E-learning helping the students to learn easier, faster with way of techniques at the same time low cost for more students. Presently Virtual class rooms is very immersive opportunity to interact with teacher or concerned exports from any place and close to students in class room and also record later. Initially all the schools primerely provide computer and internet making necessity. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) which include radio and television, as well as newer digital technologies such as computers and the internet have been touted as potentially powerful enabling tools for educational change and reform. When used appropriately, different ICTs are said to help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by, among others, helping make teaching and learning into an engaging, active process connected to real life. However, the experience of introducing different ICTs in the classroom and other educational settings all over the world over the past several decades suggests that the full realization of the potential educational benefits of ICTs is not automatic.
Before we tested the hypothesized SDT process model and because students were nested within teachers, we used multilevel hierarchical linear modeling (HLM, Version 7.00; Raudenbush, Bryk, & Congdon, 2010) to test whether teacher differences affected students’ self-reported perceptions of autonomy support, needs satisfaction, motivation, learning strategies, and performance. The percentage of the total variance explained by teacher was low for all student indicators, except for the two performance indicators, which exceeded the 10% cutoff value as reflected by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; see the first column in Table 1). Due to the low num- ber of between-teacher differences on the indicator level (i.e., 2 out of 21) and the low number of clusters (i.e., 12 teachers), we decided to perform two structural equation tests with Mplus (Version 7.3; Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2012). First, we tested the complete SDT process model, with its seven latent variables, as an ordinary co- variance-based structural equation model. Next, we utilized multilevel structural equation modeling on a re- duced model that included only two latent variables, namely learning strategies and performance. The decision to test only a reduced multilevel model was based on the fact that the number of clusters to analyze (i.e., 12) was relatively low for the performance of a valid multilevel analysis (McNeish & Stapleton, 2014). As emphasized above, the ICC from the HLM analysis revealed that the performance indicators were the only indicators that were exposed to a between-teacher effect. This suggests that it is only necessary to test the relations between learning strategies and performance as a multilevel model. Testing two different models, namely, one ordinary and one multilevel model, makes it possible to compare the influence of between-teacher effects on the relations between learning strategies and performance.
Risk factors associated with HIV, HBV and HCV infections Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess independent associations be- tween socio-demographic data and HIV, HBV or HCV infections. In univariate analysis, HIV was significantly associated with being married (odds ratio [OR], 1.57 [95%CI, 1.16–2.15], p = 0.016 ) and education level lower than secondaryschool (OR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.28–2.25], p = 0.002 ). HIV also tended to be associated with greater age (OR, 1.01 [95%CI, 1.00–1.03], p = 0.06 ). In multivari- able analysis, HIV was only associated with education level (OR, 1.54 [95%CI, 1.15–2.07], p = 0.016 ). In univari- ate analysis, HBV-infection was significantly associated with being male (OR, 1.32 [95%CI, 1.10–1.59], p = 0.013 ) and this result was consistent in multivariable analysis (OR, 1.37 [95%CI, 1.14–1.66], p = 0.005 ) adjusting for age, education level, marital status and type of blood do- nation. Education level lower than secondaryschool was also associated with HBV in multivariable analysis (OR, 1.17 [95%CI, 1.05–1.31], p = 0.021 ). Living outside Bamako was the only factor associated with HCV in multivariable analysis adjusting for gender, age and edu- cation level (OR, 1.83 [95%CI, 1.41–2.35], p = 0.0001 ) (Table 3).
In Pakistan English as a Second or foreign language has fast expanded during the last few decades. Public and private sector offered a number of language courses in English skills, that is, reading, writing, speaking and listening, from primary to tertiary level of education in order to enable students to communicate in English during their studies and in professional life. Students face difficulties in understanding and utilizing English in their study or in daily life. In this way several research studies have been examined the relationship of language anxiety with academic skills and professional progress. Language anxiety as a definite feature of language acquisition has been studied frequently in the past few decades; it has for some time been perceived as a deterrent in second or foreign language learning. Language anxiety plays an important part and being considered as a keyaspect in foreign language learning (Gardner & MacIntyre, 1992).
Innovation is an important element for teaching and learning in ensuring that the product is always relevant to current requirement. In vocational education, there are a lot of innovations should be carried out such as management, administration and facilities. In terms of the national corporation to become an industrialized nation the need for vocational education becomes fundamental. The relationship between teacher’s pedagogy beliefs and students learning style can be seen as one mediated through process whereby teacher’s beliefs influence their teaching strategies which will turn influence student’s learning style. It is therefore important in VET to address teacher’s new teaching methods, vocational skills, knowledge and student’s learning style to make the practices in SVS can fulfill the goal of VET in globalization. This paper is to describe the role of Vocational Education Training (VET) for preparation to produce human capital start from the basis level. VET in Malaysia started in secondaryschool and for specific purposes Vocational SecondarySchool (VSS) has been designed to fulfill the needs of future workforce. Teachers are the main factors to have systematic and interesting approach for students and stakeholders to make VET in VSS is the main choice of education to developed student carrier pathways. The focused in this paper is what is the practices in VSS can achieved the current and future workforce in flexible manner and at a consistent level of quality. It also to review what does it mean to teach in VET and what makes an effective VET teacher. The factors consists the approach to teach in VET, role of teachers and VET students preferences. In summary, the investigation of VET practices will improve the skills of VET teachers including pedagogy and vocational skills it will provide the effectiveness of teaching.
The school library is vital for the process of teaching and learning. The school library encourages skills by the classroom instructor and guarantees every student to have fair contact to assets, regardless of their home chances or requirements. While the job of the school library stays consistent, its structure, computerized stage, methodologies and instruments change as instructional method and innovation changes (Department of Education, State of Queensland, 2018). While there is a well recognized Impact of the library in the education, more evidence is required to assure the decision makers of its influence. The study: Focuses in Isa Town SecondarySchool,
on education and it has allocated about two percent of its GNP to education for the last one decade. After 18 th Constitutional Amendment, the provincial governments have enhanced their education budget however, a major portion is spent on salaries and allowances whereas meager amount is left for development and new initiatives. In Pakistan, enrolment rate at primary level is low and annual progress is marginal. For example, during the last one and half decade the NER grew by 15% with an annual increase of one percent. Currently about 6.078 million children of primary school age are out of school which isthe second highest in the world. Moreover there is wide gender disparity in enrolment at primary level by location and region. At national level 86 girls are enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys. The retention capacity of education system is also low and it is unable to retain the maximum number of students in school for example only 69 percent students reach grade-v and 31 percent drop out before completing the primary cycle. The most critical sphere of education is the quality aspect which could not be improved to an acceptable level. The quality of education at primary level in term of students learning outcomes is abysmally low as reported by resent national assessment surveys. According to these surveys about 50% students do not possess the basic numeracy and literacy skills of grade-ii level.
Similarly, the formulation of a new curriculum for Zambian secondary schools (Curriculum Development Centre, 2013) was greatly influenced by a constructivist conception. Like many other mathematics curricula elsewhere (see Baloche & Brody, 2017; Sharan, 2010), the Zambian curriculum for secondaryschool mathematics recommends an education environment where students can interact with peers as they create meaning and construct new knowledge. Therefore, enabling students to learn mathematics in a cooperative group setup may offer support to such an environment. Cooperative learning enables learners to interact in small groups to gain an understanding of the subject matter, complete a given task or meet a set target. Brodie (2010) has argued that “learners’ inability to see mathematics as a worthwhile human activity is in part due to low levels of collaboration in their classrooms” (p.59). This provides evidence on the need for teachers of mathematics to employ approaches such as cooperative learning, where students can develop and investigate mathematical conjectures, draw conclusions, and share or debate mathematical ideas through peer interactions.
5.1.3 Socio – Economic status :- A number of studies shows that parents with higher socio economic status are more involved in their children's education than parents of lower socio economic status. This greater involvement results in development of positive attitudes of children toward school, classes and enhancement of academic achievement. It is believed that socio economic status negatively influences academic achievement because it prevents students from accessing various educational material and sources and creates a distressing atmosphere at home. For these reasons socio economic status of student in a common factor that determines academic achievement.
Globally, large scale efforts have signalled a raised awareness of the need for greater creativity. In the United Kingdom, British secondaryschool curriculum was revamped in 2008 to emphasize creativity, idea generation and the assessment of progress with Torrance Test scores (Bronson & Merryman, 2010). Reforms were based upon a highly publicized white paper by the NACCCE (1999) outlining the development of a national strategy for creative and cultural education, formal and informal. The European Union designated 2009 as the European Year of Creativity and Innovation to promote creativity and build capacity for innovation. For formal education, this meant responding to calls for the replacement of traditional, direct instruction with student-focused teaching approaches that actively involved students in order to develop creativity and innovation skills (see http://www.create2009.europa.eu/index_en.html). China, too, is implementing a similar approach to instruction as part of extensive educational reform (for instance, see Chan, 2010; Song, Kwan, Bian, Tai, & Wu, 2005).
In Scotland, where education policy is managed autonomously, the extension to the Modern Languages in the Primary School (MLPS) pilot project to all schools in Scotland was announced in 1993. In this initiative, firmly based in the 5-14 curricular context and in some cases taught by secondary teachers, researchers found that teachers did not necessarily build on what pupils had done during their primary education, that there was a lack of metalinguistic emphasis and, although secondary pupils were able to use more language, it tended to be ‘more of the same’ rather than a richer mixture (Low et al, 1993, 1995; Low and Johnstone, 1997). In terms of methodology, pupils often experienced a change from a relatively open framework, allowing for creativity, to teachers constrained by a coursebook-dictated structure repeating similar linguistic demands. Later evidence from the Scottish MLPS initiative revealed that over 80% of pupils achieved the most basic level of
Disregard and disinterest for the discipline of Sociology as a school discipline in secondarySchool can be traced to its purely abstract content, seemingly distant from the students' reality. Another problem to be addressed is the question of the identity of the discipline in front of others, such as History and Philosophy, which often present students with the same content discussed in Sociology classes. Thus, the sociology teacher tries to prepare his classes taking into account the contents already worked by the other teachers (HANDFAS, 2009; HONORATO, 2009). Sociology has its method of approach and its object of investigation historically delimited, defining this tributary of the theoretical efforts of sociologists like Emile Durkheim, Max Weber and Karl Max (QUINTANEIRO, BARBOSA, OLIVEIRA, 2002; ARON, 2008). His nineteenth-century science status, however, was predominantly due to Durkheim and his theories on social fact and the rules of sociological method, respectively linked in the works of the Division of Social Service (1893) and Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique (1895) (SELL, 2013). There are method comparative, functional, formal or systematic, comprehensive, statistical and monographic methods may be listed. The quintessential object of sociology, roughly speaking, is society and its numerous sociocultural transformations. However, because of its essentially theoretical and abstract nature, its discourse can not be intelligible to secondaryschool students (ALVEZ, COSTA, 2006; MOTTA, 2012). According to Sarandy (2004), the sciences are marked by the conceptual boundaries that they elaborate to distinguish themselves, borders that must, in the opinion of the author, be outdated. In the specific case of Sociology, it is necessary to understand its peculiarity in the field of knowledge, which is the basic difference between it and the other disciplines. In other words, what does Sociology offer in terms of knowledge / knowledge that other disciplines can not offer? It is in this sense that the discipline needs to build its difference, that is, to affirm an identity as a contribution to secondarySchool. Sarandy (2004) believes that Sociology has to develop critical thinking in the student, without disregarding the other disciplines and all the contribution they have to the training of students.
location of schools, security, school community, principals leadership styles, school culture, legal framework and retention rates. Literature has shown that the first five factors of entry behaviour, physical facilities, teaching/learning resources, teacher characteristics and Income Generating Activities are the factors that greatly influence quality secondaryschooleducation. The African Union (2006) has identified institutional inputs of physical and infrastructural resourcing for learning environment, learner characteristics teacher qualification, competence, motivation, relevance of subject matter and of teaching and learning material and professional support for teachers. The choice of institutional inputs for the study finds justification on many grounds. Entry behaviour which refers to the academic ability of the students who is admitted to secondaryschool on attaining a particular Kenya Certificate of Primary Education score was chosen as an institutional input because it is a resource the institution uses just like teaching and learning resources. Most studies have often focused on effect of home background or socio-economic factors on performance in Kenya Certificate of SecondaryEducation. Oghuvbu (2007) in a study on family history in Nigeria as a tool for adequate management of pupils and students in schools found out that home background influenced students academic achievement. Donkor (2010) in Ghana found out that family’s structures influenced achievement, Ogalo, Simatwa and Okwach (2013) in a study in Nyando and Muhoroni districts on socio-economic challenges faced by principals on providing quality education found out that parental sickness like HIV and AIDs affected the students performance. Other studies like Jagero (2013) and Ondima et al (2013) focused on influence of Kenya Certificate of Primary Education scores on Kenya Certificate of SecondaryEducation performance but did not link this to other institutional inputs influence on quality of secondaryschooleducation. The methodology and analysis of Jagero and Ondima studies were limited to linear regression and did not use multivariate analysis to show the contribution of entry behaviour to quality of education when compared to contribution of other institutional inputs like physical facilities, teaching/learning resources, teacher characteristics and Income Generating Activities which the Migori study showed. Neither have other studies integrated qualitative and quantitative analysis to breathe greater insight into the relationship between institutional inputs and quality of secondaryschooleducation in Migori.
McDermott (1993) quoted by Americas’ laboratory report, 2005, contends that a growing body of research in Physics education indicates that a majority of students have difficulty in learning basic physical concepts in a course built around traditional lectures, textbook problems and verification experiments. The practical work in Physics, even at school stage is essential because of the fact that we learn by doing.
The Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture, will likely benefit from this research as it may be sensitized to know the state of secondaryschool teaching and learning with emphasis on the use of instructional media.The ministry may be made aware of the issues in secondary schools that educational media use can assist to address. Secondaryschool teachers may also be familiar with alternative educational media that would assist improve teaching and learning quality in classrooms. UNICEF, World Vision International and other educational quality assurance bodies will have the data they need first-hand to make their job efficient. The Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) can also use the findings of this study as a reference source for the need to develop syllabi, handbooks for teachers, and provide adequate educational media to enhance high schooleducation. This study may also be of excellent importance in the academic field, as it may also assist aspiring researchers who may find it useful for further study purposes in creating literature.
Educational activities are conducted by The Ministry of National Education on a central level in the Republic of Turkey. The national education system aims to educate all citizens as individuals who are able to cope with the challenges of the information and technology era, are able to think solving skills, have high sense of responsibility, are respectful for democratic values and are committed to the principles and reforms of Atatürk. Compulsory education is 12 years consisting of three stages l of education is made up of School, Primary and Lower Secondary, Upper Secondary and Higher Education. Primary and lower secondary, upper secondary schools are compulsory education organizations National Education. The fact that primary and lower secondary, upper secondaryeducation is compulsory for all male and female citizens and it is free of charge in the State schools is stated clearly in the Constitution, Basic Law for National Education (Law No: and the Law for Primary Education and Training (Law No: 222). Compulsory education became 12 years in 2012. Three stages of education came into force First stage (from 1st to 4th grade), second stage (from 5th to 8th grade) and third
Mathematics is a subject that we use to solve many problems in our daily life, including problems in the classroom. Steen (1989) has pointed out that mathematical sciences have moved from not only being a requirement for future scientists, but are now an essential ingredient in education for all. According to Sitidiso (1961) in Adeleke (1998) no other subject forms a strong binding force among various branches of science as mathematics. These statements show how important mathematics is. Mathematics is now essential for all pupils up to the age of sixteen, as a requirement of mathematical education in the twenty- first century (Haggarthy, 2002). In Zimbabwe mathematics is in the curriculum of both primar and secondary schools and every student who passes through these institutions of learning is supposed to learn the subject compulsorily. Charles and Lester (1982:4) indicated “Despite the importance of mathematics and the potential enjoyment that students can experience in it, it is a fact that the majority of the students grow to dislike mathematics by the time they complete secondaryschool. Many students are not interested in mathematics, have mathematics phobia, could not relate mathematics to the real world and some suffer from the syndrome of learning mathematics for the sake of passing examinations (Battista, 1999). For most students, school mathematics is an endless sequence of memorization *Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Involvement in e-learning is not going to mean that teachers will spend hours sitting ahead of computer screens; e-learning is not going to replace libraries, friends, colleagues and many of the existing social networks that contribute to a satisfying learning and teaching experience. The flexibility, availability and adaptability of the internet environment must serve the needs of both e-teachers and e- learners. Teachers are the learning and information architects of e- education and the experiences they have will enhance and challenge their e-teaching in the most unexpected ways. The e-teacher is surrounded by rapidly changing e-environments and technologies. The ability of teachers to communicate via the internet, accessing and publishing information is very diverse. It is not unusual to find teachers storing information, but to actually make the move towards e-teaching is the next brave step.