Architectural Styles

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A Method for Assessing Maintainability of Software Architectural Styles in Self-healing Systems by Measuring Coupling and Cohesion

A Method for Assessing Maintainability of Software Architectural Styles in Self-healing Systems by Measuring Coupling and Cohesion

An example is monitoring blood glucose levels of di- abetic patients; if, the glucose level sensor shows a sudden drop in the patient’s glucose, a signal will be sent to the respective actuator to begin the process of injecting insulin. In addition, a WBAN system can be used to help disabled persons. For example, a par- alyzed person can be equipped with:(1) sensors to help him/her in determining his/her location and (2) actuators to help him/her move [25]. In this section, software architectural styles for a WBAN system are considered (see Figure 5). Then, based on the mea- surement method introduced in Section 5, we measure the coupling and cohesion of the WBAN system in the presence of the three reference styles. As explained in Section 4, in implementing the system through soft- ware architectural styles for self-healing systems, the monitor and configurator components are used. In a WBAN system, sensors and actuators act as monitors and configurators respectively.
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Web Services: Architectural Styles and Design Considerations for REST API

Web Services: Architectural Styles and Design Considerations for REST API

Abstract: The issue of sharing real time data with others is paramount, especially in today’s digital age. We have lots of applications generating tons of data every minute. Each and every row of such data is useful either to the data generator or to a third party application. But we need a standard set of protocols to share data between applications over a network. This is where Application Programming Interfaces comes in. By using web services any application can share and read information automatically from other applications without human interference. This greatly advances the data sharing between applications, hence improving the services, productivity and user experience. We identified that soccer and sports in general pumps large amount of data into the internet, with no proper way to leverage it. Hence, we will be building a system, that collects this massive data from 1993 all the way up to the present time and will continue to do so automatically as long as there is data to mine, and a REST API on top of it so that the client/developers can access this data in a slick, automated, efficient and a fast way. This paper deals with various ways of leveraging data available online as well as an in detail comparison of the two major types of web services namely: SOAP & REST. It then goes on to detail the architectural styles and the design considerations to build REST API from scratch.
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Ranking of Common Architectural Styles Based on Availability, Security and Performance Quality Attributes

Ranking of Common Architectural Styles Based on Availability, Security and Performance Quality Attributes

• Exception: One method for recognizing faults is exception, which is raised when a fault occurs. Now we deal with contrast between our approach and the related work. Architectural styles and tactics were discussed in [5] but the interaction between them was not studied. The interaction between architectural styles and tactics was addressed in [8] where a few in- teractions were introduced using six types of changes. To investigate the interaction, they defined concept of impact magnitude for each type of change. Magnitude of an impact shows how much a style should change to implement a tactic. However, the study of the inter- action between the architectural tactics and the set of architectural styles in this paper is different from what studied in [8]; moreover, we address ranking of archi- tectural styles to satisfy quality attributes, which was not presented by [8]. The tactics in embedded systems were proposed by [7]; such systems are not our issue in this paper. Architectural tactics were used for devel- opment quality-driven software architecture by [14]; however, the interaction and ranking of styles were not addressed. The interaction between requirements and tactics and architecture patterns was discussed to implement the reliability quality attribute by [15]. However, in this paper the security, availability and performance tactics are considered; furthermore, some other tactics are considered. The safety tactic was ap- plied to the system safety by [16, 17] and some tactics were introduced to improve fault tolerance by [18, 19]. Fault Tolerance Tactics were applied to quantify styles of Shared Repository, Layered, Pipe & Filter, Presen- tation Abstraction Control, Model View Controller, Broker, Client-Server, and State Transition by [18].
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A Comparative Study on Software Architectural Styles for Network based Applications

A Comparative Study on Software Architectural Styles for Network based Applications

Software architecture defines the components and the interaction in between the components of a system. It also defines how the components are interacting with each other, the dependency in between the components and the interface protocols used for communication. For a network-based application, system performance is based on network communication. Therefore, selection of the appropriate architectural style(s) for use in designing the software architecture can make the difference between success and failure in the deployment of a network-based application. There are so many architectural styles available to represent different network-based application. According to the behavior of the application we have to choose the appropriate architectural style.
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An Approach of Software Architectural Styles Detection Using Graph Grammar

An Approach of Software Architectural Styles Detection Using Graph Grammar

Abstract—One of the challenging problems in software design is to evaluate the risks using the architectural styles.With the help of the architectural styles, it is able to reveal some potential design problems which do not conform to the non-functional requirements. The detection of a software architectural style is typically done by hand and it is a tedious work. However, there are still some ongoing researches on the automatic detection of the software architectural styles. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme of the architectural styles detection using the reduction steps of a graph grammar. The definition of the context sensitive graph grammar and its derivation and reduction steps is extended and proposed to represent the typical components, interfaces and links in the software architectural model written in xADL. The xADL is one of the popular architectural description languages ever used. A case study of repository style detection scheme is demonstrated. The resulting derivation and reduction of the specific graph grammar show the valid parsability of the graph.
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AJAX Asynchronous Java Script and XML

AJAX Asynchronous Java Script and XML

cases, styles like C2to rely on asynchronous notification of state changes and request messages between independent components.Many different network-based architectural styles , such as client/server, n- tier , and Code on Demand,exist but in our view the most complete and appropriate style for the Web, thus far, is the REpresentational State Transfer(REST) .REST emphasizes the abstraction of data and services as resources that can be requested by clients using the resource’s name and address, specified as a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) . The style inherits characteristics from a number of other styles such as client/server, pipe-and-filter, and distributed objects.The style is a description of the main features of the Web architecture through architectural constraints which have contributed significantly to the success of the Web. It revolves around five fundamental notions: a resource which can be anything that has identity, e.g., a document or image, the representation of a resource which is in the form of a media type, synchronous request-response interaction over HTTP to obtain or modify representations, a web page as an instance of the application state, and engines (e.g.,browser, crawler) to move from one state to the next.REST specifies a client- stateless-server architecture inwhich a series of proxies, caches, and filters can be used andeach request is independent of the previous ones, inducingthe property of scalability. It also emphasizes on a uniforminterface between components constraining information tobe transferred in a standardized form.
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EVALUATION OF ARCHITECTURE STYLES 
		FOR CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONS

EVALUATION OF ARCHITECTURE STYLES FOR CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONS

Research on cloud computing have focused on the architecture of cloud environments to support the notion of everything as a service. Few recent research articles focused on architectural styles for cloud computing applications [2] [3]. The authors in [2] proposed the SPOSAD style, an architecture style for multi- tenants cloud computing applications. The SPOSAD style, presented in [2] for multi-tenants cloud computing, requires the architect to use a data architecture where resources are shared. For high scalability, the style also requires the architect to use a data partitioning scheme to physical servers that best allows for scaling out large amounts of data. This can for example involve tenant specific partitions or local partitions for different user groups of a single tenant. Architects have to make several decisions and trade-offs when developing multi-tenant applications. They have to define the degree of customization that the application should support. More customizability implies more complicated development and makes the use of shared resources more difficult. Thus, highly customizable applications are not well suited for a multi-tenant architecture [3].
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Patterns of Placement and Design for Affordable Housing in Durham, North Carolina

Patterns of Placement and Design for Affordable Housing in Durham, North Carolina

Tightlines Design, a Raleigh North Carolina based firm, specializes in delivering “curb appeal, environmental sensitivity and livability in an efficient and affordable footprint.” The designs this firm produces borrow elements from historic architectural styles to create superior indoor and outdoor spaces within a small building footprint. Many of the firm’s designs utilize architectural styles commonly found in Durham. If an infill site is chosen for affordable housing development in one of Durham’s historic neighborhoods, an assessment of prevalent surrounding architectural styles could easily correspond with one of these house plans. For example, Figure 15, shows a one-story Folk Victorian home. This architectural style can often be found within historic mill house districts in Durham, such as the West End or Old West Durham. A simple Four Square style home is shown in Figure 16, which can be seen in many historic neighborhoods in Durham, such as Trinity Park, in a Colonial Revival style. Finally, Figure 17 illustrates a one-and-a-half story bungalow style home. Many of these Arts and Crafts influences can be found in historic areas, such as Trinity Park or Old North Durham. As can be seen from the dimensioned plans in Figure 15, 16, and 17, some of these plans are suitable for especially narrow lots, and the range of designs developed by this firm could potentially fit into a number of existing neighborhood architectural styles, historic or not. If obtaining individualized architectural expertise is not an option for an infill development, a context-sensitive plan can be purchased from a firm such as Tightlines Design as an alternative.
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An architectural design for LAN based web applications in a military mission  and safety critical context

An architectural design for LAN based web applications in a military mission and safety critical context

In RQ1 the goal was to find out how the current architecture is structured and what its limitations are. In this case, not only the limitations were considered, but also possible unrelated problems that should be considered when designing a new architecture. RQ2 was used to find out what requirements/constraints would be placed on a new architecture by Thales employees, for example, regarding rules & regulations, internal best practices, available hardware, etc. RQ3 is a detailed inquiry into the different architectural styles to structure the architecture, which needed to be done before a new architecture could be designed. In RQ4 the risks that could possibly be encountered by the architecture, as well as possible weak spots in its quality aspects, were identified. These are different from standard enterprise architectures due to the specific nature of military combat management systems. RQ5 was used to propose a newly designed architecture for the TACTICOS system, taking into account the answers from question 1 through 4. Parallel to the previous question, in RQ6 a migration path towards the desired architectural changes was considered, for Thales to be able to selectively choose in the future when parts of the new architecture are to be implemented. In RQ7, the suitability of the proposed architecture and its migration path was determined against the measures of maintainability, flexibility, upgrade- and expandability, and mobile capabilities.
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An Artifact on Prediction of Software Architecture Style in Medical Domain

An Artifact on Prediction of Software Architecture Style in Medical Domain

The paper’s focus point on understanding of software system with its development on the concept of software architecture styles in the field of medical domain. In order to fasten the software maturity process for patients’ recovery and ease the diagnosis even in the lack of the connoisseur hands, an artifact in the form of algorithms which predict the software architecture styles. The proposed algorithms will classify the patients’ into different classes that are sound and appropriate for the respective architectural styles. The paper contains three categories of architecture styles namely (i) Communication architecture style (Pipe and filter architecture style) (ii) layered architecture style (iii) Separated Presentation architecture style (Model View Controller). Further the proposed algorithm is tested on the liver data set.
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SOLVING ECONOMIC DISPATCH PROBLEM USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BY AN 
EVOLUTIONARY TECHNIQUE FOR INITIALIZING PARTICLES

SOLVING ECONOMIC DISPATCH PROBLEM USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BY AN EVOLUTIONARY TECHNIQUE FOR INITIALIZING PARTICLES

In the last several years, There has been much research done involving ADL or SADL[4,5] and in the related area of hardware/software design [6]. Although all of the languages are concerned with architectural design, each provides certain distinctive capabilities: Aesop supports the use of architectural styles [7]; Adage supports the description of architectural frameworks for avionics navigation and guidance [8]; Meta-H provides specific guidance for designers of real-time avionics control software [9]; C2 supports the description of user interface systems using a message-based style [10]; Rapide allows architectural designs to be simulated, and has tools for analyzing the results of those simulations [11]; UniCon has a high-level compiler for architectural designs that supp ort a mixture of heterogeneous component and connector types [12]. A large challenge for an SADL is the ability to describe static but also dynamic software architectures from structural and behavioral viewpoints. The above languages cannot satisfy the real-time execution and support the hardware-in- loop activities, because the simulation software and/or hardware must meet the deadlines, periodic and aperiodic behavior imposed in the real environment, in addition, some attributes of language elements needed for completeness cannot be represented graphically. Exiting tools designed do not apply to the HILS of safety critical systems, creating a need for the tools tailored to this application domain. The objective of this paper is to present a simulation architecture description language for hardware-in-loop simulation of safety critical systems, called SCS-SADL, for the design, specification and implementation of the HILS. The constructs and semantics combine to provide the ability to define the HILS including the execution characteristics. SCS-SADL provides the designers with the capability to define the HILS at various levels.
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Softenr-8

Softenr-8

2. Elicit requirements, constraints, and environment description. 2. Elicit requirements, constraints, and environment description. 3. Describe the architectural styles/patterns that have been chosen 3. Describe the architectural styles/patterns that have been chosen to address the scenarios and requirements:

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Browse Title Index

Browse Title Index

Besides the local communities, the immigrants and colonialists were also influential in shaping the identity of a place. Implying from that, the builders involved during the construction phase were considerably the key person in influencing the architectural design and building characteristics (Rizal, 2017). The British, in this sense, was highly influential in the local architectural scene (which include the shop houses style) in relation to the Portuguese (no influence towards shop house design found) and the Dutch colonists (merely influential to certain areas in Melaka) (Noorfadhilah, 2012). Several architectural styles such as the Moorish, Tudor, Neoclassical, Neo-Gothic etc. were actively introduced locally during the British occupation period in the 20th century (Kamaruzzaman, 2006).
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Architecural Transfer Between Two Non- Cuncurrent Styles: Investigation The Routs Of Timurid Architectural Influence (1370-1524ad) In Mughal Buildings (1526-1707ad)

Architecural Transfer Between Two Non- Cuncurrent Styles: Investigation The Routs Of Timurid Architectural Influence (1370-1524ad) In Mughal Buildings (1526-1707ad)

In this paper, the authors attempt to study and indicate how Persian architecture influences the Mughal buildings. Based on the idea of several scholars, the Mughal style has been affected by Timurid architecture. The main point is that Timurid& Mughal dynasties were not contemporaneous (Timurid, 1370-1524& Mughal 1526-1709). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is defining the routes of architectural influence from the Timurid era on Mughal’s, and also investigating the validity of each proposition. The route comprises of firstly, direct transfer from Timurid to Mughal, or, the indirect transfer via Iranian (concurrent with Mughal) and Indian (concurrent with Timurid) architectural styles.
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Utilizing Laser Cutting, 3D Printing and 3D Scanning to Create an Affordable Fully Interactive Prototype of a Full Size Animatronic Figure

Utilizing Laser Cutting, 3D Printing and 3D Scanning to Create an Affordable Fully Interactive Prototype of a Full Size Animatronic Figure

Kaduna City was established by the colonial government in 1912 as an administrative headquarters. Since then, Kaduna has maintained its initial function as an administrative headquarters passing through various administrations; colonial, military and civilian respectively. The architecture of the town has passed through various transforming experiences. This paper reviews the context of the architectural development of Kaduna, from 1900-2000 identifying the factors that have shaped it, styles, elements of transformation and continuity and architects involved in the process. A questionnaire as well as structured interviews and building survey have been used to articulate opinions, perceptions and views of a carefully selected sample of respondents. The paper concludes that the major factors that affected the development of architecture in Kaduna city include its growth as primate city, diversity of people that flocked into the city in search of the opportunities, the choice of the city as an administrative headquarters, the work of the expatriate architects that laid the foundation and the indigenous architects that built on their works. Great transformation is seen in the progression from various architectural styles from the neoclassical style of the colonial period to the enhanced modern/postmodern architecture of the 2000s while continuity manifests in the elements that appear in the traditional architecture such as dome and arches and in the climate consciousness of the plan with courtyards.
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Nuclear architecture : perceptions of architectural technology

Nuclear architecture : perceptions of architectural technology

The copying of standard details becomes futile when the student is required to create imaginatively the architectural design which they are simultaneously attempting to resolve at the nuclear level. The latter relies less on applying a technique than on making sound judgments (Wittgenstein, 1968). The role of the interpreter (tutor, made even more of a challenge if the student is not a native English speaker) in helping the student to critically reflect on 2D and 3D detail design explorations is crucial. The interpreter deciphers how the representation of the construction presented in tutorials; in graphical or model form; is an assemblage of parts designed to solve problems of constructional stability, thermal performance, building regulation compliance, aesthetics, cost, environmental design, water penetration, cold-bridging and, in the focus of this paper, assembly/disassembly. In order for understanding to happen, the student needs to conceptualize that this is a graphic representation and cognize the symbolic representation. If the student sees the actual physical representation of the construction 1:1, or even better participates in a constructional exercise, in model form or on site, they are able to use their other senses of touch and their body to feel the weight of the objects and handle the bulk of the objects. They gain an immediate recognition of that object and an emphatic ‘naming’ of what it is: there is little ambiguity and the perception has changed into materialization (Wittgenstein, 1968). This is why the teaching about detail design uses video, photographs, full-size constructional exercises, and site visits for students to cognize building construction elements.
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The Meta-Mechanics of Holography and How It Affects Architecture

The Meta-Mechanics of Holography and How It Affects Architecture

Abstract: In recent years there has been a gradually increasing interest in the terms on which the design and representation of the architectural object is based. This interest, as a product of the occurrence of digital technologies and the convergence of different scientific fields, is based on the specialization of design tools in such a way as to support and enhance the discussion around digital holography as an open process for action. Up until now, the dialogue on the form and representation of the architectural object has paid much greater attention to the creation of tangible models, which function as vehicles for the shaping and projection of visual messages that express and convey the designed object to the social whole. However, the true challenge lies in the development of a methodology or mechanism which, having as its starting point the traditional object representation practices, will allow for a combination of new technologies towards creating new visual messages. In this text, the process of putting together a new architectural object, the digital hologram, will be seen as one such mechanism. The new views and strategies on space are open to treating spatial constructions, as a restructuring of the structures that could bring about changes for more favorable conditions for the representation of the architectural form. Thus, the strategies of architectural pioneering are judged by their ability to develop new procedures that are capable of reversing. This is clearly a pragmatic approach to pioneering, which in the best cases manages to assign new meanings to traditional concepts with which architecture is associated, and to take different design and representation parameters into account in the process of creating an object.
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Architectural Modeling for Resident’s Housing Satisfaction Indicators in Public Prototype Housing-Katsina

Architectural Modeling for Resident’s Housing Satisfaction Indicators in Public Prototype Housing-Katsina

Abstract—This paper is a sequel of an earlier one in which both were based on results obtained from a survey study undertaken in six different public housing schemes in Katsina State. Overall, the study was aim at empirically identifying resident’s satisfaction on their houses with specific reference to some identified architectural elements, and to develop a working model using the respondents identified satisfaction indicators. In the first part the architectural elements that the occupants of these housing schemes will like to have were identified. These include elements that truly reflected their socio- cultural values, in addition to those provided in the initial design. In this second part therefore, the paper firstly, highlighted the documented architectural floor plans and secondly, proposed an architectural model in which the identified elements were integrated. The proposed architectural model was to serve as an inspiration for future designs of public and other mass housing projects. It was also meant to address the seeming design failure to reflect and accommodate the occupant’s socio cultural values. Through the integration of these elements, residents will relatively feel satisfied with architectural designs and physical alterations on the houses by the occupants will be greatly reduced.
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Architectural Studies

Architectural Studies

The foundations are of conglomerate, the blocks squared but not very closely matched (Figs. They rest on the friable native rock that underlies this portion of the[r]

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ARCHITECTURAL CLASSIFICATIONS

ARCHITECTURAL CLASSIFICATIONS

For these systems, the time taken to access a word in local memory smaller than the time taken to access a word stored in memory of other computer or common shared memory[r]

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