As argued in Chapter 2, it is crucial to first identify the service areas and user groups where personalbudgets could add most value. Secondly, focus should be placed in setting-up limited-scale pilot schemes to test the implementation of the model. Pilots should cover a large enough number of localities and run for a long enough period of time in order to generate a meaningful dataset. When possible, randomisation principles should be adhered to in order to minimise bias and effectively assess the impact of schemes (see section 4.4.2). Whilst still important, user experiences of the scheme can then be included as a complimentary evidence base to the dataset. These pilots should ideally be run by a national body working in conjunction with multiple local authorities, but it is possible that a third sector organisation or provider may be better suited to administer the programme overall, particularly if targeting a specific and narrow cohort.
IT off-shoring has become very popular largely due to the comparative cost advantages of sending work to countries like India, China and Eastern Europe. There has however been a lack of empirical studies which have critically evaluated the practice of IT off-shoring in terms of both advantages and disadvantages. This paper reports on the first phase of an Australian study that seeks to examine how senior IT executives view off-shoring.
“You get a lot of programming done by an Indian programmer for an $A100” “We have achieved cost savings of 30 percent through off-shoring IT work to India” One of the informants also felt that there are significant advantages gained because off-shoring of IT projects allowed IT project work to be pipelined 24 hours around the clock. This allows IT projects to be delivered quicker to the market. This informant noted that IT off-shoring had allowed his organisation to ramp up the delivery of IT projects because of pipeline effect of having software developers working on an IT project around the clock. Another informant took the approach that if a specific IT function or service was considered a commodity by an organisation then it was a strong candidate for IT off-shoring.
Enrique Aguilar, a lawful permanent resident of the US living in Mexico, and Angela Aguilar, a Mexican citizen, are directors of Grupo Internacional de Asesores (Grupo), a Mexican company that purports to provide sales representation services for companies doing business with the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico’s electrical utility company that provides electricity to most of Mexico. According to the DOJ, Lindsey Manufacturing, a US-based company that makes emergency restoration systems and other equipment used by electrical utility companies, hired Grupo to serve as its sales representative in Mexico and to help it obtain contracts from the CFE. From approximately February 2002 until March 2009, Lindsey Manufacturing and Enrique Aguilar allegedly orchestrated a scheme in which Enrique Aguilar facilitated the making of illicit payments and gifts to Mexican officials in exchange for the CFE awarding contracts to Lindsey Manufacturing. Angela Aguilar is alleged to also have participated in the bribery scheme. In order to make the alleged illicit payments, Lindsey Manufacturing would allegedly wire the necessary funds from its US bank account into Grupo’s US brokerage account. Angela Aguilar was arrested on 10 August 2010 as she travelled to Houston from Mexico and currently remains in the DOJ’s custody. Enrique Aguilar remains a fugitive. The DOJ contends that it has jurisdiction over Angela Aguilar because she is an agent of Lindsey Manufacturing, a domestic concern.
not completely absent. This in itself is a reason to resist the widespread adoption of opioid treatment agreements or contracts, particularly since their use may increase the stigma associated with chronic pain. A second reason for caution is related to concerns about the many unintended consequences of
The report does not specify clearly for what population the survey was intended and why. It states vaguely that “input and opinion were sought from a wide array of child health professionals, subspecialty care experts and individuals interested in newborn screening.” The sur- vey was sent to selected individuals and posted on the Web, meaning that a response rate is impossible to de- termine. The survey itself listed 8 nonexclusive catego- ries of potential respondents with instructions to check off all that apply. Four were categories of providers of screening services, and 3 were providers of health ser- vices (diagnostic, primary care, and specialty care). The last category was “consumer.” What this means is not clear, because no definition is provided (the actual con- sumers of NBS tests are newborns). Because the popu- lation is not specified, the report’s later discussion of the extent to which the sample is “broadly representative” is meaningless.
Abstract: Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses. This idea has significant merit and warrants further investigation and devel- opment. However, there are major concerns that need to be addressed. First, what are uniquely psychological skills and knowledge? Many of the skills psychology undergraduates acquire are generic to university and not specific to psychology. Second, psychology can be as harmful when misapplied as it can be beneficial when ethically applied. Third, psychology departments will need to address pragmatic as well as ethical issues, including issues of competency, boundaries, accountability, and confidentiality. Fourth, the available empirical evidence to direct such efforts is primarily at the anecdotal, case example, and pilot study stages. Significant improvements are needed in measuring psychological literacy, choice of outcome measures, and research method- ologies before these advantages can be realized in an empirically supported manner. Currently, best practices in the undergraduate curriculum are the mindful and purposeful design of courses and experiential opportunities. It is proposed that psychological literacy is best conceptualized as a meta-literacy and that it should become a goal of psychology undergraduate education but not necessarily the goal.
greater effort to make sure that goals are meaningful, realistic, and achievable by providers working in a wide range of settings. Special care should be taken to include solo and/or small group providers and those who work in less-resourced rural or urban settings.
Older people with long-term care or health needs may require support or skilled treatment from a number of systems – such as health, social care, and housing – as well as unpaid support from family or friends. This in turn makes it necessary to tackle the perennial issue of coordination across agencies – and coordination of budgets – to ensure, first, that different entities work together to (say) deliver the right services, and second, that the economic pay-offs or burdens are shared out appropriately. Often, action by one service or system has its greatest impact elsewhere, which could be a disincentive to act, especially when budgets are under pressure. In fact, many things get in the way of good coordination, including professional rivalry, narrowly framed performance indicators and the slow churn of bureaucracy.
A hazardous substance is defined in federal government regulations as “one that may cause substantial personal injury or illness during reasonable handling or use, including possible ingestion by children.” According to the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA), household products are hazardous if they contain substances that have one or more of the following hazardous properties:
It is no good putting all this effort into creating an effective and efficient process, making it usable and visible, if no one actually uses it. Making sure that your process design makes a difference is one of the key challenges for creating good processes. Because processes are mainly about what people do (despite all the IT automation), implementing a new process is essentially a “change management” activity. All of the normal change management activities – getting buy-in, training, barrier removal, reward, and monitoring – are essential for getting processes used. Just as with the process owner, having the right reward structure in place is essential for encouraging the desired behavior.
teaching will always be more of an art than a science, and that attempts to reduce it to a set of component parts will always fail. If that is the case then it is simply a free-for-all: no advice about how to teach can claim a basis in evidence. However, the fact that there are some practices that have been found to be implementable in real classrooms, and that implementing them has led to improvements in learning, gives us something to work with. Much of this work is under-theorised and difficult to make sense of. However, the Dynamic Model of Creemers and Kyriakides (2006) provides a theory that is well specified and has withstood some credible attempts to test it. For now at least, it is the best theory of effective
All entrepreneurs begin with three categories of means: (1) Who they are – their traits, tastes and abilities; (2) What they know – their education, training, expertise, and experience; and, (3) Whom they know – their social and professional networks. Using these means, the entrepreneurs begin to imagine and implement possible effects that can be created with them. Most often, they start very small with the means that are closest at hand, and move almost directly into action without elaborate planning. Unlike causal reasoning that comes to life through careful planning and subsequent execution, effectual reasoning lives and breathes execution. Plans are made and unmade and revised and recast through action and interaction with others on a daily basis. Yet at any given moment, there is always a meaningful picture that keeps the team together, a compelling story that brings in more stakeholders and a continuing journey that maps out uncharted territories. Through their actions, the effectual entrepreneurs’ set of means and consequently the set of possible effects change and get reconfigured. Eventually, certain of the emerging effects coalesce into clearly achievable and desirable goals -- landmarks that point to a discernible path beginning to emerge in the wilderness.
• Annual reports—Many nonprofits voluntarily publish annual reports featuring financial information and a report on the year’s activities. Annual reports can orient you to what a nonprofit does and why. What are its goals? Why does it choose to spend its resources in particular ways? What are its results and programmatic outcomes? Annual reports also tend to supplement financial statements with charts, graphs, or other visuals to convey important points or trends.
We show how individuals who maximize utility (with perhaps a bias against annuity contracts) allocate their wealth between financial and annuity investments assuming annuity contracts are both costly and limited. Although we view this analysis as creating an important foundation, there are a number of additional areas for future extensions. For example, our analysis does not consider the impact of a bequest motive. Allowing for some individuals to garner utility from wealth remaining after death would be a significant extension. In principle, a bequest motive would tend to dampen annuity demand, although as Davidoff, Brown, and Diamond (2005) point out, annuity contracts can effectively manage the risks (as perceived by an heir) associated with a bequest that depends on an uncertain date of death. Our analysis considers a robust financial market where individuals can purchase payouts contingent on any future market state, and a more limited insurance market where individuals can purchase payouts contingent on both the market state and a personal state—their survival. Moreover, there are a number of other personal states that could impact decision making. In particular, our framework could be extended to consider health insurance questions. Much like annuity contracts, health insurance should also cover outcomes sufficiently unlikely that the probability discount exceeds the cost of creating the contract. The introduction of multiple personal states also allows an investigation into the impact of correlations. For example, the fact that health shocks and mortality are correlated could have implications for insurance demand. 17 Finally, we underscore that our analysis presumed access to a complete financial market. Modeling an incomplete financial and insurance market allows an analysis of numerous interesting issues such as the demand for liquidity and the impact of volatile interest rates. Although many areas of investigation remain, our hope is that the fundamental relationships between participation, welfare, costs, and bundling identified in this research results in annuity market innovation that ultimately delivers on the benefits Yaari (1965) identified over four decades ago.
People have the remarkable ability to remember thousands of pictures they saw only once , , even when they were exposed to many other images that look alike , . We do not just remember the gist of a picture, but we are able to recognize which precise image we saw along with some of its details , , , . However, not all images are remem- bered equally well. Some pictures stick in our minds whereas others fade away. The reasons why images are remembered may be highly varied; some pictures might contain friends, a fun event involving family members, or a particular moment during a trip. Other images might not contain any recognizable monuments or people and yet also be highly memorable , , . In this paper we are interested in this latter group of pictures: whatmakes a generic photograph memorable?