of the drug/insecticides administered to control them. So is the case with the power pilferers who reorient themselves to overcome/thwart the imposed mechanism of theft control by way of adopting suitable means (by using smart energy meter clandestinely). Besides, the feasibility of the system for practical applications is bit doubtful because so far the use of smart energy meter is limited in the country. Most of the villages, including semi-urban townships are still not using smart energy meters. In the recent past, a paper on the detection and elimination of theft using a combination of ZigBee and cycloconverter has been published . In this work while transmission of data pertaining to power theft was carried out by using a device called ZigBee, the attendant elimination of theft was carried out by using cycloconverter, a device used for generating frequency distortion. In another similar work  cycloconverter has also been used for elimination of theft. In both the above cases, low frequency is used for damaging the appliances drawing illegal power. However, in the former case, the ZigBee used has a low transmission rate and cannot be used as an outdoor wireless device for communication system due to its short coverage limit. Therefore, apparently it cannot be a viable and pragmatic approach for power theft detection as well as elimination. Moreover, in both the system where they have used cycloconverter, the damage inflicted to the device drawing illegal power is not full proof because both the papers failed to demonstrate the real-time application of the working prototype.
Prevalence of G6PD deficiency and CYP2D6 polymor- phisms in a population are thus important considerations for public health interventions involving the deployment of 8-aminoquinoline drugs like PQ . In sub-Saharan Africa, prevalence of G6PD deficiency is estimated to range between 5 and 37.5% , and CYP2D6 allele fre- quencies range from 1 to 33% . South Africa has previously (1940s–1980s) reported fewer cases of G6PD deficiency (5.3%) [29, 30] and CYP2D6 (2.6%)  muta- tions compared to its neighbouring countries, most likely a consequence of genetic differences among the dis- tinct ethnic groups [32, 33]. However, recent population movements and immigration  may have led to shifts in the frequency of the enzyme deficiency and CYP2D6 variants across the country. Due to a paucity of current data, regionally-relevant evidence of G6PD deficiency and CYP2D6 variant metrics are needed. These will inform implementation of single low-dose PQ policy in pre-elimination settings within South Africa.
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These models give more or less similar predictions on the number of treatment rounds that will be required for elimination, at least in Puducherry-like situations. Recently two models for lymphatic filariasis transmission and control, LYMFASIM and EPIFIL that have been used in predicting the impact of mass treatment programmes. The models differ however in defining when elimination occurs, which leads to different advice on the duration of mass treatment. In view of current elimination programmes, thereby, it is crucial to obtain better criteria for when to stop control, taking account of stochasticity in the eventual outcome of elimination. Antigen tests should be included in the model, and the disease part of the models may need more attention. Model variants that are adjusted to local situations are powerful tools to aid decision- making in current control programmes.
Alternative drugs or therapies can also be applied to areas where CDTI cannot be implemented effectively [71, 85, 127], or in areas where program implementa- tion is considered to be insufficient . New therapies to eliminate onchocerciasis have also been developed [46, 139]. After decades of clinical trials [198–200], the United States Food and Drug Adminis- tration (US FDA) has approved moxidectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis [201–204]. Moxidectin has superior clinical efficacy [183, 198] and a better safety profile compared to ivermectin [46, 200]. This could potentially improve a community’s participation during MDA, particularly regarding systematic non-compliers . If made available to endemic countries, moxi- dectin could help to accelerate the progress toward onchocerciasis elimination , including in those areas with suboptimal responses to ivermectin . Another alternative antibiotic targeting Wolbachia en- dosymbionts of O. volvulus could also be used within test-and-not-treat strategies , primarily in areas co- endemic with loiasis . This can be achieved using doxycycline, which is currently the only usable macro- filaricide . Vector control, using WHO approved and environmentally safe insecticides , is also a known alternative strategy for eliminating the black fly or reducing its density to levels where the disease is eliminated . Therefore, localized vector control could be considered in high-transmission settings where MDA alone is not sufficient to interrupt trans- mission of the parasite  and areas where onchocer- ciasis is co-endemic with loiasis . The WHO/ APOC guide for decision making and implementation of vector control as ATSs for elimination of onchocer- ciasis (WHO/MG/15.22) also recommends the imple- mentation of vector control as an alternative strategy to accelerate the elimination of onchocerciasis .
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The primary indicators have included skin snip microscopy, involving the examination of a skin biopsy for direct diagnosis of micro ﬁ laridermia using a light microscope, and the DEC Patch test , which involves the topical application of DEC to provoke a localized Mazzotti reaction and indirect diagnosis of Onchocerca micro ﬁ laridermia. However, skin snips have low sensitivity in areas with low infection intensity , and for several months following ivermectin treatment when micro ﬁ laridermia has been reduced or cleared. Furthermore, skin snipping is painful and has been rejected by entire communities [55,56]. DEC patch tests are less invasive and may be more acceptable to communities, but the sensitivity has been variable, and will likely also decrease following MDA. Secondary clinical indicators and tools include examination of the skin to identify pruritic and atrophic skin lesions, and of the eyes to identify mf in the anterior chamber of the eye by slit lamp. The examination of onchocercal nodules has been used to estimate infection prevalence in villages for mapping purposes, and involves palpating a proportion of adult men to determine the level of onchocerciasis endemicity, that is, Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO) . Nodule palpation is not suitable for diagnosis due to the presence of deeper and impalpable nodules that may be missed, and the potential for misclassi ﬁ cation of lumps and bumps that resemble nodules . Ultrasound of nodules can also be used to visualize adult O. volvulus worms, and has been used to con ﬁ rm infection or monitor treatment ef ﬁ cacy in clinical studies [59,60]. However, this technique has several limitations and is not used in onchocerciasis elimination programmes. Immunological indicators include the anti-Ov-16 ELISA for detecting IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant antigen Ov-16, which can detect exposure to O. volvulus and infection during the prepatent period, but cannot distinguish between current infection and historic exposure to the parasite. Molecular indicators include PCR for the detection of the O. volvulus O-150 tandem repeat DNA sequence to identify the presence of O. volvulus DNA in skin [61–63], and for xenomo- nitoring of the black ﬂy vector population . Entomological evaluation by O-150 PCR aims to determine the prevalence of the infective-L3 stage larvae by pool-screening hundreds of black ﬂ y heads using an O. volvulus-speci ﬁ c O-150 DNA probe .
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R OUTINE RUBELLA VACCINATION was begun in the United States in 1969 with the goal of preventing congenital rubella infection. In October 2004, 35 years after initiation of the program, an independent panel of international experts was convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess progress to- ward elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syn- drome (CRS). Based on available data, panel members concluded unanimously that rubella is no longer en- demic in the United States. The national objective of elimination of rubella and CRS by 2010 from the United States has been attained. 1
s.l., Anopheles dthali, Anopheles fluviatilis s.l., Anoph- eles stephensi, Anopheles superpictus and Anopheles pulcherrimus, where An. stephensi and An. culicifacies s.l. are the principal vectors of malaria [9, 11]. Minab is a malaria endemic focus in the south of Iran and local transmission occurs in this county. Vector control strat- egies including IRS, LLINs and larviciding are imple- mented as part of an integrated approach to malaria elimination in this area. In spite of these intervention measures, malaria continues to persist in the county. Vector control is an important approach in the global malaria control programme. However, the success of this approach is dependent on the accurate and up-to-date information on the bionomics of the species involved in malaria transmission. Moreover, to support the vector control measures, information on speciation and distri- bution of the malaria vectors is important to ascertain what type of elimination measures are most appropriate and for which area .
It is worth noting that the original de…nition of CD games cannot be expected to solve the problem of order dependence, because any …nite game is automatically a CD game under the usual weak dominance, as noticed by Jackson (1992, p.763). In this section, we thereby o¤er a stronger notion, called “CD* games” that escape from the problem of order dependence, regardless of what dominance relation is used. The concept of CD* games is designed to capture not only Jackson’s (1992) idea of “boundedness”that strategies are eliminated only by undominated strategies, but also it is immune from the problem of “discontinuity” at limit points as demonstrated in Example 4 (see also Example 6 below). The key point here is that the novel concept of CD* games implies Monotonicity*/Hereditarity* which in turn implies the order dependence. In …nite games, observe that the usual strict domination relation indeed satis…es a slightly stronger property than “closed under dominance”: every strictly dominated strategy x has a special kind of dominator y, which satis…es (i) x remains to be dominated by y in a reduced game that keeps x and y but removes some other strictly dominated strategies, and (ii) y is not strictly dominated in the reduced game. To put it another way, any dominated element, which is not eliminated at some stage of deletion, must admit an undominated dominator in the reduced game. One might conjecture that any iterated elimination procedure, regardless of what dominance relation is used, performs well in the class of CD* games that satisfy this stronger property of “closed under dominance*.” The example below explains this point for the weak dominance.
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Overfitting is sometimes a problem with greedy variable selection algorithms. Figures 4 and 5 show both the test and inner (training) cross-validation error rates for the selection algorithms on naive Bayes and C4.5 respectively. Solid lines indicate test error, while dashed lines indicate the inner cross-validation error. Notice that the test error is not always minimized with the final selections produced by RVErS. The graphs show that RVErS does tend to overfit naive Bayes, but not C4.5 (or at least to a lesser extent). Trace data from the other data sets agree with this conclusion. There are at least two possible explanations for overfitting by RVErS. One is that the tolerance level either causes the algorithm to continue eliminating variables when it should stop, or allows elimination of relevant variables. In either case, a better adjusted tolerance level should improve performance. The monks-2 data set provides an example. In this case, if the tolerance is set to zero, RVErS reliably finds variable subsets that produce low-error hypotheses with C4.5.
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The importance of a robust surveillance-response system at points of entry from areas with local malaria transmission, which facilitates swift treat- ment and follow-up of infected individuals and their environment, has been recognized (Cohen et al., 2009). Oman has been able to reduce im- ported cases through mass screening of individuals arriving at the airport from East African countries; those who test positive were treated for free and monitored for two weeks. Both Oman and the UAE have provided free treatment to everyone who tests positive, whether they are nationals or foreigners. Testing for malaria at entry points in Mauritius was shown to provide beneﬁts for investment, by maintaining elimination despite large cyclones in 1994 and 2002 that caused costly damage and an increase in the number of travellers arriving from malaria-endemic countries (Tatarsky et al., 2011; Aboobakar et al., 2012). Screening arriving passen- gers for malaria at the border points and obtaining a detailed travel history have been deployed to assess the impact of human population movement on malaria in Djibouti (Noor et al., 2011). Proactive prevention pro- grammes to screen all prospective immigrants for malaria infection in their home countries, rather than point of entry, signi ﬁ cantly reduced the numbers of imported infections in Kuwait (Iqbal et al., 2003). These approaches work well where border crossings are tightly controlled, but they may be of limited value in remote areas where people pass unchecked between countries.
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impact future budgetary allocations for the roll out of the SDSS in other malaria elimination sites, a univariate sensitivity analysis of cost components was performed. The analysis was conducted on cost data from each province, in line with previous cost analyses undertaken on malaria interventions [40,42]. Each cost category’s unit costs were increased/decreased by 20% to test their influence on the total cost in each province. In line with the WHO’s Guide to Cost-effectiveness Analysis, dis- count rates were tested at 0% and 5% . An alteration to the implementation model was also tested regarding the supervisory support visits, which at baseline included a site visit each year. This was tested with visits in only the first two years, assuming the integration of visits in years three, four and five within routine surveillance and evaluation activities. Results are displayed in a tornado diagram for each province. Ethical approval for access to financial data and analysis was obtained from the Univer- sity of Queensland, School of Population Health Research Ethics Committee, and the Solomon Islands National Health Research and Ethics Committee.
only related to our patients being seen by a paediatric dietitian with knowledge on the increased risk of develop- ing this deficiency, but also associated with the improved calcium content of over-the-counter milk alternatives . Selenium and zinc are important, indispensable trace elements for normal functioning of the human body, es- pecially during early childhood when growth velocity is high. Zinc is involved in protein synthesis, wound heal- ing and tissue maintenance and both are cofactors of an- tioxidative enzymes [34,35]. The persistent exposure to allergens can lead to chronic inflammatory changes of the mucosal intestinal lining and increased production of reactive oxidative species, leading to a weakened anti- oxidative barrier . Kamer et al.  found that chil- dren with both IgE and non-IgE mediated food allergy had lower concentrations of zinc and selenium prior to starting an elimination diet and levels improved follow- ing this intervention in comparison to healthy controls. Similarly Ojuwao et al.  found that children with al- lergic colitis had more frequent zinc and selenium defi- ciencies, indicating these trace elements are not only a concern when it comes to dietary intake in children with FPIGA, but deficiencies are also well documented due to the pathophysiology of this allergy. An Australian expert panel on CMPA highlighted other micronutrients (i.e. iron, folic acid and fat soluble vitamins) as a problem in food protein induced enteropathy, however this particular concern is not mentioned in other guidelines [7,15,37]. In addition to the well-described risks related to micronu- trient malabsorption in FPIGA, our data clearly indicates that if a food allergic child is not on a HF, that they would not only be at risk of a low intake of vitamin D and cal- cium, but also zinc and selenium, which are essential trace elements for the immune system.
While many of these measures will take time to be implemented, it is imperative that countries regularly monitor whether their MNT-elimination status is at risk. An annual review of a set of indicators that include the core (NT rate, TT2 + coverage in pregnant women, SBA coverage) and the surrogate (DTP3 coverage, antenatal care coverage, previous tetanus SIA coverage) indicators, district by district, will allow for assessment of whether in certain districts MNT incidence is possibly on the increase, and will help to identify low-performing districts, where children and women are at risk for tetanus, but most often also for other diseases.
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In conclusion, under the conditions and limitations of the study, the following conclusions were drawn. The vertical marginal gaps obtained in the ringless casting groups were signiﬁcantly less than those of the metal ring casting groups. There was no statistically signiﬁcant difference in the marginal gaps of castings obtained by the accelerated and conventional wax-elimination methods. The ringless casting technique can produce accurate and acceptable multiple-unit restorations in ﬁxed prosthodontics. The accelerated wax-elimination method can be used as a viable, time-saving alternative to the conventional wax-elimination method, provided that a protocol for its use is developed and strictly followed. The ringless casting technique can be combined with the accelerated wax- elimination method to offer a cost effective, clinically acceptable, and time-saving alternative for fabricating multiple-units castings in ﬁxed prosthodontics.
Results: The review identified three key themes in the literature: mobility, economic development and shifting land use; concerns about accessing mobile populations; and imported and border malaria. The review found that the literature treats mobile populations as a homogenous entity and is yet to develop a more accurate understanding of the true risks surrounding population mobility. Concerns about accessing mobile populations are overstated, and methods are suggested for working collaboratively with mobile populations. Finally, the review found that many concerns about mobile populations and imported malaria would be more productively framed as border health issues. Conclusion: The focus on mobile populations is both excessive and insufficiently examined within the current literature. By its very nature, population mobility requires malaria elimination programmes to look beyond isolated localities and demographic groups to respond to the interconnections that mobility creates between localities and population groups. Malaria programmes will gain greater clarity by refocusing the discussion away from mobile populations as a risk group and toward mobility as a system involving interconnected localities and multiple
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The following experiences show the application of constructed wetlands to wastewater of different nature to sewage, such as composting leachate, landfill leachate and wastewater from the pharmaceutical industry, which are more difficult to biodegrade than a domestic wastewater and achieving reasonable elimination results on the order of 74.5% of BOD and 53.7% of COD, for its application in composting leachates. In Isfahan, organic matter was removed from the leachate produced in the composting facility. The study was carried out in two horizontal flow wetlands with the dimensions of 1.5m x 0.5m x 0.5m. One of them was planted with Vetiveria zizanioides and the other wetland remained as control, without planting. They were operated with a leachate flow rate of 24 L / d for more than five months. The control wetland eliminated 21.8% of BOD5 and 26.2% of COD and the planted wetland eliminated 74.5% of BOD5 and 53.7% of COD . The removal efficiencies of two horizontal subsurface flow wetlands were also investigated by . One of downflow (F1) and the other of upflow (F2), both filled with the hybrid substrate zeolite-slag for the treatment of leachates in rural landfills. The results showed that constructed wetlands were able to eliminate the following range of COD, 20.5-48.2% (F1) and 18.6-61.2% (F2).  They applied an artificial subsurface flow wetland for the treatment of wastewater from a cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, using a system of rooted emergent macrophytes (Cyperus papyrus) for the removal of organic loads, the initial concentration of 92 mg / L of BOD5,20 is reduced to a concentration of 20 mg / L. The wetland showed a high efficiency in the removal of organic load of 79% of BOD5,20.
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On the one hand, T e and e = 〈T e 〉 entail T〈T e 〉 by =E; and on the other hand, T e entails T〈T e 〉 by TI. So =E has the same effect as TI, that is, =E and TI over- determine each other’s consequences in this case. Again, for TE, T〈T e 〉 and e = 〈T e 〉 entail T e by either =E and TE, so again =E has the same effect – the TE and =E rules overdetermine how the truth predicate is eliminated in this case. Al- though overdetermined, the introduction and elimination of truth was consis- tent; it is redundant in these cases. However, this overdetermination becomes inconsistent in the case of a dual Liar sentence. Paralleling the above entail- ments, on the one hand, ~T a and a = 〈~T a 〉 entail ~T〈~T a 〉 by =E, but on the other ~T a entails T〈~T a 〉 by TI. Furthermore, T〈~T a 〉 and a = 〈~T a 〉 entail T a by =E, but T〈~T a 〉 entails ~T a by TE. In these cases, =E is used to derive expres- sions that contradict the results of using TI and TE. This source of a Liar incon- sistency is avoided if the system is restricted to just one, non-redundant way of introducing and eliminating truth in the case of the Truth-teller that also re- stricts the correlative inferences made involving the Liar sentence in place of the Truth-teller. In a system with such a restriction, this source of contradiction goes away. Again, to be clear, the contradiction did not arise in cases of the Truth-teller where the use of =E redundantly duplicates what is derivable using TI or TE, the contradiction arises in the dual Liar cases where the use of =E entails expressions that contradict those derivable using TI and TE. Our logic is exposed to this contradiction because it has two rules for introducing and eliminating truth in hypodoxical cases that give different results in the paradoxical cases; so, if one of these rules is restricted so as not to overdetermine the results of introducing or eliminating truth in these hypodoxical cases, that same restriction avoids deriv- ing a contradiction in the dual Liar cases.
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Based on the equation of motion of specific resistances (equation 1), it is obvious that vari- ous driving resistances act on the vehicle at the same time. If we want to determine reliably the mechanical resistance by using the coastdown test, it is necessary to eliminate the effects of the remaining resistances. This can be achieved by carrying out the test at low initial speed of coastdown (elimination of air resistance) and on the test track which is as horizontal as possible (elimination of gradient resistance). Therefore, the coastdown test was carried out from the ini- tial speed of 15 km·h -1 till the vehicle stop. At
The causes of culling and mortality in dairy cows are associated with reproductive status and disorders [7–9], milk production , metabolic and post-partum disor- ders, mammary gland disorders and lameness [11–13]. A portion of culling and mortality events on dairy farms can be attributed to undesirable factors in the production system. These causes vary depending on age, parity and stage of lactation of the dairy cow [12, 14]. In some areas of the world, the proportion of dairy cows eliminated by a particular cause may vary throughout the year accord- ing to extrinsic factors on the farm, such as climate . Moreover, each farm has its own elimination policy for dairy cows and the percentage of animals involuntar- ily culled or dying on the farm is specific to each farm. Studying the causes and percentages of elimination and mortality at different times of the year can help identify seasonal problems in the production system. This type of analysis can also inform future investment decisions to improve animal welfare and production. Using the same criteria and analysis system is necessary to advice farm- ers and benchmark different farms. The main aim of the study was to describe the causes of culling and mortal- ity on selected high-producing dairy farms and establish benchmarking indicators.
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Moreover, melanoma cells exhibit a remarkable plasticity since isolated melanoma cells of different phenotypes can initiate new tumor lesions by asymmetric cell divisions when transplanted under appropriate conditions. Once established, however, a minor subset of melanoma cells seems to maintain tumor progression. A major implication thereof is that specific elimination of the minor side population with tumor progression capacities may be sufficient to shrink the tumor in the long term. The assumption is sustained by mathematical models implying that successful tumor therapy requires eradication of those stem cells to produce complete clinical response . A strong rationale for selective cancer cell elimination in melanoma therapy was most recently provided by the observation that targeted elimination of the less than 2% subset of CD20 + melanoma cells in a transplantation model