the front- line.
• Thirdly, the Committee’s report is factually wrong in suggesting that Ofsted is accountable for failures in child protection. Amanda was completely right to say that this responsibility rests with ‘those who are actually directly responsible for the children day to day in social care’, while also recognising the enormous responsibility of inspecting child protection and other children’s services. This is an important error in the report. The new Chief Inspector must have this clear- thinking precision, and must promote it throughout the organisation, if we are serious about a fair, credible and high-quality inspection system.
178. Professor Sonia Livingstone, Evidence Champion for the UK Council for Child Internet Safety, also recommended better support for parents as a key element in reducing sexual harassment and sexual violence:
Schools and governments should offer more support and materials to parents to enable them to provide advice and guidance to children and young people on issues related to sex, relationships and sexualisation in commerce, the media and online. Parents especially need resources for talking to younger children in an age-appropriate manner. All these resources must be carefully tailored to children’s diverse needs, including those who are at risk or from a sexual, ethnic or other minority, avoiding inappropriate assumptions about
Whilst school based health interventions such as Hungry for Success have made substantial progress in promoting healthy eating and food provision in schools, there is growing evidence of the importance of positive changes in diet in early pre-school childhood in bringing about a lasting impact on health and well being in adult life. As discussed in section 1.1, the Scottish Government has recently devoted £56 million over the next 3 years to tackle the joint problems of diet, physical activity and obesity in Scotland. A substantial amount of this funding will be directed towards improving nutrition in the early years, with the specific aim of supporting parents and children outside of school to achieve the necessary step change in children’s dietary habits across all sectors of the population, particularly among disadvantaged sections of society. This includes child healthy weight interventions as well as increasing access to healthier food choices for low income families, and providing the education and skills to allow people ‘to break through barriers of food affordability and availability and the negative impact of culture and lack of food skills’
In contrast to regression procedures, multilevel modelling techniques take into account the clustering of individuals within groups (Goldstein, 1995). Such models provide more precise estimates of the effects of school (and teacher) characteristics. Multilevel models are used in this report for two purposes: first, to investigate the relationship between family, neighbourhood and school characteristics and the clusters of activities in which children engage; and secondly, to explore the relationship between these clusters of activities and children’s academic performance, all else being equal. For these purposes, a three-level model is estimated, with children grouped within classes in schools. For all models, dummy variables have been included to indicate missing values. This approach has the advantage of using the total sample and thus providing more precise estimates. These dummy variables are not of substantive interest so are not reported in the tables. Analyses presented in this report were carried out using the MLwiN computer package
The Study Team has done its best to avoid this source of bias by using well-established measures that control for bias and, wherever possible, collecting information from more than one informant or resorting to direct measurement. Thus, for example, mothers were asked to report their weight but it was also measured directly. As stated, the data in this report are descriptive and associations that are reported should not be interpreted as causal. For example, where children in single-parent families are doing less well it points to an association that needs further in-depth analysis to find undoubted differences within single-parent families and the factors that may in some cases be associated with less than optimal outcomes for children. Some of these as yet unexamined determinants may be found at similar rates in other family forms.
SKIN ALLERGIES (E.G. ECZEMA) WERE THE MOST COMMONLY DIAGNOSED ILLNESSES AMONG NINE-MONTH-OLDS
Mothers were presented with a list of pre-coded illnesses and asked to report on whether or not their nine-month-old had been diagnosed by a medical professional as having had any of them.
“is often nothing more than a passing phase” (Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylania, 2010, para. 5). Although we can acknowledge the fluidity of sexuality, this also presents a problematic ideal that heterosexuality is natural while other sexualities are not. Looking back on the time when I was searching for answers on my own sexuality, I did not turn to the internet. Yet, kids that have grown up with access to the technology that we have now turn to websites for help. They trust that someone out there can help them with their struggles, having the power to advise them in the right direction. The youth that turn to the website of their faith would solely find condemnation. As the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.) states, “LGBT* youth are at greater risk for depression, suicide, substance use, and sexual behaviors that can place them at increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)” (para. 2). Therefore, isolation is extremely damaging, if not deadly. We have a human responsibility to provide light for those who suffer within the darkness that this world can spread. The terrifying truth is that those who suffer from marginalization can be cloaked in even greater darkness. I remember when I was on the edge of either being swallowed in uncertainty or finding my