A tool bar for placement of a band of fertilizer in soil has a vertical knife with a horizontal blade thereon to create an inverted T-shaped slot in the soil. A band of fertilizer is placed in the bottom of the slot through a tube on the knife. A first coulter fills the slot with soil and compacts the soil above the band. A second coulter forms a mound of soil over the compacted soil and creates an elongated furrow in the soil above and laterally removed from the band. The method of placement of a band of fertilizer in soil sequentially moves the soil and creates the band as accomplished by the foregoing structure.
In natural conditions (under the influence of atmospheric conditions and the presence of mi- croorganisms – in landfills there are numerous physical, chemical and biological processes, not subject to the control. These processes give rise to, first and foremost, the aging of the deposited material, its weathered and leaching. Aging is generally to reduce the solubility, and weathered to the creation of partially soluble products. The leachability applies to an easily soluble metal form, present in the waste, i.e. first of all, salt, in which the composition has sulfates of calcium, potassium, sodium and magnesium. The im- mediate effect of leaching is an increase in per- meability of the deposits, increased salinity of groundwater and surface water. The leachability of Cu, Pb and Zn in fly ash obtained after the ap- plication of three standard leaching tests (USEPA TCLP and ASTM) was presented in Table 3. The highest degree of leaching for Pb of 56.8% in relation to the total content of Pb in the fly ash, were obtained using the USEPA test; respectively 22.3% was obtained by means of TCLP proce- dure. While the ASTM test using distilled water was obtained the lowest value of leaching equal to 2.5% in relation to the total contents of Pb in the fly ash. The degree of leaching for copper was 62.7% using the USEPA test and only 19.6% in the case of the TCLP test in relation to the total content of Cu in the fly ash. The leachability of copper in the case of ASTM test was below the limit of detection for this metal, as determined by FAAS method. Zinc showed the greatest percent-
improves soil fertility. However, under tropical conditions, organic matter is rapidly oxidized and added bases are rapidly leached (Tiessen et al., 1994). On the other hand, application of biochar has been proved to reduce nutrient leaching (Downie et al., 2009), and after incorporation into soil, biochar improves soil fertility (Lehmann et al., 2003; Steiner et al., 2007), increase the efficiency of N fertilizer (Widowati et al., 2012), and reduce the use of K fertilizers in Inseptisols (Widowati and Asnah, 2014). Biochar as a soil amendment is potential for improving crop yields and quality of degraded soils. Biochar generated from black carbon biomass has been shown to increase yields (Lehmann et al., 2003). However, information of their effects on nutrient leaching in clay loam soils is limited.
Comparison of pre- and post-treatment scores on the Foot Heath Status Questionnaire [19,20] showed a significant difference (p < 0.01) before and after using composite insoles in all domains (Table 3). Average foot pain score improved from 50.7 (SD 17.2) to 75.0 (SD 13.2), average foot function score improved from 64.4 (SD 22.2) to 78.2 (SD 17.7), average foot wear improved score from 40.1 (SD 24.9) to 51.0 (SD 24.2), and average general foot health score improved from 45.2 (SD 20.4) to 60.1 (SD 17.9) (p-value <0.001 in each domain). Using the criteria for the minimal important improvement in the FHSQ advocated by Landorf et al. , important improvements in foot pain were recorded by 75.5%, in foot function by 44.9%, in foot wear by 55.1% and in general foot health by 95.9% (Table 4). Analysis of responses to the self evaluation section of the Thai Questionnaire of Working Efficiency for Healthcare workers indicated that 30 of the 49 respondents (61.2%) found improvement in the sections of working, muscle soreness and fatigue. For these 30 respondents, reported synthetic work productivity score increases averaged 73%. However, the average increase over all 49 respondents is 44.9%.
this study were to quantify the genetic variability in N-use e ﬃ ciency (NUE) in Indian spring wheat cultivars and identify traits for improved NUE for application in breeding. Twenty eight bread wheat cultivars and two durum wheat cultivars were tested in ﬁeld experiments in two years in Maharashtra, India. Detailed growth analysis was conducted at anthesis and harvest including dry matter (DM) and N partitioning. Senescence of the ﬂ ag leaf was assessed from a visual score every 3 – 4 days from anthesis to complete ﬂ ag-leaf senescence and ﬁ tted against thermal time to estimate the onset and end of post-anthesis senescence. Grain yield (GY) was reduced under low N (LN) by an average of 1.46 t ha −1 ( − 28%). Signi ﬁ cant N × genotype level interaction was observed for grain yield and NUE. Above-ground N uptake at harvest was reduced from 162 kg N ha −1 under high N (HN) to 85 kg N ha −1 under low N (LN) conditions, while N-utilization eﬃciency (grain DM yield per unit crop N uptake at harvest; NUtE) increased from 32.7 to 44.6 kg DM kg −1 N. Genetic variation in GY under LN related mainly to variation in N uptake at harvest rather than NUtE; and the N × genotype e ﬀ ect for GY was mainly explained by the interaction for N uptake at harvest. Averaging across years, the linear regression of onset of ﬂag-leaf se- nescence on GY amongst cultivars was signi ﬁ cant under both HN (R 2 0.16. p < 0.05) and LN (R 2 0.21,
The impact of these feed supplements was then tested in cattle in a pen trial. Given the variable impact of both coconut and cottonseed oils on methane emissions and methanogen numbers in vitro it was decided that a response curve approach relating oil intake to liveweight gain and methane emission would relate these factors across the spectrum of oil concentrations. Commercial Brahman crossbred weaner heifers (42 in total), approximately 10-12 months of age, were used in a randomised complete block design with 2 basal diets (pangola grass hay with and without molasses), 2 supplement types (cottonseed and copra meals fortified with their respective oils) and 3 rates of supplement feeding (to deliver approximately 2, 4 and 6% oil in the diet). Liveweight and intake (total, hay and supplement) were measured throughout the experiment (duration 7 weeks) and rumen samples were collected to determine the impact on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations, specifically methanogens and protozoa. At the end of the main part of the trial (to determine the impact on liveweight gain) a 10 day intensive methane measurement program was undertaken using the sulphur hexafluoride tracer technique. The inclusion of oil fortified copra and cottonseed meals increased liveweight gain in cattle by up to 20 kg without the addition of molasses and up to 30 kg with molasses added, over a 7 week period. Concomitant with the increased productivity there was no overall change in methane emissions per head but a substantial decrease in methane emitted per unit of production (1500 g CH 4 /Kg ADG to less that 100 g CH 4 /Kg ADG). Thus, not only was it possible to increase the
The adverse events identi ﬁ ed by the authors in their evidence review were not unexpected. Clinicians who immu- nize children regularly may have en- countered these adverse events in their practices, particularly seizures associ- ated with fever. Fortunately, the adverse events identi ﬁ ed by the authors were rare and in most cases would be expected to resolve completely after the acute event. This contrasts starkly with the natural infections that vaccines are designed to prevent, which may reduce the quality of life through permanent morbidities, such as blindness, deaf- ness, developmental delay, epilepsy, or paralysis and may also result in death. The ﬁ ndings of the IOM report and of the Maglione et al study should be reassuring to parents of young chil- dren and to the clinicians who care for them. However, a recent report eval- uating the effectiveness of messages designed to reduce parental mis- perceptions and increase vaccination rates, including messages about vac- cine safety, demonstrated that these messages were ineffective and in some groups of parents may even reduce the intention to vaccinate. 13 These data suggest that alternative strategies to bolster parental con ﬁ dence in vaccine safety are needed.
The evaluation scale  was divided into five categories as shown in Table 4. The scaling is not necessary 1 to 9 but for qualitative data such as preference, ranking and subjective opinions, it is suggested to use scale 1 to 9. Intermediate values such as 8,6,4,2 were also used to quantify the judgment of importance during pairwise comparison among the performance parameters.
leached was leached in the first 150 days. When columns received Avail®, 76% of the total amount of DRP and 85% of the total amount of TP leached was leached in the first 150 days. Avail® and MBF67+ Avail® had the greatest amount of total plant growth g − 1 N applied while MBF6+Avail® had the greatest amount of total plant growth g − 1 P applied. However, Polyon® and ESN® had greater amounts of N leached g −1 plant growth and greater amounts of N leached mg − 1 N applied than the MBFs. Avail® had greater amounts of P leached g −1 plant growth and greater amounts of P leached mg −1 P applied than the MBFs. These results imply that, even if the slow-release fertilizers available on the market today were applied at rates to meet crop or turf P nutrition over a growing season and plants grew at their maximum potential, it would be difficult for the plants to take up enough fertilizer P to prevent leaching. The problem is made more severe because turfgrass operators and home- owners often apply nutrients in quantities exceeding plant requirements (de Jonge et al. 2004; Hart et al. 2003). Several studies indicated that sediment bound P concentrations in runoff increase as soil P concen- trations increase (Sharpley et al. 1993, 2000; Pote et al. 1999; Cox and Hendricks 2000). Long-term over- fertilization of soils contributes to eutrophication (Sims 1993; Frossard et al. 2000). Since the P concentration in water, above which eutrophication can occur, is an order of magnitude smaller than the soil P concentration necessary for plant growth (Owens and Shipitalo 2006; Daniel et al. 1998), improved fertilizer technology is necessary to both optimize crop growth while minimizing P leaching.
systems with respect to Nleaching loss is that it is very difficult to measure directly. Therefore, such comparisons are often made on the basis of N balances, rather than from actual measures (Dalgaard et al. 2002, Dalgaard et al. 1998, Hansen et al. 2000). Often a systems approach is used, as a separate focus on crop fertilisation or feeding practices does not adequately capture the complex interactions between animal and crop production and the uncertainties of herd N production and of crop N utilisation, all of which influence N losses from mixed dairy farms (Halberg et al. 1995). Finally, the generalisation of results from field trials and a few farm studies may be questioned, as differences in Nleaching on organic and conventional farms are often due to differences in crop rotations or N inputs (Hansen et al. 2000). The choice of crops, including catch crops, and the level of N input all have considerable influence on the estimated Nleaching loss. It is more reliable to estimate Nleaching loss on the basis of data that most closely resembles the actual
A fee for irrigation water is not yet included in the GMs for the irrigation scheme. Consequently, and in addition to high implementation costs, most farmers still use old sprinkler systems on coconut and mango plantations, resulting in inefficient water consumption. Due to higher plant densities in banana cultivation, micro-sprinkler systems are broadly used for this crop. The low returns of the current production systems could reduce or become negative with the implementation of a water price. Farmers in the irrigation scheme Nilo Coelho in the adjacent Petrolina region pay around 900 to 1,800 R$ per hectare and year for irrigation water. This fee is divided into implementation costs for the necessary infrastructure, maintenance of the infrastructure, and a usage-bound water price per 1,000 m³. Do Amaral Santana et al. (2004) even assume water fees in banana cultivation in Bahia state of between 1,700 R$/ha and 2,600 R$/ha. Despite the negative impact of a water price to the farmers’ income, irrigation wate r free of charges leads to an overuse of the scarce resource within the irrigation scheme. Local experts also assumed that large areas next to the irrigation schemes are irrigated illegally.
N 13 C-AA, and 6.2 and 5.9% for 15 N 13 C-urea under LS1 and LS2, respectively. The lower recovery of 13 C in the non-sterile soils can be related to C losses via microbial assimilation and respiration processes. We were unable to detect any culturable organisms following the culturing of sterile soil (data present- ed in Carswell et al. (2016)), nonetheless this method does not account for the presence of viable but non-culturable organ- isms (Kell et al. 1998). However, reduced 13 C recoveries of 73 and 65% were also observed in the sterilised soils for 15 N 13 C- AA and 15 N 13 C-urea, respectively. Wessel and Tietema (1992) suggest reduced recoveries can be caused by low 13 C application amounts and subsequent dilution into the natural abundance 13 C pool. Here, the compounds used were > 98 atom% labelled, so any further addition would have required increasing the concentration of applied compounds beyond that which could reasonably be justified. It is also possible that during sterilisation microbial cells were lysed,
LAR(Location Based Routing):- LAR is a mechanism which attempts to reduce the control message overhead of Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol by flooding only the portion of the network that is likely to contain the route to destination. DREAM (Distance Effect Algorithm for Mobility):-Here firstly we determine the direction in
There are two other methods that are much easier. The first is to simply transfer any document that is attached to an e-mail message to GoodReader, or any other similar app you are using. Simply holding your finger on the attachment in your e-mail message will bring up a dialogue box that says "Open-In" and then you simply select "GoodReader," in my example, to transfer a copy of the document. Secondly, an even better method is to use a free app called "Dropbox" (www.dropbox.com).
In his scientific work Stolyarenko V.V. highlights a key condition for a dynamic development in the form of various integration processes that provide a synergistic effect: "A rationally organized integration ensures the creation of additional benefits among organizations based on joint partner use of resources and market infrastructure opportunities. The synergetic approach, characteristic for integration processes, ensures the achievement of larger results for each of the interacting business structures than those that could be obtained without integration development." 16
Nitrogen is both an essential nutrient and a large source of pollution on the terrestrial ecosystems. Due to an important component of plant nutrients, nitrogen plays an important role in increasing crops yields and its quality . Hence the nitrogen in form of Nitrate, Ammonium, or Urea (which rapidly hydrolyses to ammonium) are used to increase the crops yields. In contrast to ammonium ions, NO - 3 are not adsorbed by the negatively charged colloids that dominates most soils. Therefore
(when evaluating other communication tools). But the uniqueness of events and their impact on competitive- ness of companies manifests itself through their influ- ence on brand awareness, image and identity. The changes in these elements must be measured before and after an event, using both – qualitative and quantitative methods. There must be a correlation between evalua- tion criteria and the following elements: strategic aims and communication purposes of a company; specifics of an event (whether it is single or continuous, whether it is meant to create brand awareness or increase direct sales of a mature product, etc.).
The analysis of the working capacity refusal reasons of electronics modules shows that their fourth part falls at a share of bad quality of surfaces and contact connections cleaning. Problems of electronics modules cleaning in- crease for following reasons. Increase of density of sur- face mount components decrease backlashes to step of 0.3 mm. Strengthen action of capillary effect results a flux tightening in backlashes. At transition on Pb-free solders with higher soldering temperature causes hard- ening a flux that reduces its solubility.