The cognitive process of “navigation” consists of two major components: locomotion and wayfinding. Locomo- tion refers to the actual bodily motion of a human moving in his or her nearby surroundings. Wayfinding is the plan- ning process of finding a destination. For example, using landmarks for orientation and decision-making (Montello, 2005). Finding a destination is an essential human behav- ior (Montello, 2005) and requires knowledge about the se- quence of environmental properties, turns, segments, and sights along the route (Downs & Stea, 1973; O’Keefe & Nadel, 1978). To find our way from one place to another in partly or fully unknown environments, we nowadays often use automated navigation systems. Navigation sys- tems primarily aim to deliver easy-to-understand naviga- tion instructions that support people in reaching a destination more quickly and help reduce cognitive load during wayfinding (Allen, 1999). Despite the popularity of navigation systems, concerns have been raised in the lit- erature about the negative effects on spatial knowledge ac- quisition caused by their extensive use (e.g., Gardony, Brunyé, Mahoney, & Taylor, 2013; Klippel, Hirtle, & Da- vies, 2010; Montello, 2005). These systems consume most of a pedestrian’ s attention, leading to decreased spatial knowledge (Parush, Ahuvia, & Erev, 2007) and even to fatal accidents (Lin, Kuehl, Schöning, & Hecht, 2017) due to divided attention between the survey perspective of- fered by the navigationsystem and the route perspective, i.e., the first-person view (Gardony et al., 2013). As the trend towards using navigation systems increases, a con- siderable amount of literature has recently examined hownavigation systems negatively affect spatial knowledge ac- quisition and humannavigationbehavior. For example, previous research (e.g., Münzer, Zimmer, Schwalm, Baus, & Aslan, 2006) comparing paper maps with navigation systems has found that pedestrians using paper maps show better spatial knowledge and orientation, but at the cost of lower navigation performance (e.g., longer duration to destination) compared to when they are using naviga- tion systems. Despite considerable research demonstrating detrimental spatial knowledge acquisition with navigation systems (e.g., Bertel, Dressel, Kohlberg, & von Jan, 2017; Parush et al., 2007; Willis, Hölscher, Wilbertz, & Li, 2009), surprisingly few empirical investigations have been con- ducted about ways to balance navigation performance and
While the theory is based on the promiscuousness of men, it completely rejects the idea of monogamy. It should be noted that this contradicts the theory’s stance on long-term mating (Schulz, 2009). This brings us to the evolved concept of Monogamy: a long and essentially exclusive mating relationship between one male and one female. Cheating may impact the relationship dynamics, but it does not negate the existence of monogamy (Wittenberger & Tilson, 1980). We, human beings, have been involved in the evolution of monogamy. It is said that monogamy has evolved, placing more emphasis on male care. In a monogamous mating situation, the male-partner has the potential to raise his offspring and make sure that they will survive. Interestingly, monogamy has also affected the brain size of humans compared to other mammals as fathers have also evolved in their ability to hunt and scavenge meat. By doing this, they ensure nutrient supply and sufficient caloric availability for their children.
The fact that these subconscious arrangements are continually running in auto mode in the cerebrum or brain, we must comprehend to that fact as these are said to be the reality of our life eventually. When a thought is think for a long period it consequently goes into auto mode in the light of the fact that the neural pathways for these thoughts gotten to be firmly installed in the neural system of our brain. For instance, when we have finally figured out to drive a car it is and extremely our conscious effort at first but sooner or later the arrangements get to be installed in our brain that the whole activity of driving a car would then be embedded in our subconscious mind. Some of the negative thoughts are automatically running in our brain and they are typically the underlying driver of most negative perceptions and judgments that we think of in our daily life. However, if we recognize and let go of faith in these subconscious negative thoughts, we would forever be battling with the antagonism in our brain. A basic alertness of the subconscious negative arrangements is sufficient to begin getting free of them. Humans tend to undervalue the negative part of the subconscious mind, a lot of which is submerged underneath of our focal awareness. The study of mending confirmations proves how to approach both of the conscious and subconscious minds so that these bad arrangements can be brought to our conscious mind, found and restored by positive course and thought arrangements. This would result in a positive, cool, versatile personality, focused and calm prepared for critical thinking, dealing with life’s unforgiving substances and creating good health, achievement, harmony and happiness.
A web application is a program that runs in whole or in part on one or more web servers. It consists of a set of web pages that reside on the server and can be accessed by users through web browser . A web page is composed of various components like forms, anchors, frames, applets, and scripts [3, 4].According to  web pages can be classified into two categories: a) Server pages - pages that reside on the server b) Client pages - pages that a web server sends back in response to a client request and can be viewed in a browser. Client page can further be classified as: a) Static client page - where the content remains the same for all users b) Dynamic client page -where the contents depend on the user input, information in hidden fields, system state, etc. and are generated dynamically by a web server. As web applications are event driven software, events can be classified as a) client side events - events triggered by user (clicking on button), which result in client side code execution such as client side computations, resetting of form etc. without the intervention of server or b) server side events - events triggered by user (submit, link), which may result in client side code execution for performing validations at client side followed by server side code execution .Client side events return the control back to the web page from which the event was triggered while server side events depending on the result of client side validation may or may not return the control back to the same web page . A web page contains a number of widgets that can be classified into a) Passive widgets: widgets such as text fields, check boxes etc., on which actions performed by user does not lead to a transition from the current page b) Active widgets: widgets such as buttons, links, submit etc., on which action performed by user, results in a transition from the current page to either itself or another web page.
The associations between propensity to trust and trust vested in particular subjects are further empirically validated. Such findings raise the importance of personality tests especially in hiring practices. The hiring practices are crucial steps towards effective human resources in organizations. Because such dispositional tendency in employees can be linked to higher overall effectives of certain organizational behavior, hiring committees may involve specialized tests to reveal and understand the applicant’s personality. Though trusting in an applicant does not necessitate a higher intention to hire from an employer perspective (Yang et al., 2011), the higher propensity to trust of the applicant can be considered as a plus compared to lower propensity applicants among other decision making criterion. Therefore, the hiring practices which can be considered as the gate for building effective human resources in organizations can be enhanced by examining applicants’ personality with respect to their propensity to trust. Because such dispositional tendency in employees can be linked to higher overall effectives, the hiring committee in an organization shall involve specialized tests to actually reveal and understand the applicant’s character thoroughly.
This research aims to broaden the knowledge on the influence of a musically activated reward system on human (consumption-related) reward-seeking behavior. A body of research has shown that music can strongly activate the reward system, and an activated reward system can influencehumanbehavior, but until now the focus in behavioral research has been on ‘just’ pleasurable music. Little is known about the possibility of extremely pleasurable music to ‘satiate’ people and the question if this musical satiation can lead to satiation in other domains as well. Demonstrating the possibility of an abstract cue such as music to satiate people to such an extent that the need for other types of reward diminishes would be a very interesting starting point for future research. Because this research focuses on extremely pleasurable, chill-inducing music, and musical preference is highly individual, it is difficult to find ways to practically apply results of this research in everyday life. However, the notion that abstract cues could satiate consumers to such an extent that the desire for other types of reward diminishes could be a very interesting base for more commercially interesting applications.
factor to safe food consumption. L. Jiang (2011)  ana- lyzed public perception to food safety risk, during which the influence of humanbehavior on risk perception was discussed from the view of both individual and group. C. M. Fan et al. (2012)  presented a relation model of risk perception and reaction, based on the empirical re- search on Sanlu milk powder incident. As for food sup- ply chain surveillance link, Z. Y. Zhang et al. (2009)  undertook a game analysis between governmental super- vision and food producing industry, demonstrating that the effectiveness of governmental supervision is deter- mined by strengthening enforcement of punishment. As for researches in other links, P. D. Liu et al. (2008)  discussed the influence of personnel on the food supply chain safety risk. Through presenting a model for sug- gesting moral policy establishment in food supply chain, L. Manning et al. (2006)  analyzed a series of ele- ments included in moral behavior in food supply chain. B. Bigliardi et al. (2010)  presented a performance measurement system, which can motivate managers to carry out much better operation plans to add corporate values. T. Tokar et al. (2010)  put that behavioral re- search can improve the quality of logistics and supply chain management theoretically and practically.
Ocular melanoma is a rare type of cancer, with a high chance of metastases. Metastases of conjunctival and uveal melanoma are often resistant to therapy, including to immunological treatments. For uvea melanoma, this may be due to the environment in which this tumor arises, which is inside the eye. The eye has many immunological peculiarities: it is a location with immune privilege, which means that immune responses are down regulated. This has the advantage that corneal transplants will be accepted in a non-inflamed recipient cornea and thus usually not rejected. On the other hand, this immune privilege allows viruses such as ebola to proliferate inside the eye. Similarly, in mouse experiments, tumor cells may not be rejected when placed inside the eye, while they would be rejected when injected in the skin. Professor Jager’s research is focused on obtaining a better understanding of the influence of this immune privilege on the behavior of human ocular tumors, and on the possibilities of still using the immune system to develop an effective therapy to treat metastases of ocular melanoma.
This phenomenon of influence of biological system on individual behavior can be seen in day to day environment too. Some of the can be clearly seen while many such influences might go unnoticed. When a person who feels tired, lazy or dizzy after a long spell of routine activities at work place he/she may get excited suddenly once his/her hormones react to external signals. The five senses of the human body can capture the signals and activate hormone producing glands to change the state of the body. The signals can be a picture, voice, touch, smell or taste. Any form of contents falls under these five senses can generate a signal to the biological system to change the state of the body. For example, an unexpected call from a boy friend inviting a exhausted girl for a coffee may stimulate biological system of her body and dissolve all tiring feelings created by the long spell of routine work.
In his book “The Better Angels of Our Nature” Pinker (2011) discussed how violence has strongly declined in the past decades. The Human Security Report (2013) has shown that the number of international wars has fallen since 1950s; from more than six to less than one a year. Further, the number of deaths caused by war has fallen from 250 to less than 10 per million people. Pinker tried to explain the decline of violence by identifying the changes in our culture that had a positive impact on prosocial behavior and decreases violence. One of these described cultural changes is the intervention of the printing press and increase in literacy levels. Novels have an influence on our empathic abilities, such a better
Many researchers have shown that locational behaviors depend upon a variety of personal, locational, cultural, social, demographic, economic, environmental, and policy factors. In particular, existing research has explored a number of neighborhood amenities and disamenities, which influence immigration and duration of stay  . In this regard, residential satisfaction is a main trigger- ing factor of people’s migration decision making and behavior  . Rossi  posits that “in the typical ideal case, a household becomes dissatisfied with its dwelling, decides to move, searches for a set of alternative dwellings that appear to be more satisfactory, and then decides among that set of alternatives (p.24)”. Amerigo and Aragones  developed a comprehensive model depicting the rela- tionship between the individual and his/her residential environment. This model shows that residential satisfaction is a function of objective and subjective attributes of residential environment, and personal characteristics. The objective attributes of residential environment include physical conditions of built envi- ronment, various types of infrastructure, and natural factors such as woodlands, parks, and water bodies in the neighborhood. The subjective attributes include an individual’s evaluation of quality of house, safety, noise, overcrowding, and attachment to the neighborhood as well as the objective variables described above. The subjective attributes are influenced by personal characteristics such as social/economic/demographic characteristics. The individual’s evaluation of the residential environment leads to his/her adaptive behavior (e.g., stay or moving) . With regard to this, several studies demonstrated that moving be- havior followed the low levels of satisfaction about housing and neighborhood    .
Networking Site for this research have been defined as the framework which will be used to define what influences digital Privacy Protection Behavior. I have chosen the Theory of Planned Behavior as my framework because as stated before the theory already has been used for past studies regarding digital privacy and it is a flexible theory (Saeri et al., 2015, pp. 353; Yao, & Linz, 2008, pp. 615-616). Furthermore, past studies have proven that the Theory of Planned Behavior can be used successfully for the topic of Privacy Protection Behavior (Dieplin & Trepte, 2015; Yao & Linz, 2008).The Theory of Planned Behavior argues that reasonable humanbehavior can be predicted based on behavioral intention and Perceived Behavioral Control (Ajzen, 1991, pp. 179-186). The theory states that the stronger your intention to perform a particular behavior is the more likely it is that you will perform that behavior. This, behavioral intention, in turn, is based on three variables, attitude toward behavior, subjective norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control. However, the way these three variables interact with behavioral intention differs per behavior and situation; sometimes the attitude only has a significant impact on intention, sometimes attitudes and Perceived Behavioral Control can already predict behavioral intention, and sometimes all three variables make independent contributions to behavioral intention (Ajzen, 1991, pp. 188-189). However, the variable Perceived Behavioral Control also directly influences behavior according to the theory. For the Theory of Planned Behavior has to be reasonable, while you might have the intention to become the best football player in the world if you do not have the talent or the financial means you might not try it. Thus, in research where the subject is not limited by Perceived Behavioral Control, Behavioral Intention is a stronger predictor than in research where Perceived Behavioral Control is limited. The way these relations are framed can be seen in figure 1.
However, even with accurate demographic inference tools, there may be other confounding factors that make it difficult to estimate variations of beliefs and behaviors across demographic groups. Since social media analysis relies on how people use platforms, variations in usage behaviors by different demographic groups could introduce biases in analyses and alter conclusions. For example, if one group tends to use Twitter nicknames more frequently, a name-based demographic classifier may make more errors on members of that group. Alternatively, if we use profile pictures to infer demographics and users of one demographic are less likely to share pictures of themselves, our results may under-represent that group. Pavalanathan and Eisenstein (2015) studied these issues for geolocation algorithms, finding that classifiers which infer users’ locations identify a target population that differs from the general population of Twitter. A Pew Report survey indicated that social media users’ privacy settings do vary across demographics, but did not look at specific behaviors (Madden, 2012).
When students comment at home, this could mean that they have internalized the school’s environmental influence and that they perceive environmental behavior as important. Commenting can be perceived as a form of responsible environmental behavior that is expressed in the form of persuasion [1,5,7,8,18,84–86], and an aspect of active participation [19,87–91]. Though the sources of environmental influences can be multiple and varied, we assume that the sources of influence on environmental commenting by children, is the school’s influence. The assumption is derived from our underlying model which perceives influence flows as gradients. The closer one is to the source of influence, the stronger is the influence. The farther one moves away from the source, the weaker is the influence. The model directs that if the children were mainly influenced by sources in the wider community and not the school, we could assume that the parents would also be exposed to the same or similar sources and there would be no need for children to try to influence their parents. Whereas, if the school is the source of influence, then the children who are in closest proximity would hold the potential to pass on the influence to the parents who are in less proximity.
In our study the customers were asked, how they feel when they need to spend more time to get ATM service, in a modern era there are more number of ATM counters available for service in all over areas. 65.9% spend only less than 5 minutes to get service and 23.8% waiting 23.8% to get service, and remaining of the customers spending more time when they prefer own bank ATM counters
ineffective; influencing the inclusion of participants into the study who are likely to benefit from the intervention (and the exclusion of participants unlikely to benefit) and the tailoring of BCTs to individuals (tailoring) based on their theory-relevant characteristics. These pathways are not necessarily related; for example, researchers could use theory to decide which participants are eligible for their study but not use theory to select the intervention behavior change techniques or to tailor the intervention. As a consequence, interventions that apply theory more extensively to address each of these pathways could be more effective than studies that apply theory less extensively.
Nowadays we live in an environment that is constantly changing, where everything is characterized by the economic crisis and a crisis of values, and where human need for communication and exchange of views has become even more important. It is in such an environment, social media found the field to be developed and to take their place in the daily lives of people. As any acquisition of a new trend, social media also contributed to each of our everyday space.
The composite materials are the multifunction material system that gives characteristics obtainable from any different material. By joining more than 2 different characteristics composite material, we can get strong structures physically.” Here classification of the composite materials are such as wood, bones, shell etc, some are man-made materials such as powder metallurgy components, electrical insulators, magnetic components, paper laminates etc. There are two different divisions of composites manufacturing processes: First is open molding and second is closed molding. In open molding, laminate, the gel coats are placed in the atmosphere during fabrication process. The closed molding process uses 2-part molding set and vacuum bag for composite material. In open molding and closed molding process there are different types of methods.
DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.65020 270 Open Journal of Social Sciences also compared the difference between self-independence and self-interdependence . In Western culture, there is a belief in the uniqueness of human beings. The norm of this culture is that individuals should become individuals who are in- dependent of others and discover and express their own unique personalities  . This cultural norm requires people to construct themselves as such an indi- vidual. His behavior must first comply with his own inner thoughts, emotions, and actions, rather than referring to the thoughts, emotions, and actions of oth- ers . But individuals who are independent self-construal also have to respond to the social environment. This response stems from the need for strategic choices to express the inner ways of the self. The existence of others or the social environment is first of all reflected as the source of the evaluation or verification of the inner core of the self. In contrast, many non-Western cultures emphasize the basic connection between people. The norm in this culture is to maintain the interdependent relationship between people. Interdependent self-construal indi- viduals see themselves as part of the social relationships around them and can be aware that their actions are determined by the perceptions, emotions, and beha- viors of others they perceive. When an individual is embedded in an appropriate social relationship, he is the most meaningful and complete. This kind of trait is particularly prominent in East Asian culture. Lebra’s research found that when Japanese people are in a connected environment, they feel that they are the most complete . The intrinsic qualities of self-consisting individuals are also unique, but in many cases they play a minor role in regulating external behavior. On the contrary, people’s self-knowledge and self-consciousness dominate people’s behavior. This self-control of the inner qualities constitutes the core of the cultural ideal—become mature. It’s the point that separates the independent self-construal and interdependent self-construal. Although different types of self-construal are embedded in different cultures, self-construal is not static but dynamic.
In the recent period with the growing need for surveillance sys- tem, people looking for suitable method to identify person. De- pending on the features of biometric that can specify human identity by using identification and verification functions. The verification process is done by compare the biometric features such as, fingerprint, iris, face recognition, etc., with a record stored previously. While the identification process is performed by find the best match between the biometric features and all records kept in a database. Walking behavior recognition is the only biometric that can specify an individual identity at distance that relying on walking behavior features such as step length, angle of hip and knee, etc. In this paper we propose a biometric based human identification system depending on walking behav- ior characteristic which is vertical hip angle, horizontal hip angle and slop of thigh that extract from captured picture of person. A database of numerous people has been used. A database has been constructed using SQL server software environment in which person identification performed with high efficiency. The outcome of the proposal system reflects flexibility in term of in- serting, searching, updating, deleting and matching.