India is a diesel-deficit nation and demand has far out striped supply. India's diesel production will not be able to keep pace with the rapidly growing demand. Government's pricing policy now allows oil companies to decide prices. Diesel is not much cheaper than petrol any more. Diesel demand in the country is growing at an annual rate of 8%. At this rate India will need a brand new 9 Million Tons per year refinery every year. The automobiles industry has estimated that the share of diesel vehicles, in overall vehicle sales has crossed the 40% mark. The price of fuels is now going to be in line with price of crude oil. Hence the Petrol and Diesel prices are now in line with international price levels, which makes befoul economically attractive. 2. Material and Methodology.
the inlet of air box for flow measurement. Piezo-electric type sensor with water cooled adapter is fitted in cylinder head for combustion pressure measurement. This sensor is connected to an engine indicator fitted in control panel, which scans the pressure and crank-angle data is interfaced with computer through COM port. An encoder is a device, circuit, transducer, software program, algorithm that converts information from one format to another. Rotary encoder is an optical sensor used for speed and crank angle measurement. The sensor is mounted on dynamometer shaft and connected to engine indicator. Thermocouple type temperature sensors measure cooling water inlet, outlet and exhaust temperatures. These temperatures are digitally indicated on indicator suited on control panel. The exhaust gas analyzer is used to measure the relative volumes of gaseous constituents in the exhaust gases of the engine. The engine used for this study is a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, water cooled, and dieselengine. The engine is coupled to an electrical generator through which load was applied. A fixed 220 bar injection pressure and 17.5 compression ratio are used throughout the experiments. Indicators on the test bed show the following quantities which are measured electrically: engine speed, brake power and various temperatures. The computer is interfaced with engine. The PCI 1050 IC card is connected to COM port of CPU. Engine soft is the software used to control the entire engine readings. It is lab view based software. The engine is tested at constant rated speed of 1500 rpm.
For feedstock diversification and utilization of currently available local resources like neem, karanja, mahua, sal etc. should be scientifically investigated for efficient biodiesel production. Keeping this background in consideration, production of neem oil methyl ester (NOME) and its utilization as a potential alternative fuel for CIengine has been investigated. A 3.5 kW, constant speed dieselengine was tested on diesel, NOME-dieselblends in 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 ratio. The performance of the engine was found to be satisfactory on the blends. The engine was able to develop power similar to diesel on all the NOME- dieselblends. The Exhaust emission of dieselengine was tested at all the neem biodiesel and diesel blends.CO emissions increases with increase in load. Engine emits more CO usingdiesel as compared to that of biodiesel blend under all loading conditions. With increasing biodiesel, CO emission decreases.Biodiesel itself has 11% oxygen, which help for complete combustion. Hence CO emissions decreases with increasing biodiesel percentage in fuel. Carbon di oxide emissions increases with increase in load .As load is increasing NOME gives lower carbon di oxide emissions. At all loads, NOME increased with diesel fuels and levels of oxygen for blends slightly increased as blend ratio increased, may be because fuels were oxygenated. Higher oxygen levels in fuel blends are always preferred. Variation of unburnt hydrocarbon with respect to load indicates that NOME is not shows decreasing trend at all loads.
Banapurmatha et al.  carried out trial on CIengine operated with methyl esters of Karanja oil, Jatropha oil and Sesame oil. Jindal et al.  studied effects of the engine design parameters viz. CR and fuel injection pressure. Buyukkaya  reported experimentally, performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a dieselengineusing rapeseed oil biodiesel and its blends of 5%, 20% and 70% and diesel fuel separately. Devan and Mahalakshmi  used methyl ester of paradise oil, Qi et al.  used methanol as additive to biodiesel–dieselblends, Anand et al.  used ferric chloride as a fuel borne catalyst for waste cooking palm oil based biodiesel. Hulwan and Joshi  used high percentage of ethanol in diesel–ethanol- biodieselblends where biodiesel act as a co-solvent and properties enhancer. Yang et al.  investigated the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of dieselengine fueled by biodiesel at partial load conditions.
Our current work mainly focuses on performance analysis of simaroubaBiodiesel as fuel. Whereas there are many such oil which we can use as an alternative fuel sources. Research says there are thousands of species of plants available in nature from which we can extract the fuel, it just need to be find out. Adequate research must be done for choosing the right biofuel and the right proportion of its blend with diesel. Also one has to consider the economic point of view and the viability of the biofuel. Considerable amount of work must be done in determining the affect the biodiesel can cause in the world fuel market.
fuels in general [8,11,14]. In the present study, neat rapeseed oil was considered as a potential alternative fuel for an unmodified dieselengine because it has high oil content (around 40%) for biodiesel production. Main aim of this study is to investigate the engineperformance, emission and combustion characteristics of a dieselengine fuelled with Java plum seed and custard apple seed biodiesels and its dieselblends compared to those of standard diesel. It is also hoped that the new data presented here will assist in developing new prognostic methods or procedures for this actual problem.
Abstract: Continuous rise in the conventional fuel prices and shortage of its supply have increased the interest in the field of the alternative sources for petroleum fuels. Biodiesel is one such alternative source which provides advantage of pollution control. In the present work, experimentation is carried out to study the performance and combustion characteristics of Neem & Cotton seed biodiesel and diesel. In this experiment a single cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspired, direct injection, water cooled, eddy current dynamometer, CIengine is used at constant speed condition. Crude oil is converted into biodiesel and characterization has been done. The experiment is conducted at variable load condition. The engineperformance parameters studied were brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency. The combustion characteristics studied are cylinder pressure, net heat release rate. These results are compared to those of pure diesel. These results are again compared to the corresponding results of the diesel. From the graph it has been observed that, there is an improvement in combustion characteristics and performance characteristics compared to the diesel. The present experimental results show that Neem & Cotton seed biodiesel can be used as an alternative fuel in dieselengine.
 D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinash, “A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil” , Department of Mechanical Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology –Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu, India. Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013 pp.859-870 Journal homepage:  Dharmendra Yadav, Nitin Shrivastava and Vipin Shrivastava, “Experimental investigation of performance parameters of single cylinder four stroke di dieselengine operating on neem oil biodiesel and its  b Dalai A.K, Kulkarni M.G, Meher L.C, "Biodiesel Productions From Vegetable Oils Using Heterogeneous Catalysts And Their Applications As Lubricity Additives" EIC climate change technology, pp1-8(2006).
One of the causes of global warming such as exhaust emissions from vehicles, especially cars with engine specifications diesel.At principles emission emphasis is on the use of clean fuels.once the use of biodiesel as a fuel for diesel engines is Callophylluminophyllum oil (CI). The performance parameters of the dieselengine, such as specific fuel consumption (BSFC), power brake (BP), brake torque and thermal efficiency of the brake, must be improved to reduce emissions  low emissions and engineperformance that can be achieved by recirculating exhaust gas . Observe the dieselengineperformance and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder engine fueled high free fatty acid blendsCalophylluminophyllum biodiesel. CIB10 reduce CO and emission levels, although slightly higher NOx emissions were observed compared to diesel fuel. Adding some additives with CIbiodieselblends also reduce NOx emissions  Many researchers have investigated and compared danjatropha palm biodiesel with diesel fuel, while other studies compared the oil and Calophylluminophyllum (CI) biodiesel blended with diesel fuel [4 However, no research has been done that using C. inophyllum in eastern Java. biodiesel blended with diesel fuel. The purpose of this study, to observe the dieselenginecombustion emissions using east java Callophylluminophyllum oil and its comparison.
Biodiesel is a renewable substitute fuel for diesel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. It can be used as a mixture with alcohol as blends as it has similar characteristics but it has lower emissions. Usingbiodiesel results in large reductions in overall carbon dioxide emissions. In fact when biodiesel is manufactured from vegetable oil the fuel is almost carbon neutral i.e. the CO 2 released during combustion and manufacture is offset by CO 2 consumed during the
It is observed that as the load increase up to 75%, the formation of CO decrease at any proportion of biodiesel blend in a dual fuel mode. In a pure diesel mode operation, due to the presence of more excess air, the carbon oxidation reaction is almost completed the considerable amount of CO is not produced until the smoke limit is reached. But as the load was increased from 75% to full load, CO formation increases rapidly, because CO is a product of incomplete combustion due to insufficient amount of air in Air Fuel mixture or insufficient time in the cycle for completion of combustion, at full load. The optimum CO content is observed for B20 at 75% load is 0.1% by volume and for diesel 0.1199% by volume.
The research aims to study the emission of castor oil blends with diesel fuel and find optimum blend to be used in the dieselengine. The Sample 2 have lower value of NO, Un burnt hydrocarbon than diesel. This is due to better combustion of fuel inside the cylinder than diesel. The Exhaust gas temp and emission for sample 2 is less comparing to sample 1, 3 and pure diesel. As the above graphs shows that sample 2 with 85% diesel, 15% biodiesel gives us optimum values of performance and emission characteristics comparing to sample 1,sample 3 and pure diesel.
Biodiesel is an attractive fuel for diesel engines that it can be made from any vegetable oil (edible or non- edible oils), used cooking oils, animal fats as well as microalgae oils. It is a clean energy, renewable, non- toxic and sustainable alternative to petroleum based fuels, and it is able to reduce toxic emissions when is burned in a dieselengine. The interest of this alternative energy resource is that fatty ester acids, known as biodiesel, have similar characteristics of petro-diesel oil which allows its use in compression motors without any engine modification. The problem is that biodiesel has viscosities approximately twice those of conventional diesel fuels. So biodiesel esters can used directly or blended with diesel.
On alternative energy sources and environmental pollutants has been carried out actively to seek for solution for steeply-priced oil rate and worldwide environmental troubles which come to be vital troubles in international society. Specifically, it is vital to lessen NOx and PM simultaneously and efficiently because the effects of NOx and PM emitted from dieselengine are deadly to human body. Alternatively, bio-diesel fuel has been found as a low emission alternative gas within the aspect of dangerous emission reduction and climate alternate agreements. However, biodiesel fuels have their detrimental properties at a low temperature and motive problems in fueling gadget. Bloodless performance check of six distinct biodieselblends in a passenger car and a light obligation truck turned into made to investigate bloodless overall performance and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) in assets traits of biodiesel fuel blends . it is also comprised of animal fats or vegetable oils by means of trans-esterification reaction. Biodiesel gas includes lower sulfur and higher oxygen
Nowadays, globalization and industrial developments in the world require more fossil fuel while aiming to reduce environmental pollution through green technology. Production and consumption of fossil fuel has increased by about 5–6% every year. Palm biodiesel is one alternative fuel that can reduce environmental pollution and meet the demand for fossil fuel. Compared with other vegetable oils, palm oil is a more sustainable and affordable fuel that is environment friendly and has greater potential energy and economic benefits. Malaysia is a developing country that is also the second highest producer of palm oil in the world, with major markets in Europe and the US. Palm oil is also used as cooking oil and many food manufacturing factories use about 74% of palm oil for food processing. Developing countries spend most of their money on imported petroleum diesel. According to MPOB economic statistics in 2014, Malaysia produced 19.667 million tonnes of palm oil, which was approximately 5.392 million ha. Malaysia earned RM 63.618 billion revenue by exporting 25.07 million tonnes of palm oil in 2014. In low-temperature countries, palm oil is very suitable for diesel engines and can be used under _21 _C to 0 _C temperature conditions. Many studies illustrate that better dieselengineperformance is achieved by using palm oil biodiesel. Higher specific fuel consumption was observed in palm oil biodiesel and its blends is higher than in diesel fuel. In diesel engines, exhaust emissions, such as HC, CO, CO2, smoke, and PM were reduced because of palm oil biodiesel compared with diesel. Engine fouling components, such as fuel injector, fuel pump, piston ring, filter plugging, and various sliding engine parts are required for lubrication. Palm oil and blends have better lubrication properties than diesel in a short-term engine run. When an engine has been running for long periods, palm oil does not provide better lubrication and can be a cause of carbon deposits, piston-ring sticking, and changing lubricity problems of the engine. Palm oil contains a lower amount of metal compositions, such Fe, Pb, Cr, and Si, compared with diesel.
The brake power calculated by the dynamometer reading is given on the dynamometer circular scale. To increase the load on the engine, the wheel is rotated in the clockwise direction while rotating it in the anti-clockwise direction reduces the load on the engine. The ambient air temperature (Ta) and barometric pressure (Pa) are measured. A four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled direct injection dieselengine connected to an eddy current dynamometer which develops a power output of 112 Kw in the Internal Heat combustion Laboratory of University of Nigeria, Nsukka, was used to study the emission and combustion characteristics of the biodiesel , petrol diesel and their blends. The engine specifications are given in Table 1. The emission characteristics from the exhaust was measured using Bacharach PCA 2 , 15068, P/N 24 – 7305, S/N – QS1007 model, New Kensington P A , USA emission gas analyzer.
Fossil fuels are limited in nature. Fuel consumption rate is increases and there will be the need of alternate fuels in future. Replacing biodiesel as a fuel in the place of standard fuel to study the characteristics of performance, combustion and emissions of the DI-CIdieselengine. DI-CIengine with biodiesel all the characteristics are investigated. The results of engine characteristics with biodiesel were compared with standard baseline petroleum diesel. Fuel in any engine burnt with air. Air is a mixture of gases and it contains approximately 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. Some of the oxygen is used to burn the fuel during the combustion process and the rest is supposed to just pass through unreacted. But when the peak temperatures are high enough for long periods of time, the nitrogen and oxygen combine to form a class of compounds called nitrogen oxides, collectively referred to as NO x . These
Table1-6(a) Shows that brake power increases as the blend % increases, this is due to complete combustion of fuel, maximum brake power for all the blend as well as diesel is obtained in the speed range of 1520 rpm. Max. Brake power for JB 80% is 1.83 Kw at 1500 rpm & for diesel is 1.82 Kw at 1444 rpm. Increase in power may be due to complete combustion of oxygenated fuel.
Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and biodegradable alternative fuel and this can be used without any engine modifications. Biodiesel can be used as fuel in the form of purest form to the vehicle; it can be used as diesel additive to reduce particulates like Carbon monoxide and Hydrocarbons. The purpose of this project is to investigate the effect of Bio fuel produced from non-edible oils on engineperformance and emissions. Biodiesel was prepared from non-edible oil such as SIMAROUBA OIL by Tran’s esterification method. After Tran’s esterification process, the properties of Simarouba oil biodiesel and Diesel was compared. From this comparison, it is observed that properties of Simarouba oil Biodiesel are better than the raw oils. Tests were carried out on 4- S CIDieselengine without any modification in the fuel injection system. From the results, it is observed that the Simarouba oil Biodieselperformance results comparable to Diesel fuel. Also Biodiesel fuel results in significant reductions in carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons. Using of this non-edible oil as an alternative fuel will be a good substitute for Diesel oil and will conserve India’s foreign exchange.
products are increased to run the machines and engines. The biggest problem is to use petrol and diesel is that they have limited source and supply. To reduce this alternative fuel is used i.e. Bio fuels. Biodiesel are extracted from trans esterification process of edible and non- edible oil of vegetable and animal fat. It can be used in the dieselengine either in the form of neat oil or as a mixture of diesel fuel in the form of blend. The properties of oil are compared with the characteristic required for the fuel of internal combustionengine and the properties fuel are compared with conventional diesel fuel. The blends of biodiesel with small content in place of petroleum diesel can help in controlling air pollution and improving the performance without affecting on engine power and economy. This project consists of attention to acquiring knowledge of preparation of different blends of biodiesel (B00, B06, B12, B18, B24) using from Mexicana seeds, Mexicana seed with catalyst EHN, unused animal fat, animal fat with catalyst EHN, waste cooking oil and in this we assess engine testing with exhaust gas analysis to obtain best biodieselblends results .