Accidents, Traffic

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Factors Contributing to Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania. The case of Morogoro Municipality and  Dar es salaam City

Factors Contributing to Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania. The case of Morogoro Municipality and Dar es salaam City

Lemming (1969) in India argues that a driver’s ability and the condition of a car could be key causes of road traffic accidents. Giving out an example, Lemming (1969) argues that in emergence conditions, stopping distance is also important which depends very much on the driver’s reaction time, speed of the vehicles, quality of tyres, and the condition of the road. Concurring with Lemming (1969), Odero et al, (2009) ascertain that lack of certified driver training and valid licensing, speed and reckless driving – moving between lanes and vehicles are some of the causes of road traffic accidents. Further to these, Odero et al(2009), adds other factors as poor regulation and law enforcement, non-helmet use by riders and their passengers, non-use of conspicuity measures - wearing of reflectors, daytime headlights, overload – carrying 2 or more passengers and possible use of alcohol and drugs. Barengo et al (2006) in Tanzania did a study in Kinondoni and Temeke districts to find out causes of road traffic accidents. Using descriptive analysis, the study concludes that the main causes to road traffic accidents include speeding, careless driving, mechanical defeat, overtaking, crossing pedestrians and bad road conditions. Ngeleja (2015) in Tanzania, did a study in Temeke district by interviewing victims of traffic accidents, drivers, and traffic polices, nurses, medical doctors as well as the driving schools. The study again using descriptive statistics, concludes that major causes of road traffic accidents include bad driving behavior, alcoholism and bad roads,
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Scientific Analysis of Road Traffic Accidents

Scientific Analysis of Road Traffic Accidents

5. There is no traffic rule to have compulsory wearing of helmet, seat belt, avoidance of cell phone usage during driving; hence these aspects of road traffic accidents has to be approached in a systematic manner to create awareness among the vulnerable population.

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Epidemiology of Road Traffic Accidents in Sudan

Epidemiology of Road Traffic Accidents in Sudan

happened on the road between two or more matters, one of which must be any kind of a moving vehicle. Any injury on the road without involvement of a vehicle (e.g. a person slipping and falling on the road and sustaining injury) or injury involving a stationary vehicle (e.g. persons getting injured while washing or loading a vehicle) or deaths due to RTA were excluded from the study. The victims of the accidents and eyewitness were interviewed to obtain the information about the circumstances leading to accident. A questionnaire specifically designed for this purpose was used for interviewing the accident victims, either in the casualty or in the wards of Khartoum state different hospitals. More information were obtained from traffic-police reports. The data collected involved personal identification data, time, date, day and type of vehicles involved in RTA, etc. Although the study retrieved data for 10 years, but the available survivors for the latest two years were 194 persons.
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TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS CAUSED BY PEDESTRIANS IN TURKEY

TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS CAUSED BY PEDESTRIANS IN TURKEY

accidents, but also lead to the waste of social wealth. It is very important to reduce the highway traffic accidents in the developing countries like Turkey, and therefore the traffic safety should be improved by the analysis of accident characteristics. Uttley and Fotios (2017) argued that it increased the possibility of crashing pedestrians in the dark. The purpose of the pedestrian crossings is to make the transition safer. He mentioned that there is a need for light to make transitions more secure. Xie et al., (2017) study pedestrian crossings analysis with a survey was conducted in 7 different regions in Hong Kong city. The decision to pass the pedestrian, the gender of the humans and the speed of walking, vehicle flow and pedestrian crossing have been found to affect the situation. Human factor in traffic accidents has caused many studies in this very serious issue. When studies are examined, there are many studies about traffic accidents caused by drivers. However, there are not enough studies about pedestrian traffic accidents. For this purpose, caused
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DISTRACTED DRIVING AND ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA

DISTRACTED DRIVING AND ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA

Traffic Accidents in the world. This statistics includes people that are inside and outside the vehicle, motorcyclists, bicyclists and pedestrians who were probably going about their business before they were struck by vehicles. In addition to this people suffer life changing injuries from road traffic accidents. A number of factors have been identified as affecting the likelihood of road traffic injuries and eliminating the exposure to the risk factors is critical to the success of efforts to reduce road traffic injuries. Distraction while driving is one of such risk factors and is becoming an issue of concern among policy markers.
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Modelling the Trend of Road Traffic Accidents in Accra

Modelling the Trend of Road Traffic Accidents in Accra

Abstract: Road transportation remains the dominant mode of transporting goods and commuters in Ghana. Over the last couple of decades, the Government of Ghana has aggressively pursued a comprehensive road infrastructural development and maintenance programmes with the aim of improving the entire road network in response to increase in travel and transportation. This is as a result of growth and expansion of economic activity with raised consumption levels of the people. Consequently, this improvement is aimed at reducing the menace and the carnage on roads in the country. Unfortunately, with the increasing road network, the number of fatalities has also been on the rise leading to great concerns for road safety. The purpose of this paper is to come out with a predictive mathematical model on the trend of Road Traffic Accident (RTA) occurrence in Ghana. Descriptive data in the public domain from statutory bodies especially the Motor Traffic and Transport Directorate (MTTD) of the Ghana Police Service on RTAs together with a host of academic papers on the subject matter were used as sources of information. The result of the sixth order polynomial analysis showed an r-squared value of 0.957 which was statistically significant inferring that the model has a 95.7% accuracy of predicting road traffic accidents in Ghana. It was also evident that road traffic accidents significantly increased with increased stretch of roads (km), absence of road safety officials and the blatant disregard for road safety measures aimed at ensuring safety on the roads. Based on the findings, recommendations were advised on how to reduce the phenomenon of traffic accidents in Ghana particularly in the Greater Accra region.
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Modeling of Road Accidents Impact of Traffic Parameters

Modeling of Road Accidents Impact of Traffic Parameters

authority of Victoria (Australia), collects data from the loop detectors on the selected roadway. VicRoads also provided detailed road accident information. Bureau of Meteorology (Australia) is responsible for collecting rainfall data from three weather stations near the selected roadway. These three weather stations are View bank (Apsana), Scoresby Research Institute and Melbourne regional office. Traffic, rainfall and accidents data used in this study are from September 2007 till June 2010 which is approximately three years. The minute-by-minute traffic data is aggregated to 5 minutes intervals, rainfall intensity data are being kept as hourly data and categorical crash data with specific crash time and locations are used for the analysis. Categorical crash data are set as a binary variable such as: Accident = „yes‟, if there was an accident or Accident = „no‟, if there was no accident at the given time and location. These three data types are used to prepare an aggregated database of 5 minute interval including date, hour, minute, detector location, traffic flow, speed and rainfall intensity during the hour and accident. Data fusion module was developed using programming language Perl.
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Ocular injuries in road traffic accidents: a study

Ocular injuries in road traffic accidents: a study

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “OCULAR INJURIES IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS - A STUDY” presented here is the bonafide original work done by Dr.T.KAVITHA, in the Department of Ophthalmology, Government Stanley Medical College, Chennai – 600 001, in partial fulfillment of the regulations for the M.S. DEGREE OPHTHALMOLOGY Examination of the Tamil Nadu Dr.MGR Medical University to be held in April 2012.

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Psychiatric morbidity following road traffic accidents

Psychiatric morbidity following road traffic accidents

As revealed by this thesis, existing diagnostic classifications for PTSD have not been entirely appropriate for the classification of PTSD following road traffic accidents, particularly minor accidents. The stressor criterion in particular has been inappropriate. This has been addressed to some extent, since the commencement of this thesis, by the introduction of D S M IV , the fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association in 1994. This classification now defines the stressor criterion as ...."confronted actual or threatened death, serious injury or threat to physical integrity of oneself . . . and to have responded with intense fear, helplessness or horror”. This has removed the problem of the severity criterion of the stressor and allows for the victim’s perception of the event to be taken into account. Apart from other refinements, D S M IV includes a criterion (F) that... "the disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning". It also includes the concept of a chronic condition if the duration of symptoms last three months or more. Further research requires to be undertaken to assess the applicability of these criteria to the diagnosis of PTSD in relation to road traffic accidents.
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The forensic reconstruction of road traffic accidents

The forensic reconstruction of road traffic accidents

by Eichberger, Schimpl, Werber & Steffan (2007) focused on “frontal impact, small overlap” collisions. Here the Austrian database of car-to-car crashes was studied, paying attention to ‘near head-on’ accidents. It was pointed out this is circa 9% of all the recorded traffic accidents. Using PC-Crash, it was shown that these type of crashes were quite dangerous due to lack of energy absorption in this direction impact, combined with chance of wheel ‘rim locking’. When this occurs, the front wheels of two impacted vehicles interlock, bringing about a high risk of severe injury in this type of crash. A following paper on pure frontal-impact simulation using PC-Crash was given by Eichberger, Hirschberg & Cresnik (2008). This study matched the data of the model to a two-car collision, looking at several ways in which the deceleration of the vehicle and subsequent passenger could be modified to yield safer crashes. Several suggestions were given, although a helpful table included in the paper produced a data set of crush zone stiffness of vehicle bodies, indexed by vehicle class.
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Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Seasonal Traffic Accidents

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Seasonal Traffic Accidents

The results show that crash patterns vary according to the specific season. This allows transportation planners to focus on specific areas and at a specific time of year. For instance, the number of traffic accident clusters is relatively high in the summer and fall respectively. During these periods, traffic accidents frequently occurred in the downtown area and along the main roadways. Also, the results indicate that the approach is useful for identifying season-related hotspot locations. Finding these locations can help transportation authorities and planners to more efficiently allocate their limited budgets and traffic safety resources. In addition, the effect of taking the crash severity into consideration was examined by comparing the comap results from simple crash counts (Experiment I) with the results using weights based on severity (Experiment II). The comparison showed that Experiment II very clearly revealed the effect of a single fatal or injury crash on the pattern.
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Spatial analysis of traffic accidents based on WaveCluster and vehicle communication system data

Spatial analysis of traffic accidents based on WaveCluster and vehicle communication system data

According to the traffic accident incidence data of some traffic police brigade in Beijing in each month from 2015 to 2018, this paper firstly uses wavelet decomposition method to decompose the time series of traffic accident occurrence and further explores the spatial differenti- ation pattern of traffic accident occurrence based on the decomposed wavelet coefficient and k-means clustering. The results show that traffic accident spaces of the same category (traffic police brigade) are similar in the law of occurrence, which is due to the fact that the spaces close to the occurrence of traffic accidents are more similar in social and environmental conditions, and more adjacent in geographical space. The space of high-incidence cases usually has complex traffic demands, lack of traffic facil- ities, large difference in driver quality, complex traffic environment, and the security level needs to be im- proved. And the space of low-incidence cases mainly is distributed in suburb areas and core area. This is be- cause the suburb areas of various kinds of roads in the outer suburbs and counties are relatively low, which ob- viously lead to traffic participants paying more attention to traffic safety, a small floating population, the pilot
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Algorithms for the Prediction of Traffic Accidents

Algorithms for the Prediction of Traffic Accidents

In this paper, we used the association rules to analyze the relationship between the influencing factors of traffic accidents collected data, and proposed a minimal Support calculation method based on frequent item set. The results of the experiments show that the three methods are effective. Based on these methods, an algorithm for the prediction of traffic accidents using association rules is proposed, which helps to promote the application of association rule mining in the existing intelligent transportation systems. Through the strong rules which contain the association among influencing factors of traffic accidents, we can understand the accident scenes, so additional warning signs can be added to reduce the accidents, and ultimately improve the city's traffic safety level.
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Algorithms for the Prediction of Traffic Accidents

Algorithms for the Prediction of Traffic Accidents

rule that generated various frequent item sets. The strong hidden rules in these frequent item sets usually uncover the association between factors influencing the traffic accidents, which may be used to reduce the occurrence of accidents by breaking them. The hidden rules can be used probe usual scenes of accidents and a few corresponding security improvement measures can be taken to prevent the accidents, and ultimately improve the city's traffic safety level. General speaking, association rule can produce lots of weak rules, the study designed a way to calculate minimal Support value of training parameters, and further a way to extract strong hidden rules automatically. The results of the experiments show that the proposed methods in the paper are effective. Therefore, Algorithms for prediction of traffic accidents using association rules was finally established to promote the effective application of association rule on intelligent system.
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An Appraisal of Socio-Economic Impacts of Commercial Motorcyles in Gombe State, Nigeria

An Appraisal of Socio-Economic Impacts of Commercial Motorcyles in Gombe State, Nigeria

Ikot et al. (2011) examined the implications of banning commercial motorcycles in Uyo metropolis of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The authors applied stratified random sampling to select 100 respondents. The results revealed that despite the efforts made by the government in solving the problems of intra-city transportation within Uyo municipality, the spate of insecurity and crime in the state may not be unconnected with the recent ban of commercial motorcyclists. Therefore, the study recommended among others that government should create more job opportunities as well as skill acquisition centers so as to be able to carter for themselves and their families. Moreover, Michael et al. (2013) applied simple percentages and chi-square to examine the implications associated with the abolition of commercial motorcyclists as a means of transportation and its effect on criminality in Calabar, Cross Rivers, Nigeria for the randomly selected 984 respondents. The findings revealed that factors such as upsurge in criminal activities rise in traffic accidents, traffic congestion and recklessness on the part of riders among others account for the abolition of commercial motorcycles business as a means of transportation in Calabar metropolis. The results also showed an increase in criminal activities such as armed robbers, pick-pocketing and snatching of valuables as a result of abolition of commercial riders.
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A study of proportion, pattern of injuries and associated factors in motor cycle accidents among the medical college students, Bellary, Karnataka

A study of proportion, pattern of injuries and associated factors in motor cycle accidents among the medical college students, Bellary, Karnataka

world. In younger age group 15-29 years road traffic accidents are second leading cause of death worldwide. From a young age, males are more likely to be involved in road traffic crashes than females. In India during the year 2011, a total of 4.4 lac road traffic accidents were reported in the country. 22.4% of victims of road traffic accidents were occupants of two wheelers. Maximum number of accidents occurred between 3 pm and 6 pm time period. [3]

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Estimate mortality rate by using kaplan meier estimator among accidental data at Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

Estimate mortality rate by using kaplan meier estimator among accidental data at Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

Road traffic accidents which are generally unintentional and avoidable are a common risk every day to life that can happen to almost everyone at anywhere. The problem of road traffic accident is increase then turn out to be a threat to public health and national development in many developing countries [1].Worldwide, the number of people killed in road traffic accidents (RTA) every year is estimated to be almost 1.2 million, while the number of injured could be as high as 50 million [2].Road traffic accidents are considered as one of the major causes of death and injuries in Malaysia [3].Batu Pahat is categorized among the highest accident rates in Malaysia. Thus, while medical science has occupied the ravages of many diseases, accidents have become a new epidemic of public health importance that requires the same effort for control and prevention.Usually, people only concerned about the mortality rate among diseases but they are engrossed that mortality rate among accident also should be determine so that people will not underestimate about road accident [4]. This study focuses on the number of road accidents occurring in BatuPahat.The targets of this study are any residents in Batu Pahat that involved in road accident. Road accident‟s data will be obtained from Traffic Police Station in Batu Pahat. The road accident‟s data that will be obtained are related to the time the accident occurred.
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An expressway traffic incident detection method based on Convolutional Neural Network and Extreme Gradient Boosting

An expressway traffic incident detection method based on Convolutional Neural Network and Extreme Gradient Boosting

Abstract:Accurate and efficient traffic incident detection methods can effectively alleviate traffic congestion caused by traffic incidents, prevent secondary accidents and improve the safety of urban road traffic.Aiming at the problems that the traditional machine learning event detection method cannot fully extract the parameter characteristics of traffic flow and is not suitable formulti-dimensional and non-linear massive data, we propose a new traffic event detection method(CNN-XGBoost).This method combines the respective advantages of Convolution Neural Network(CNN) and Extreme Gradation Boosting (XGBoost). Firstly, we preprocessed the original freeway traffic incident detection data set by constructing initial variable set, data normalization, data balance processing and dimension reorganization. Secondly,we use CNN network to automatically extract the deep features of event detection data, and use XGBoost as a classifier to classify the extracted features for expressway traffic event detection.Finally, we use the data set of Hangzhou expressway microwave detector in China to carry out simulation experiments on CNN-XGBoost. The experimental results show that compared with XGBoost , CNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Gradient Boosting Decision Tree (GBDT) and other methods , CNN-XGBoost method can effectively improve the accuracy of expressway traffic event detection and has better generalization ability.
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Traffic Safety on the Roads of Republika Srpska

Traffic Safety on the Roads of Republika Srpska

Abstract The monitoring and analysis of traffic safety is an important part of a process in the area of traffic safety control. In a relatively long period of time, based on the analysis in a real time frame, there can be seen some changes of parameters in traffic safety which gives us the insight in the success of so far activities and the prediction of future traffic accidents can be done. Based on the most recent experience and best practices, it is desirable to analyze as many cases as we can in order to understand and interpret the tendencies in traffic safety correctly. However, this requires the constant monitoring of cases, examination of general tendencies and their analyses. This paper analyses the indicators of traffic safety (the number of traffic accidents with casualties, the number of killed and injured) from 2012 to 2017 on the roads of Republika Srpska entity. Special attention, beside traffic accidents, is given to regulations, the costs of traffic accidents and to the performance audit.
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Bus Driver Fatigue Monitoring And Accident Alert System Based On Analysis Of Eye State

Bus Driver Fatigue Monitoring And Accident Alert System Based On Analysis Of Eye State

Now a day‟s traffic is a main problem on roads and causes many accidents. Driver‟s fatigue is one of the major causes of traffic accidents, particularly for drivers of large vehicles. It causes heavy loss of civilians. In this paper, we propose a vision-based fatigue detection system for bus driver monitoring, which is easy and flexible for deployment in buses and large vehicles. This project reduces those types of accidents. By using sensors and microcontroller we can detect driver fatigue state. In this project we are used mems, eye blink sensors Ardunio, relays as hard ware components and wireless data transfer technologies. In this project we have used Ardunio microcontroller. Microcontroller detects the sensor signal. Depending on the sensor values microcontroller turns on the buzzer if any accidents occurred then it sends the longitude, latitude positions of the location through GSM. The experimental output shows the advantages of the system on accuracy and robustness for the situations used for driving state monitoring.
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