both linguistic and sociolinguistic acquisition which complete each other and form a cultural value system. Moreover, According to Robinett (1978:113), "each word used in the EFL classroom is conditioned on the part of 'both speaker and the hearer' by each person's own particular, personal experiences and those experiences that are common to the culture of which he or she is a part." Thus, the languageteaching classroom will be pervasively influenced by the target culture since "classroom discourse features encode cultural norms and beliefs." To illustrate, the pictures are used as semiotic signs and symbols to present the particular social aspects of the Western culture like; boyfriend/girlfriend, dating, double-decker buses and flags, etc. Moreover, the books, also comprise a set of symbols which tell the teacher and the students to take further action in the upcoming sessions. For example, the cassette signs indicate the time of a listening activity, a smiling face indicates the success in the activity, the tick and the cross signs refer to a true/false activity and different colours in a textbook might represent different sections of language study like; speaking, reading, listening, etc. To sum up, the students learn the linguistic and sociological aspects of language through methods. In this respect, the language teacher should pay attention to use these semiotic symbols as a part of his/her language course. It should be borne in mind that the more the teachers activate the use of these symbolic signs and symbols through activities in methods, the better the students achieve the social and linguistic aspects of the target language and are able to melt them in the same spot.
A teacher who plans to train autonomous learners needs to bear in mind the fact that it is not an easy task to change students who are accustomed to the teacher-centered methods. On the need for making a link between teacher and learner autonomy as goals, Flvia Vieira (cited in Barfield et al. 2001) is quite clear: What’s the use of having a concept of teacher autonomy which can accommodate transmissive, authoritarian or even oppressive purposes? (Aoki 2000). There seems to be much justice in this point of view. The fact is that an absolute degree of teacher au- tonomy (II) (freedom from control over professional action) is probably undesirable for this reason, apart from being unlikely in all but the most ’ideal’ circumstances. In other words, restrictions on independent actions are required to prevent abuse, and one appropriate restriction is the ar- gument that self-directed professional action aids students’ learning (a more positive way of putting this, with less emphasis on constraints, might be that teacher autonomy necessarily involves interdependence, or ’relatedness’, not just individualism. Indeed, this has been highlighted in recent discussions of the concept of learner autonomy. Qualifications of this nature may allow one to see how teacher autonomy can be seen as a legitimate goal of teacher education programs, even when it is not ob- viously linked to the promotion of pedagogy for learner autonomy. This may be convenient for two reasons: firstly, given the other requirements needed for developing subject knowledge and general pedagogic skills, teachers’ focus on promoting pedagogy for autonomy might be seen as overly restrictive in some contexts,; secondly, the promotion of particu- lar notions of and approaches towards learner autonomy can be seen as an inappropriate imposition in non-western settings.
Providing a meaningful and experiential English learning environment for all students has long created a concern for alternate ways to teach students who are reportedly demonstrating non-mastery on standardized assessments. As the benchmark for showing successful academic achievement increases, so does the need for discovering effective ways for students to learn second language effectively. The Montessori teaching method has been in existence since the early 1900s when Montessori made her discovery of the student learning process. Montessori connected the context of the classroom to the laws of nature and the environment for creating students who are problem-solvers with critical-thinking skills. The Montessori Method is designed to promote independent learning and support normal development in children. A Montessori lesson is defined as any interaction between an adult and a child; it incorporates techniques that are defined to serve as guidance for the adult personality in working with the child. To fully understand the Montessori Method, also known as individual learning or progressive learning, it is necessary to trace the history and development of the philosophy, and review the various principles and uses of the teaching methodology with special education programs. Studies show that Montessori students tend to achieve at a greater rate than students in traditional programs; however, critics say that the method is insufficiently standardized, and its efficacy has not been deeply evaluated.
The study is descriptive in nature thus; the major concern is to delineate the acceptability of using computer-assisted languagelearning software (CALLS) in teaching and learning Mandarin in a state university. Specifically, this study utilized survey method. A survey is a data collection tool used to gather information about individuals. A survey may focus on factual information about individuals, or it might aim to collect the opinions of the survey takers. A survey can be administered in a couple of different ways. In one method known as a structured interview, the researcher asks each participant the questions. In the other method known as a questionnaire, the participant fills out the survey on his or her own. This study employed the latter method. Surveys are generally standardized to ensure that they have reliability and validity. Standardization is also important so that the results can be generalized to the larger population. There are many advantages of using survey. Surveys allow researchers to collect a large amount of data in a relatively short period of time. Surveys are less expensive than many other data collection techniques. Surveys can be created quickly and administered easily. Surveys can be used to collect information on a wide range of things, including personal facts, attitudes, past behaviors and opinions.
And now let us apply all these data to learning a foreignlanguage. Almost all methods of teachingforeign languages use direct translation (i.e. translation from foreignlanguage into native language) to memorize new words. Let us imagine that there is a sentence “I go home” that should be translated. Let us imagine that I do not know the word “home”, and the only way for me to learn it is to look it up in the dictionary. When I find a corresponding dictionary entry and pass from this word into its meaning, which is described in my native language, my long-term memory throws it away as unnecessary, because this word is still not clear for me; in physiological sense, it has no stereotype — I just do not know it yet. At this moment, the word “home” is still a number of meaningless letters for me. And when I meet the same word in the same text in five minutes, I cannot remember its meaning. I remember that I saw it, because when I was looking for it I was thinking about how to find it, but I don’t remember its meaning.
Hinkel and Fotos have stated that foreignlanguageteaching has meant performing analyses for grammar and translating the written works for more than 2000 years . In the grammar-translation method that is known as one of the oldest languageteachingmethods, grammar has been considered as the set of rules required for linguistic production. Accordingly, grammar was presented in an explicit and deductive way, and performing teaching based on reinforcement through reading and translation activities after learning the grammar rules was adopted . This method is based on the philosophy of teachinglanguage rules and language structure intensively; making students memorize the vocabulary of the language with the help of vocabulary lists, and making students perform translation studies from a target language into their mother language and from their mother language into a target language. It has continued to be included in teaching processes until today without losing its effect despite many foreignlanguageteachingmethods following it . According to Hinkel and Fotos , it was determined that students who learned a foreignlanguage by the grammar-translation method could not use the language as a means of communication although they knew many grammar rules.
Authors like Kress and van Leeuwen (1996, 2001) have paved the way to introduce the discussion on new modalities of textual presentation that they call multimodal discourse. These new types of discourse would require a semiotic treatment as they are produced and interpreted by resorting to several codes: images, layout, letters, colors, sound. Their work centers on understanding the changing portrayals of information brought about by new language processing technologies; particular interest is paid by them to the increasing importance of visual communication and the replacement of the traditional written texts for more visually charged texts. Kress and van Leeuwen (2001) set the ground for a semiotic and discourse account of multimodal texts by investigating communication as “a process in which a semiotic product or event is both articulated or produced and interpreted or used” (p. 20). Previously, Kress and van Leeuwen (1996) had explored these issues by looking at what they called the ‘grammar of visual design’ that was needed to understand the meanings conveyed by images. Such interpreting skills would be at the heart of visual literacy. One important point they raised for our concerns as educators is the value of visual texts in the life of students outside the school, as opposed to the prominence of written texts in the school curriculum.
With the widespread use of the Internet, the pervasive nature of the Web can be felt in all facets of our life. Internet and Web are not new for us any more. “I use web as part of my ESP teaching and I must say it works, especially with science students who spend a great deal of time in front of a computer screen.” (Marina, 2002) “If the instructors want to help students achieve a high level of competency and competitiveness, they have no choice but to make technology and integrated tool in the learning process…In order to educate students to be life-long and successful contributors to the new global market, educators must change the way they teach and the way students learn. (Morrison, 1999 cited by Tianwei Xie, 2001, p2). The necessity to use technology in teaching is also advocated by Karla Frizler. He said the use of technology added a relevance to the students’ work and was a skill the students would need as they moved into the
It is a fact that teaching any language as a foreignlanguage should pursue the goal of providing the learner not only with a linguistic, but moreover with an intercultural competence. To attain this goal, the teaching of a foreignlanguage must also be the teaching of a foreign culture To learn a language through understanding its culture means cognitive learning of proverbs, idioms, onomatopoetic words and compound/collocations of the target language. While teaching English as a foreignlanguage using semiotic elements especially the audio and visual aids by the way of multimedia technology will provide students with a better understanding of the vocabulary items and help them develop socio-pragmatic and socio-semiotic competence in the target language. British linguist M.A.K. Halliday too considers language as “social semiotic”. According to him “Language is one of the semiotic systems that constitute a culture; one that is distinctive in that it also serves as an encoding system for many (though not all) of the others.” (Halliday:1988,2). This helps the English language teachers to understand that language is a discourse- the exchange of meanings in the interpersonal contexts of one kind or the other. Moreover language is learned by a person at two stages. First he learns language as a basic tool to express things of his basic needs. In the second stage, he replaces this by a symbolic system, thus converting it into a semantic system with structural realizations. Therefore it can be said that semiotics not only helps learners to get the right message through semiotics signs to avoid cross-cultural failure, but also encourages the language teachers to play a critical role in the classroom. Hodge and Kress (1988:26) claim, “Students of cross cultural communication know how often misunderstanding arises because of different assumptions in different cultural groups. Undoubtedly, it creates heavy demand to extend semiotics in this way, to include the description and analysis of the stock of cultural knowledge in a given society.” Thus semiotics is a very influential and essential field of study, because by making use of signs the learners are able to achieve a lot of information in all the branches of knowledge.
linguistic circles were the discussion on intelligibility versus native like; the focus on segmental / supra segmentals; and the Lingua Franca Core thoughts of Jenkins (2000). Intelligibility versus native-likeness debate. In debates on the primary objective of pronunciation learning, two opposing "values" (or "positions") are commonly endorsed: the principles of native-likeness and intelligibility . The former proposes that the aim of teaching pronunciation is to assist learners attain native-like mastery of the target sound system. The latter holds that it is only realistic for foreignlanguage students to obtain a functionally comprehensible speech and that learners with foreign accents are able to attain fluency as long as their accents do not impede the intelligibility of their speech. Recently, when English has become an international language and native pronunciation seems out of reach for most learners of English as a second language, English as a foreignlanguage, it is necessary to revisit the objectives of pronunciation learning and teaching in particular learning situations. While methods of pronunciation learning are informed by a theoretical position (which has tended to differ over time), the techniques used by language educators to teach pronunciation in the classroom also merit consideration. Traditionally, language educators use the phonetic alphabet and activities such as transcription practice, diagnostic passages, comprehensive description of articulatory structures, recognition / discrimination tasks, developmental approximation exercises, concentrated manufacturing duties (e.g., minimal pair exercises, contextualized phrase practice, reading of brief passages or dialogues, reading
If we look at the history of English languageteaching in Nepal in the respect of government aided schools almost 20 years back, teaching and learning of it used to be from grade 4. But later the trend has got changed, it started to be taught from Nursery level or grade 1. There was no concept of technology- enhanced languagelearning. There was higher influence of grammar translation in the beginning in Nepal. After that the trend of ELT moved to direct method in it. Then structural languageteaching and audio-lingual methods existed. The communicative approach has dominated English languageteaching, it has firmly established itself on a worldwide basis and there are good historical reasons for this with purpose of language is communicative competence, and that communicative functions and notions set in situations are an integral aspect of the equation. Language is no longer seen as abstract grammatical rules, but of having applications in social contexts and as such it is not just about ‘grammar’ but also about functions and notions. More recently Kumaravadivelu’s work (2001) attempts a shift in ELT by identifying limitations associated with CLT methodology and arguing for a focus on particularity, practicality and possibility within a post-method paradigm. This has influenced the English languageteaching in Nepal also. The concept of teaching English for specific purposes has got initiation in Nepalese ELT context. Teaching English for academic purposes has also influenced the scenario of ELT in Nepal. The concept of multilingualism is heard. The concept of English as a foreignlanguage is changed as English as an international language. The concept of critical applied linguistics is being started in the pedagogy for dealing with problems emerging in the Nepalese ELT.
The concept of “active” and “interactive” teachingmethods are used as synonyms and characterize learning immersed in the process of communication of people. Methods of ac- tive learning – a set of ways to organize and manage educational and cognitive activities, a feature of which is its forced nature, experts say. Active teachingmethods are built on the conscious creation of a tense, often conflict situation, which forces students to make deci- sions to achieve a given goal, in the conditions of incompleteness of the information they pro- vide, the limited material and time resources, and in some cases – against opposition from the leadership of the game or other sites. In such conditions, the development of decisions is accompanied by emotions, which in turn en- sures the mobilization of intellectual reserves, stimulates cognitive activity, allows for a long time to keep attention.
Both audiolingual and communicative languageteachingmethods are important exercises in foreignlanguageteaching, both of which emphasize practice and training in the English learning process. But based on their quite different theoretical foundations, the content of practice, from tome to time is very different. The content of the practice in audiolingual method is mainly sentence-type, with mainly use the basic knowledge of grammar, words and other key points. The teacher arranges the course content according to the grammatical difficulty. These are the lesson plans prepared by the teacher in advance. Students are passively accepted in the classroom.
Since the late nineteenth century, languageteaching – like all education – has increasingly become a matter for public debate and come under the eye of the state (see McLelland 2017: chapter 6). Besides the work of professional language teacher associations such as the Modern Languages Association and the Association of Assistant Masters (which produced four overviews of modern languages teaching between 1929 and 1967), a succession of government reports, whether specific to modern languages (such as the Leathes Report of 1918) or with a broader remit (such as the 1864 Clarendon Report and the 1868 Taunton Report), have given views on the place of modern languages in schools and universities. From the 1960s onwards, modern language education researchers and teacher trainers based in higher education have produced research and textbooks reflecting on the purpose, methods and assessment of modern languages education. Unusual, perhaps, compared to other countries, is the role played at a local level in the 1970s and 1980s by Language Advisors appointed to lead language teachers ’ professional development in their Local Education Authorities (of which there are 152 in England), although few survived budget cuts of the later twentieth century. Another unique voice – and a crucial development for the support and advocacy of modern foreign languages – was the Centre for Information on LanguageTeaching (CILT), established in 1966 on the recommendation of the Committee on Research and Development in Modern Languages (CRDML) which was active between 1960 and 1970. The CDRML ’ s very title signalled that languageteaching was now recognised as a field that required specialised ‘ research and development ’ . Languages had been taught until the Second World War for their ‘ general formative or cultural value ’ , but the Com- mittee argued that ‘ the war showed the importance of practical skills in languages (and, in particular, oral skill) ’ (CRDML 1968: 1) – a major and lasting shift in perspective. From 1966 to 2011 (when it was closed down by the newly elected Conservative Government), CILT supported languageteaching by promoting and disseminating research, producing sample materials and curriculum guides, and monitoring trends in languageteaching (see also Dobson, this issue).
arbitrary in their form and motivated in their use. For example, the same landscape can be referred to in the French language by the letters j-a-r-d-i-n’ (English: garden) or in Avestan by the letters p-a-i-r-i-d-a-e-z-a , both originally referring to a piece of nature surrounded by a wall (the indogermanic root of both garden and jardin is gher- = to enclose; the Avestan word pairidaeza, formed of pairi = around, and daeza = wall, also refers to an enclosure). He shows how arbitrary these signs are in their form as signifiers, but, of course, the choice of one sign over the other is not arbitrary at all, indeed, in this case the signified is historically motivated. It says something about the symbolic meaning that gardens have had in different societies in different times. In its use, the linguistic sign means more than its dictionary definition. M.A.K Halliday (1978) developed a systemic-functional way of describing language as social semiotic. He asked: How does the structure of language reflect, express and shape the structure of the social group in which it is used? He found that language as symbolic system has a triple relation to social reality. (1) It represents social reality by referring to the outside world (e.g., a world of gardens and dwellings); (2) It expresses social reality by indexing social and cultural identities (e.g., the social stratification of people’s roles and functions ); (3) It is a metaphor for reality as it stands for, or is iconic of, a world of beliefs and practices that we call ‘culture’ (e.g., in the case at hand, habits of work and leisure, gardening and cooking).
Focusing more on the current trends & prospects in ESL/ESP/ELT context leads us to identify some root causes of problems and for which certain modifications are required to bring some productive changes in the lives of non-English language learners. In India, non-English speakers are compulsorily in to English languagelearning due to modern global needs and technological fashionable trends. Learners should learn it by interest not as an obligation. It somehow affects their process of learning and their lack of interest stops them to acquire good command over language which results in damaging the true spirit of the language. These learners will become inefficient trainers and again they become the weak link of the teaching and learning process. Therefore, not only learners but also trainers should change the current trend by changing their objective of learning and teaching from social obligation to individual fervor.
During the past decade, the communicative languageteaching approach has been recommended especially for language teachers because of the essential and emphasis of language use in foreign/second language classrooms (Mangubhai et al., 2005). In addition, Li and Yu (2001) have identified the communicative languageteaching method has improved communicative ability of language learners in which the conventional teaching approach has been demonstrated unsuccessfully. However, due to the lack of sufficient teacher training in CLT, teachers usually do not know how to implement CLT as well as do not possess confidence in English speaking capabilities to carry out the communicative approach (Butler, 2011). Specifically, most language teachers lack of this kind of training and they are often afraid of “losing face” or feel embarrassed when making errors or when they are not capable of answering students’ questions promptly (Park, 2012). In light of the significance, Carrier (2003) points out the different teaching approaches should be demonstrated and highlighted through direct explanation, explicit teacher modeling, and extensive feedback in teacher training programs in terms of the implementation in language classrooms. Specifically, in the environment of English as a foreignlanguage in Taiwan, the supply of language input and practice opportunities are insufficient for the learners to become immersed. Therefore, teachers should value process-oriented instruction more highly than content-oriented or grammar-oriented instruction because it is beneficial for students to become independent learners.
The ability to learn beyond the classroom is probably more important than any particular information that students may learn about another culture during their schooling. This is because it is impossible to teach all of any culture because cultures are variable and diverse. As languages educators, we know that what we can teach in the classroom is inevitably only a partial picture of a language and culture. By acknowledging that limitation in our own teaching, we are less likely to develop stereotypical views of the cultures we are teaching about. Learning how to learn about culture means that, as people engage with new aspects of culture, they develop their knowledge and awareness and find ways of acting according to their new learning. One way of developing intercultural capabilities is through an interconnected set of activities involving:
Eleventhly, the results of the study revealed that the majority of the articles were written by one author or two authors. Knowing that most of the articles were written by one author or two authors is very useful for the professionals in the field of ELT because this knowledge can motivate them to write not only individual papers but also joint papers on L2 pronunciation teaching. This result is in line with previous studies in other disciplines (Uzunboylu & Asiksoy, 2014). Twelfthly, the results of the study revealed that the majority of the articles had refererences between 31-60. This result is also in line with previous studies in other disciplines (Uzunboylu & Asiksoy, 2014). Thirteenthly, the key words like ‘pronunciation’, ‘foreign accent / accentedness’, ‘pronunciation teaching / pronunciation instruction / pronunciation training’ were found to be the most frequently utilized keywords in the evaluated articles. Finally, we believe that the present research will stimulate more EFL teachers to integrate English (L2) pronunciation teaching into their teaching in their EFL classroom and push more researchers to do content analyses of published articles related to four language skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing as well as language components such as vocabulary and grammar since research studies on the content analyses of these subject areas are either very few in number or non-existent in the current literature.
Another idea comes from Bruner (1983) who he says that language is the most important tool for the cognitive growth and how adult use it to mediate the world for the children and help to solve their problem. The related idea with Bruner Abover, Wood et al (1976) labels scaffolding in supporting children to carry them out an activity. Bruner has provided a further useful idea for languageteaching in his notions of format and routines. In the classroom process, the languages used and classroom management can conduct them to the opportunity to predict the meaning and intention. As the result, routines allow children to have a space for language growth and developing language skills.