air quality management

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Can air quality management drive sustainable fuels management at the temperate wildland–urban interface?

Can air quality management drive sustainable fuels management at the temperate wildland–urban interface?

In addition to aesthetic concerns [48], a major constraint on mechanical thinning is the cost, which exceeds that of using prescribed fire, albeit this depends on any income received from harvested trees, and whether fire is used to reduce fine fuel loads [64,65]. One critical contributor to high mechanical thinning costs is the lack of market for the woody debris that cannot be used for lumber or paper production. In principle, it is possible to use these fuels to produce bioenergy that could be used for domestic and industrial purposes, including water heating, space heating, and electricity generation in surrounding communities [64,66,67]. Both mechanical thinning and bioenergy production are mature technologies, but they are rarely combined to manage wildfire risk because of the economic constraints and lack of incentives [64]. In British Columbia, transportation costs and harvesting fees applied to low-value woody debris create barriers to the development of a robust bioenergy industry. Reforms are needed to generate incentives for innovative use of woody debris to simultaneously reduce wildfire risks and smoke pollution. A similar argument can be made for policy reforms in forest practice and air quality management, combined with incentives and commercial innovation to phase out slash burning, which periodically causes severe air pollution.
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Progress with air quality management in the 60 years since the UK clean air act, 1956  Lessons, failures, challenges and opportunities

Progress with air quality management in the 60 years since the UK clean air act, 1956 Lessons, failures, challenges and opportunities

The 1997 National Air Quality Strategy [9], legislated by the 1995 Environment Act [10], provided a consistent UK approach to air quality management, committed to ensuring access for all citizens to outdoor air without significant health risk [9]. The Strategy identified national measures to tackle larger-scale issues such as vehicle fuel quality, engine technology standards and emissions from combustion processes whilst local air quality management became the remit of Local Governments recognising the importance of subsidiarity, and the need for proportionate, collaborative action that takes account of the local context. The Strategy set out the means to manage air quality and to protect health from the effects of air pollution through national and local-level action to comply with Air Quality Objectives (AQOs) for selected air pollutants: benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide [11]. Air Quality Objectives specified in the UK Air Quality Regulations [12] were set at levels below which effects are unlikely (even in sensitive groups) or the risk of an effect is exceedingly small.
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Effective tree species for local air quality management

Effective tree species for local air quality management

The major deposition process by which trees cap- ture particles is impaction in a turbulent airstream (Beckett et al. 1998). The complex and aerodynami- cally rough structure of many urban environments provide such conditions (Croxford et al. 1996). Similarly, although to a lesser degree, so do the open woodlands of many rural areas (Manning and Feder 1980). The turbulent eddy currents created by the bluff interface between urban features such as roads and buildings are an example of a localized situation in which impaction, and therefore capture efficiency, is likely to be maximized. Knowledge of these effects has important implications for the positioning of ur- ban trees for effective particle interception (Beckett et al. 1998). On a suburban scale, this means that the effective use of shelterbelt and woodland plant- ing can facilitate an improvement in the air quality of target (e.g., residential) areas (Broadmeadow et al. 1998).
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Air Pollution Monitoring using GIS and Wireless Networking for Air Quality Management

Air Pollution Monitoring using GIS and Wireless Networking for Air Quality Management

The array of sensor consist of three sensors used to detect carbon monoxide ,carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide in air .for example MQ- 7 Sensor measure the CO percentage from 20ppm to 2000ppm in air .Each of above sensor has a linear current output in the range of 4ma-20ma .the value 4mA Corresponds Zero level gas and 20mA corresponds high level gas at (+5v).A simple Signal Conditioning circuit is designed to convert 4mA-20mA ranges into 0-5V to be compatible with voltage range of the built in analog to digital converter in the microcontroller .
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Mathematical and statistical modelling for air quality management

Mathematical and statistical modelling for air quality management

UPE. However, when th e shape p aram eter is decreased to 0.5, power is reduced sub­ stantially. KS and CHI have significantly higher probabilities for rejecting th e false distributions when th e value of th e shape p aram eter is 0.9, as com pared w ith th e cases when th e tru e d istrib u tio n s are th e two- or three-p aram eter gam m a and W eibull dis­ tributions. However, th e false th ree-p aram eter gam m a distribution will be frequently accepted by KS and CHI tests if th e shape p aram eter is decreased to 0.5. U PE has the worst. It is in terestin g to note th a t, of the tw o-param eter distributions, th e two- p aram eter lognorm al distrib u tio n is th e best approxim ation to th e three-param eter lognormal. Based on these results, it is clear th a t, no m a tte r which three-param eter distribution is tru e , th e tw o-param eter lognorm al will always be a good representation of th e d a ta if selection is restricted to tw o-param eter distributions and th e sam ple d ata are quite skewed. These sim ulation results are consistent w ith th e recom m endations of m any air pollution specialists (for exam ple, Larsen (1971,1974) and B enarie (1980)) th a t the tw o-param eter lognorm al distrib u tio n is th e best for fitting urb an air pollutant concentrations. However, care should still be exercised because th e tw o-param eter ver­ sion m ight not be th e best if alternative th ree-p aram eter distributions are under serious consideration.
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URBAN AIR QUALITY MODELING AND MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING CITIES

URBAN AIR QUALITY MODELING AND MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING CITIES

Air quality management is an upcoming field in Kolhapur, and technical expertise available for this purpose is limited. Pollutants from automobile sources are emitted near large number of people. As source- receptor distances are short, resulting concentrations can be high and may affect health of the people adversely. Proposed research work is aimed at a systematic evaluation of the current air pollution scenarios and to identify factors influencing air quality in streets of Kolhapur city. Such research work shall also contribute to identify, develop and demonstrate solutions that will lay the foundation for successful application of urban air quality models and still further to develop policy implications to improve air quality in Kolhapur.
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Statistical Air Pollution Index (API) for Trinidad and Tobago Based on Observed  Data on Trinidad’s West Coast

Statistical Air Pollution Index (API) for Trinidad and Tobago Based on Observed Data on Trinidad’s West Coast

In the immediate future, the API calculated from air pollution measured in real time can be made available to the public on social and digital media plat- forms, e.g. on the Trinidad and Tobago Meteorological Service website, on the EMA’s website, on the news programs, accompanied by advisories for the public for the protection of public health. In the short to medium term, the changes in the air quality should be the main feedback loop for assessing the effectiveness of environmental and air quality management and remediation strategies and poli- cies, in accordance with the national sustainability goals (Ministry of Planning and Development, GoTT, 2017). It is anticipated that the increased public awareness of the air quality will grow the impetus to push the revision of the current legislature towards air quality standards that are in line with the best available research and the protection of public health.
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The Bristol method: How to reduce traffic and its impacts

The Bristol method: How to reduce traffic and its impacts

In October 2014, Bristol City Council hosted an international Masterclass on urban air quality in the run up to Bristol’s year as 'Green Capital of Europe 2015'. Bristol was asked by the current winners of the award, Copenhagen, to host an event to bring together policymakers, air quality experts, academics and practitioners to identify and explore the current challenges. The event included an interactive session, which informed a collective report on the experiences and opportunities for air quality management in European cities. The Air Quality Management Resource Centre at the University of the West of England (UWE) booked high-profile speakers from across Europe and the event was opened by the Mayors of Bristol and Copenhagen and chaired by air quality researchers from UWE. Topics included:  EU Policy on air quality,
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													Hygienic and management plan of indoor air quality in elementary school

1. Hygienic and management plan of indoor air quality in elementary school

In recent years, sick house and new building syndromes resulting from indoor pollution have become social concerns due to their influence on the wellbeing of the people of Korea (1-2). Children are about 40 percent more likely to be influenced by air quality during the day, especially in rural areas (60 ~ 70 ㎡) (3). This is because children are more susceptible to disease than are adults, so they are more susceptible to pollutants (4-5). Elementary students are especially health-conscious because they are in a developing state and have insufficient resistance to disease. In addition, indoor air pollution (from sources such as furniture, adhesives, plastics, dust, paint, and wallpaper, is more serious than outside air pollution (such as soot emitted from a vehicle) (6-7). Therefore, indoor air quality management is urgently needed. In January 2006, the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development implemented the School Health Law on Indoor Air Quality, and the schools that were newly built, renovated, and expanded within 3 years were exposed to formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) (School Health Law, 2006). However, nationwide surveys are lacking, and the rate of respiratory diseases due to exposure to environmental pollutants is increasing (9). There are many kinds of pollutants emitted within the indoor spaces of schools. According to the National Health and Nutrition Survey, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Korea has increased 13 times from 1.2% in 1998 to 15.7% in 2010, and the prevalence of asthma has increased more than three times from 1.2% in 1998 to 3.7% (10-11). The incidence of atopic diseases in Korea is higher than that of other diseases. For asthma, the prevalence rate in patients under 10 years of age is 36.4%, among those over 70 years 13.0%, and it is 10.9% among those in their 50s (12-13).
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Vol 8, No 1 (2018)

Vol 8, No 1 (2018)

Now days the word ARE YOU GREEN has become a phone call word in all fields. The word is very much concerned over world-wide warming and its objective to save the planet.“GREEN” -----The word is very much concerned over global warming and Green Design is an emerging trend for library building too. Explains term”Green” and special challenges met by Libraries to be Green. Points out steps are involved such as: Site Selection, Water and Energy Conservation, building materials and indoor Air quality, management of space occupancy and saving of light energy and efficient operational issues. This paper discusses on various aspects of Green Libraries space planning and its digital facility and its process. Suggests for proper planning of building with solar energy system and roof water harvesting etc. Libraries are so valuable that they attract voracious new competition with every technological advance. Green buildings are not only saving money interms of energy but also interms of health productivity, it gives less expensive because of reduced upfront costs energy and water conservation and increased efficiency. Green approach to Library buildings recognizes the critical importance of protecting building occupants healthy and dressing factors such as Air quality and light also.
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The Impact of the Unified Vehicular Volume Reduction Program (UVVRP) in Reducing Air Pollution

The Impact of the Unified Vehicular Volume Reduction Program (UVVRP) in Reducing Air Pollution

The researchers gathered their quantitative data from government institutions and an international institution. For the UVVRP, the researchers used the number of violators for the Unified Vehicular Volume Reduction Program in Metro Manila. MMDA only publishes the number of violators on a monthly basis due to the length of time needed for processing the application of the driver’s license for the violators, starting from the day of confiscation of the driver’s license to the day of repossession of the driver’s license, which was usually a month-long procedure. Fuel price data was collected from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), called OPEC Basket Price (OBP) as petroleum products were imported from these countries (ex. Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates). OBP is the weighted average oil prices for oil-producing country members of OPEC, measured in dollars per barrel. For the congestion variable, we used the Traffic Advisory announcement of the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) as an auxiliary for congestion. There were five degrees of traffic used by MMDA, namely light traffic, light to moderate traffic, moderate traffic, moderate to heavy traffic and heavy traffic. We assumed that this could be treated as a categorical variable and assigned increasing numerical values as the degree of traffic increased. Data for air pollution was obtained from the Air Quality Management Section of the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB- AQMS), an enforcement and implementation arm of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) in compliance with the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999. The EMB-AQMS recently shifted from Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) to Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 (ug/Ncu.m) (PM-10) (Environmental Protection Agency). Although EMB-AQMS releases a daily monitoring status of air pollution around Metro Manila, these data are subject to the National Ambient Air Quality Guideline’s Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC), which only publishes a monthly average of the continuous ambient air quality.
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Air quality, cars and health in Bristol

Air quality, cars and health in Bristol

• Local Authorities conduct review & assessment of air quality, declare Air Quality Management Areas and develop Air Quality Action Plans. • “the application of a systematic approac[r]

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Assessment of the Health Risk Related to Air Pollution in Selected Polish Health Resorts

Assessment of the Health Risk Related to Air Pollution in Selected Polish Health Resorts

One of the tools aiding the processes of air quality management in Polish resorts is conduct- ing the air quality assessments in accordance with the current legal regulations, such as the 27 April 2001 act – Polish Environmental Protection Act [Journal of Laws, 2018, item 799, as amended], or Regulations of the Polish Minister of the Envi- ronment from 8 June, 2018 regarding the assess- ment of levels of substances in the air [Journal of Laws, 2018, item 1119] and from August 24, 2012 on the concentrations of some substances in the air [Journal of Laws, 2012, item 1031]. These regula- tions are adapted and compatible with those deter- mined in the EU documents, especially in direc- tives 2008/50/WE [Official Journal of the EU L. 152 of 11.06.2008] as well as 2004/107/WE [Of- ficial Journal EU L 23 of 26.01.2005]. The analy- sis of air quality was conducted as a part of State Environment Monitoring (SEM) [Chief Inspector for Environmental Protection. 2015], which is overseen by the Chief Inspectorate for Environ- ment Protection (CIEP). SEM is the source of in- formation about the environment, stemming from the measurements and evaluations of its state, as well as the analysis on the impact of different fac- tors, including human activity. In the case of air quality, the evaluation is conducted via a network of measurements of the selected air pollutants concentrations, complemented with the tech- niques of mathematical modelling and objective estimation. The monitoring research is conducted in a cyclical manner, using uniform methods of gathering, storing and processing data. An impor- tant matter concerning NEM is the use of refer- ential measurement methods or equivalent ones with proven accordance to referential methods, as well as designing and maintaining a system of measurements quality control and assurance. The results of measurements and forecasts are also used for the on-going air quality management on a local level, for example by implementing and starting short-term action during the episodes of high pollution concentrations, directly threaten- ing the health of inhabitants. In such situations, an important feature of monitoring and modelling is informing and warning the society, particularly important for the sensitive groups (e.g. children, the elderly or the ill).
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Environmental Research Newsletter June 1997 No  19

Environmental Research Newsletter June 1997 No 19

European Environmental Policy and Law Food Quality Management Assessment and Control of Chemical Hazards Occupational Health, Hygiene, Safety Module Air Quality Management Concepts and I[r]

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Managing Ambient Air Quality Using Ornamental Plants An Alternative Approach

Managing Ambient Air Quality Using Ornamental Plants An Alternative Approach

Abstract Air quality management involves the determination of the relative contribution of current or future source emissions at receptor sites to ground level pollutant concentrations coupled with implementation of effective management plan to reduce emission level. From the last few decades, urban air pollution has become an inevitable issue for its possible consequences on public health. In order to manage the ambient air quality, there are several methodologies with each having some specific advantages and constrains. Improvement of ambient air quality involves the basic approaches like emission reduction at source level, conversion of pollutants to a less damaging compounds and sequestration of pollutants. However, in order to manage the air quality, application of ornamental plants may be considered a well alternative approach. Although, it may not be imperative to consider plants as a sole alternative for urban ambient air quality management, but certainly it may useful to manage air quality for a small confined area, especially in case of indoor air. This paper reviews the possible application of ornamental plants, which may be trees, shrubs or herbs for its possible applications to regulate air quality. Some selective plant species has also been recommended based on its air pollution tolerance index.
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Report on process and outcomes of questionnaire and workshop elements of consultation for the development of Reading Borough Council’s climate change strategy and air quality action plan

Report on process and outcomes of questionnaire and workshop elements of consultation for the development of Reading Borough Council’s climate change strategy and air quality action plan

Whilst workshop participants were generally correct in answering questions about the impacts of air quality and climate change, there was a tendency to over state the role of road transport in climate change related emissions compared to commercial and business sources. However, this provided clear opportunities to illustrate the fact that although many elements of air quality management can be linked with climate change, there is not a complete overlap between the two issues. For example, some areas such as commercial electricity usage have no impact on local air quality in Reading but form a very significant part of the town’s carbon footprint.
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Urban Air Pollution Trend In India - Present Scenario

Urban Air Pollution Trend In India - Present Scenario

The World Health Organization estimates that air pollution contributes to approximately 800,000 deaths and 4.6 million lost life years annually [10]. Developing nations are particularly affected by air pollution; as many as two thirds of the deaths and lost life years associated with air pollution on a global scale occur in Asia[11]. To date, estimates of the health effects resulting from exposure to air pollution in Asia have relied largely on the extrapolation of results from research conducted outside Asia primarily in Europe and North America [9]. India need to generate regular information on the ambient concentration levels of small particulates of diameter less than 10 micron and/or 2.5 micron and take urgent steps to control emissions of these particles [12].
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Internet of Things for Smart City and Villages

Internet of Things for Smart City and Villages

Smart Health Care: Currently, worldwide with increase in the aging population and the need to provide immediate preventive care has inundated the responsibilities of care centers and hospitals. Numerous countries are undergoing hospital restructuring by reducing the number of hospital beds and promoting home healthcare, which is envisioned to improve health care cost with emphasis on quality. This trend relies on adding intelligence through sensors (RFID) that are the data provides, embedded computing resource (Motes, NodeMCU, Bio implanted devices), wireless technologies with tailored combination networks (Bluetooth, Zigbee, GSM) and web or cloud services for archiving, scheduling and processing workload results for right diagnosis.
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A Survey Paper on Spatial - Temporal Outliers Influencing Air Quality

A Survey Paper on Spatial - Temporal Outliers Influencing Air Quality

Of the total 56 cities covered for calculation of AQI during March 2016, 22 cities revealed good air quality, 38 cities revealed satisfactory air quality, 37 cities revealed moderate air quality, 14 cities indicate poor air quality, 5 cities showed very poor air quality and 2 cities indicate severe air quality. At present, continuous air quality monitoring stations are connected to the web-based system from 23 cities. Central Pollution Control Board has initiated National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP; manual monitoring system) in the year 1984. Under NAMP, three air pollutants viz., Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Particulate Matter size equal to or less than 10 micron (PM10), have been identified for regular monitoring at all the locations. The NAMP network presently comprises 614 operating monitoring stations located in 254 cities/towns in 29 states and 5 union territories across the country. National AQI bulletin was calculated for the month of March 2016 for 13 states covering 56 cities at 128 locations / ambient air quality monitoring stations with 1131 AQI values.
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ASSESSMENT OF AIR QUALITY BY AIR QUALITY INDEX OF AN URBAN AREA OF ARID ZONE OF INDIA

ASSESSMENT OF AIR QUALITY BY AIR QUALITY INDEX OF AN URBAN AREA OF ARID ZONE OF INDIA

Air Pollution become a major problem worldwide raising several issues for wellbeing and survival of human as well as environment. Sulphur dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Suspended particulate matter and Respirable particulate matter are some of the major air pollutants. Present study has been carried out in Patan city, located in Gujarat state. Air samples were collected to evaluate major air pollutants like SO 2 , NO X , SPM and RSPM from four

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