which later on became meeting places to eat and get entertainment that were called “tavern;” and these then were transitioned into hotels. However, the first modern hotel was built and came to recognition in the 18 th century, from when and where it was spread in many countries (Sheela, 3). As per the Cambridge dictionary, the term hotel refers to an establishment/building that provides lodging services with payments made to utilize them for a short period of time; while, according to Le Na, “Hotel is a part of the hospitality industry which is an umbrella term for a broad variety of service industries including, but not limited to, hotels, restaurants and casinos” (9). Hotels are categorizes by two ways: (1) functions, or (2) star ratings. The following are hotel types that have been classified by function: Commercial, Airport, Conference, Economy, Suit or All-Suit, Residential, Casino, and Resort. Whereas, the classification by star ratings goes from no category hotels, which do not have any star rating, up to 5 stars that is the maximum as per literature (Le Na, 11-13). Five star hotels are characterized as luxury hotels; generally quite expensive, extra service provided such as private facilities and services, e.g. golf courses etc. Four star hotels are generally categorized in first class hotels; yet relatively expensive with certain luxury elements of service as well. Three star hotels are considered middle class hotel with more than basic services provided for a considerable price. Two star hotels known as budget hotels are considered to have basic services but also some additional services such as room service; a service which one star hotels – low budget hotels, may not have (Le Na, 13). In my study I focus on the second classification based on star rating, due to the fact that the aim of the paper is to evaluate the quality of hotels, for which star rating is one determining factor.
Technological changes, especially in information technology, the growing complexity and environment uncertainty require knowledge and several skills. As a result of mass production and diversity of products and services, consumers today are aware and above all very selective on purchasing goods and services. The growing demands of consumers require new solutions and broad knowledge. Due to an increasing competition, the organization needs to constantly revise production and services in order to fulfill the needs and demands of the consumers, by applying managerial methods to increase productivity. Modern conditions, dynamic competition, sophisticated information technology, economic knowledge, market globalization, have changed regarding importance of human resources in the organization. These conditions actualize and favor human capital as a strategic source for the organization. Differences in organizations exist only because of the differences between human resources, methods of management and development. In a global environment, ever more complex and obscure, knowledge and skills are the sole sources that create competing advantages. And for this reason, training is often considered a tool to achieve organizational objectives. Thus employee training is becoming an optimal response to complex challenges of business. After selecting the employees from management, workers should be trained according to their job, orientation should be organized before their work and other kinds of training will be held later. Today, the service sector is always growing in the developed countries. Development of tourism has influenced the growth of hotelindustry. Hotelindustry is becoming more and more competing in regard to quality of service which affects the success or lack of success of hotels. Regarding the growing quality of service, hotel workers play an important role therefore developing employees by giving them continuous training in relevant fields is necessary. Employee training helps the organization to achieve its goal while in the same time enables workers to do a better job.
implies a time of the greatest labour turmoil. As such, there were 3749 strikes in 1998, 13 times more than in the previous year (KLI: Korean Labour Institute, 1998). Against the social situation the KCTU, established in 1987, was finally altered to form a legitimate union federation under the Trade Union Law. The FKTU conducted the following activities: enactment and revision of labour relations act, national economy policy study, analysis and establishing of business policy, jurisdiction, unity of organisational activities, unification, education policy development or seminar of labour-management dispute, collective bargaining, a collective action, women related to business and worker’s compensation. Whilst, the main activities of the KCTU involved the following: higher wages, the improvement of minimum wages, employment stability, reduction of working time, management participation, re-instatement of employees, conduct and anti-corruption, ensuring the right to organise and strike by the standards of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the publication of ‘Labour and W orld’ and participation of the tripartite commission. There is a difference between the FKTU and KCTU, because the FKTU tends to approach a macro view such as considering unification, while the KCTU focuses on a micro view, such as specific labour conditions. Table 2.8 explains trade union membership in Korea. The number of trade unions was 5,099 in 2007 and this had decreased by 790 compared to 2006. The reason why the number of trade unions declined is that many enterprise unions transferred to industrial unions and regional trade unions. The FKTU occupies a higher number of trade union members compared to the KCTU, however there is not a big difference in terms of trade union numbers because the KCTU includes big factory unions and also many industrial unions have changed to become a member of the KCTU in 2007 (KML: Korea Ministry of Labour, 2007). There would be a political issue concerning FKTU and the government if corruption occurred involving the representative within the FKTU, which is a reason why they are member of the KCTU. Therefore, the KCTU tends to have greater power than FKTU in Korea.
OALibJ | DOI:10.4236/oalib.1100854 2 December 2014 | Volume 1 | e854 world’s largest industries. The total impact of the industry means that, in 2011, it has contributed 9% of global GDP or a value of over $6 trillion US dollars, and accounted for 255 million jobs. Over the next ten years this industry is expected to grow by an average of 4% annually, taking it to 10% of the global GDP, or some $10 trillion US dollars. By 2022, it is anticipated that it will account for 328 million jobs; this is 1 of every 10 jobs on the planet. But the rapid development of the tourism industry also has negative impacts on the environment. The contradiction between tourism development and the balance of nature is deepening. With the continued ex- pansion of the tourism industry comes the challenge of balancing the economic benefits of tourism development and growth with the need to protect the very things that tourists go to see, which includes clean beaches, authen- tic communities, landscapes, culture and nature. For tourism to be profitable and beneficial, it must also be sus- tainable by providing benefits to the tourists and hosts, while at the same time protecting the resources on which it depends. In order to keep tourism healthy, we need to integrate the concepts of sustainable development into the process of tourism. Sustainable tourism has been developing for more than 30 years. In order to distinguish sustainable tourism from non-sustainable tourism, it’s important to apply sustainable and Eco-tourism certifica- tion to the tourism industry.
tasks together, in the mean time they also are accountable for the results also. Normally, teamwork is established through three major phrases, which are team inputs, team processes, and team outputs. By building up teamwork, employees will have greater chance to search new and inventive ideas as an outcome from the collaboration between co-workers (Kakayi S., 2012). Team inclines to come up with more exclusive and broader ideas than perform those tasks by individual. It tends to encourage development (Khalid, 2008).
Since 1927, Marriott has established a culture and a tradition of innovation, service and leadership. Marriott’s network of 3,800+ hotels and brands across the globe leverages a proven model of managing and franchising hotels, providing vast opportunities for worldwide growth and development. Marriott offers owner and franchisee opportunities across the globe: regions include the U.S. and Canada, Europe, the Caribbean & Latin America, the Middle East & Africa and Asia Pacific (Official Website).
goals. In addition, the results of the survey on employee satisfaction in Serbia indicate a positive correlation between employee satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees in the hotelindustry (Blešić et al., 2017). Josanov-Vrgovic and Pavlovic (2018) point out that employee satisfaction influences organizational behavior and organizational performance. Sagger, Rafat, and Agarwal (2012) indicate that a number of organizational factors influence the level of employee satisfaction. Employees spend a lot of time at work, and it is therefore logical that most factors from the organization's environment have an impact on employee satisfaction. Employee satisfaction can be improved through the management of organizational factors such as: organizational development, reward system, career progression and development, work environment, management relations, teamwork and more (Djokic et al., 2015; Peric et al., 2015 ; Robbins and Judge, 2009). In addition to organizational factors, employee satisfaction is also influenced by demographic characteristics of employees such as gender, length of service, level of education, as well as personal factors such as position and status, life satisfaction, etc. The assumption of the influence of demographic characteristics on employee satisfaction is supported by the results of numerous empirical studies (Clark, 1997; Verhofstadt et al., 2007; Franĕk and Vecer, 2008; Kara et al., 2012; Urosevic and Milijic, 2012). It should also be noted that the results are quite inconsistent, that is, certain surveys did not confirm the effect of demographic characteristics on employee satisfaction (El Khouly et al., 2011; Ghafoor, 2012; Rast and Tourani, 2012), and that some studies found that women had have higher levels of job satisfaction compared to their male counterparts, and vice versa (Sousa-Poza and Sousa-Poza, 2003; Long, 2005; Mihajlov et al., 2015).
Still, the long-term effects are certainly much easier to capture for a smaller area, since contribution to the overall business activity is doubtlessly highest at this level. Therefore Matheson (2006) postulates to focus on the smallest possible affected area, e.g. a city, perhaps a region, instead of the whole country. The SME sector plays an important role in the development of the region through its participation in the GDP and jobs; thanks to the SMEs allocative changes of production factors occur in the region as a result of seeking market niches, increasing business activity and efforts to develop SMEs (Strużycki, 2004).
LEED (LEADERSHIP IN ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN) IS AN ECOLOGY-ORIENTED BUILDING CERTIFICATION PROGRAM RUN UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE U.S. GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL (USGBC). LEED CONCENTRATES ITS EFFORTS ON IMPROVING PERFORMANCE ACROSS FIVE KEY AREAS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN HEALTH: ENERGY EFFICIENCY, INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, MATERIALS SELECTION, SUSTAINABLE SITE DEVELOPMENT AND WATER SAVINGS. ST-DAMASE HOTEL FURNITURE HAS THE ABILITY TO ADAAPT ITS PRODUCTION IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE DESIRED LEED COMPLIANCE LEVEL FOR THE BUILDING PROJECT.
developments in the hotel sector, IHI is also a strategic shareholder in QP Management Limited, a construction project management company having a specialist track record in the management of major hotel construction and refurbishment projects in a wide range of countries. Through this association, IHI is reassured of its interests in all its hotel projects, adopting an intimate, direct involvement in the planning and execution of investment projects. CPHCL is a joint venture between the Pisani family of Malta and the Libyan Foreign Investment Company (LAFICO), which joined the company in 1974. CPHCL has since grown to be the leading private company in Malta with ownership and management interests in hotels worldwide. Istithmar Hotels is an integrated hoteldevelopment, investment and asset management business based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
There were practical sessions for both groups in applied science and food studies and also in food and beverage for the HND only. The latter tended to be a source of dissatisfaction as it basically involved waiting on in the restaurant which many students had already done, for example "It (waiting on) was OK at first but there’s no organization as now were not learning anything new" and "Waiting on is really tedious, just doing the same thing every week.” The food science practicals were also criticised by the HND students, some comments were "I quite enjoy the practical^ but I can’t see the point as I shan’t use the knowledge in industry." "A lot of practicals are unsatisfying because we are not told what to do or why we’re doing it," and "I feel that practicals could be really good but they’re so badly organized it's a waste of time."
20 To further understand this phenomenon, a sort of pilot survey was conducted for the Hotelindustry. The hotelindustry, because it is a hard core service industry where not only delivery but more so the management of Services was a dominating issue required to being immediately, intermittently and continuously monitored. 6 Further the targeted sample for this survey was selected as Kolhapur, a city with comparatively less population, however many sites of historical, religious and industrial importance. The findings and the conclusions of this pilot survey have been an eye opener for these authors. It was realized that this shift in approaches and understanding was not merely to withstand the onslaught of competition, but more so to address the categorical development in the consumer perception. Thus it was evident from this that the ―values‖ that would influence consumption, have to be identified, developed and delivered along with the product. This further emphasized upon the importance of stressing the intangible associations with the offerings i.e. the services.
This study aims to examine the role of information technology in hotelindustry. At the present age Information technology helps in the growth and development of every industry and hotelindustry is not an exception. The hotelindustry is the major contributor to the economy of the country. The guests are god in the hotelindustry so it is very important to satisfy them. In this modern era due to global competition each and every hotel wants to give unique and quality services as well as unforgettable experience to the guests. Nowadays the more use of technology allows more competition for hotels. The study also revealed various reasons for using information technology in hotelindustry. Information technology helps hotelindustry in various ways like it maintains the accuracy, reduce the labor costs, increasing efficiency, smooth functioning, increasing sales, maintains the quality of services and also helps in guest’s satisfaction. The study concludes that information technology is very beneficial for the smooth functioning of the hotelindustry.
Hotels are complex organizations, creating value for consumers and investors by combining bricks and mortar with people and technology. Their performance is not only affected by macroeconomic cycles and consumer trends, but is also linked to that of parallel sectors such as airlines and travel companies; seasonality of demand, product innovation and development pipelines also affect performance. As a result, demand shocks impact the industry in differing ways.
Quality assessment is one of the greatest challenges of hotelindustry. Given its complex nature, numerous technics help in quality measurement, assessment and management. Following this it can be achieved full quality management and with that sustainable business development to the satisfaction of all stakeholders. In service industries quality is measured according to consumers’ expectation and perception. The aim of this paper is to, through literature review, to get the importance of quality in hotel services and its connection with consumers’ expectation and perception. The analysis is done on the difference in expectation and perception of consumers in hotel service and their practical implication.
India’s travel and tourism industry has huge growth potential. In the long run, the demand-supply gap in India is very real and that there is need for more number of hotels in most cities. The present study explores a qualitative and quantitative view to examine the hospitality industry trends in India. The quantitative approach is applied to collect data and figure from published reports and articles related to the industry by accumulating descriptive statistics whereas the qualitative method has been employed for examining the content of collected reports, intercepts of industry expert’s interview and articles on methodology, research areas and results. The study examined that mid-market hotels are likely to be the driving force due to the fact that both domestic and international hotel chains are looking for a fruitful experience in this segment. The luxury segment has a market of its own and the emergence of the budget hotels would not affect the luxury consumers. The two segments are mutually attractive to both the domestic as well as international visitors. Hotels in both the segments have to face the challenges by uniqueness of the product. The study further concludes that one way to make a good return on investment (ROI) would be to look at the hotel business in different light. This could be done by taking a multiuse development approach and make the hotel project more viable. With the potential and future growth of this industry the full utilization of established infrastructure can be ensured by increasing occupancy percentages. Hotelindustry may have increased number of hotels to be centered on upcoming tourist spots as well as commercial hubs. Reduction of operating expenses can further be ensured by borrowing other firms with more efficient strategies. The best option to invest for a foreign player is through hospitality focused private equity funds who understand locally the dynamics of the industry.
Given the increasing number of international tourists and the growing role of the tourism industry in the economies of the country, identification of effective factors in attracting international tourists is more than necessary. Governments and the private sector need to identify the factors affecting the tourism industry in order to develop, compete and survive in the tourism industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate factors affecting the attraction of international tourists to Iran using the ARDL test for the years 2015 to 1983. Therefore, the results of this study showed that the effect of all variables hoteldevelopment, merchandise trade, real exchange rate and real gross domestic product on international tourism In Iran, in the long-term and short-term positive and also bilateral relationship is between them. Also, the greatest impact on the increase in the number of tourists entering Iran is the real effective exchange rate and real GDP.
The hotelindustry though considered a service sector, providing service in the form of food and accomodation to its guests is considered as an industry whose main aim is also to make profits, though this may change at times. The hoteliering sector consists of different categories of hotels- namely the five star, three star and other categories. These differenciate the hotels based on the service of varied types, which are provided to the guest for instance the hotel may provide food accomodation and other services - which include a luxury room with a television, telephone, ticketing, transport etc. For instance the decision of starting a hotel itself involves decision making to analyse the need for opening a hotel the cost to be incurred, the choice of selecting the right place to open an hotel, also plays a role in its growth. The type of facilities offered, the number of rooms to be built, all these decision have to possess the need and timing, for which the concept of economics is utilized. The guiding principles of economics enables the hotelindustry to get not only profits but tries to avoid loss and to survive in the competitive situation. Profits in the
Insurance Industry, in the phase of rapid developments that has experienced Kosovo after the war, especially with the privatization of state companies and with the establishment of private companies, resulted with the creating of a general competitive insurance and financial market in Kosovo. The Establishment of a legal infrastructure, has been institutional base for the functioning of financial institutions, and among them the insurance companies. The term "insurance", unless the economic importance, has other general legal and technical importance, according to its etymological meaning of the concept of faith in something protective, safety, warranty, trust etc. But what else guarantee in words, who should do what, to whom is needed, in what manner is insured, from what is the client protected?