The proposed system introduces a cost effective AQM scheme. The framework uses multistep increase and single-step decrease to update the drawing factor (Upstream and Downstream) such that large-scale and burst data can be processed fast, and congestion can be avoided. When the number of flows increase abruptly, the framework’s proportional bandwidthallocation with multiple priority is able to guarantee TCP protection. Both the analytical model and simulation results is expected to demonstrate that the framework achieved proportional bandwidthallocation for flows in different priorities, and fairness for flows in the same priority. With the increase of audio and video flows, framework reduces the UDP flows to protect TCP flows, and allocate a fair share of bandwidth to UDP flows.
High utilization is one of the design goals for MPCP-based dynamic bandwidthallocation (DBA) algorithms in GiGabite passive optical networks (EPON). However, utilization is sacrificed in order to meet the delay limits of the applications in most DBA design schemes. This paper proposes a dynamic bandwidthallocation algorithm based on sorting report messages with additive-polling thresholds (AP-Sort DBA). This has the characteristics of high utilization and low delay during medium network loading. AP-Sort DBA is an extension of the adaptive dynamic bandwidthallocation algorithm with sorting report messages (Sort-DBA) and promotes utilization by reduction of unused slot remainders (USR) and distribution of excess bandwidth. For performance evaluation in terms of average delay, average queue size, loss rate and utilization, five DBA schemes are simulated, namely AP-Sort DBA, interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time (IPACT), dynamic bandwidth allocationOur focus is how the wireless upstream traffic based on CluLoR going into the optical access network performs when conventional wired traffic is included in the optical network. We evaluate the delay performance for different practical scenarios and examine the underloading and overloading of the wireless and wired traffic respectively on FiWi networks. Our evaluations indicate that the performance impact of DBA algorithms depends on the source of the traffic and we provide comparisons in this project.
In this paper, we proposed a multi-OLT PON structure for both FTTH terminals and WSN. A modified interleaved polling algorithm and scheduling algorithm of a control message were also proposed. From the computer simulation results, evaluating average packet delay, it is found that the proposed structure can reduces the end-to-end latency about 0.1ms up to the offered load of 0.6 while 0.2ms at offered load of 1.0 for both uniform and non-uniform traffic loads. Moreover, the multi-OLT PON can accommodate 5% more traffic load than the single-OLT PON without suffering from congestion. Therefore, it can be mentioned that the multi-OLT PON can effectively connects CHs of large WSN to make a converged network with FTTH terminals of a u-City with latency efficiency. The analysis performed in this study using the existing FS and LS bandwidthallocation schemes for both uniform and non-uniform traffic conditions proves the validity of the proposed multi-OLT PON structure. Moreover, the proposed multi-OLT PON structure with modified interleaved polling algorithm also outperforms other existing single-OLT polling algorithms in term of throughput for nonuniform traffic load with LS scheme. Furthermore, it is found that the convergence of FTTH and WSN in a multi-OLT PON is an efficient approach in that it provides cost effective solution than using two separate PONs, less packet delay, improved bandwidth Carriers can increase revenues by providing oversubscription, and can improve customer satisfaction by providing low latency PON. The quality of the DBA used is proportionately translated to increased carrier revenues. The only way to achieve both oversubscription and low latency PON is by implementing a DBA algorithm. A DBA algorithm minimizes latency, improves utilization and should respond quickly to the changing traffic patterns. The DBA algorithm should be SR-based, to make the best gains possible.When implementing SR-DBA in the GPON upstream channel, the operator can oversubscribe and provide 5 Gbps and beyond of allocated upstream bandwidth by leveraging the traffic burstiness. Through statistic multiplexing and ONT reports, latency is reduced by as much as 90%.
Abstract – Next Generation Satellite Routed Sensor Systems is expected to provide disaster detection system with high real time performance. By using Satellite Networks SRSS realizes data collection from multiple sensor terminals deployed in a wide area. However an efficient access control scheme is needed to achieve multiple access from numerous sensor terminals to the satellite with its limited bandwidth. In order to efficiently resolve these problems we propose a new scheme which utilizes a divide and conquer approach for efficient bandwidthallocation. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of proposal.
Passive Optical Networks (PONs) technology is considered as a promising solution for the next-generation broadband access network. In this paper we present different dynamic bandwidth algorithms (DBA) and estimate the bandwidth between OLT and ONT in order to improve network efficiency and packet processing. We show that queuing delays under dynamic bandwidthallocation algorithm results in an unexpected behavior for certain traffic classes and with the our proposed algorithm (BA-DBA) alleviate this inappropriate behavior. We conduct detailed simulations experiments to study the performance and the throughput of the proposed algorithms. Through respective simulations, it is estimated that the average queue size, the packet delay and the throughput of the proposed BA-DBA algorithm is performed better than a common SR-DBA algorithm.
We present a model of bandwidthallocation in a stylized peer-to-peer ﬁle sharing network with s peers (sharers) who share ﬁles and download from each other and f peers (freeriders ) who download from sharers but do not contribute ﬁles. Assuming that upload bandwidth is scarcer than download bandwidth and eﬃcient allocation, we compute the expected bandwidth obtained by each peer. We show that (i) while the exact formula is complex, s/ ( s + f ) is a good approximation and (ii) sharers (freeriders) obtain bandwidth larger (smaller) than s/ ( s + f ). The paper constitutes a ﬁrst step towards a general analytical foundation for scarce resource allocation in peer-to-peer ﬁle sharing networks.
In this section, a new QoS scheme is introduced that can be used by MAC protocols for cooperative wireless networks. The system model considered in this work is a generic multi-hop cooperative wireless network, where source and relay nodes cooperate in order to relay data packets towards out of range destination nodes. It is assumed that each node is typically capable of arranging packets into multiple buffers based on their traffic priorities, while it is aware of its adjacent nodes. A suitable routing algorithm at the network layer determines the transmission paths. The analysis includes the study of the proposed resource allocation technique and the corresponding impact of the buffered traffic in source or relay nodes on bandwidthallocation. Moreover, an efficiency metric is presented which quantifies fairness in resource allocation within the cooperative wireless network.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces related data-broadcast research. The system architecture used throughout this paper is presented as well. Section 3 discusses the proposed ERB algorithm and its role in improving data access latency. Section 4 establishes an analytical model for optimizing index- channel and data-channel bandwidthallocation. Section 5 discusses the proposed dynamic broadcast adaptive for weight change. Section 6 discusses experiments serving to evaluate the performance of the proposed mechanism. Finally, section 7 remarks on the conclusions drawn.
Conclusion: We propose a new approach for bandwidthallocation in cloud environment. We are giving priority to users who are need more bandwidth and pay highest amount of billing if the bandwidth is available i.e. the other users are not using the bandwidth who are in passive state, the bandwidth allocated to the others based on SLA agreement.
Bandwidthallocation for various types of Internet video is a challenge due to the high variability of the arrival times and bit rates produced by the encoder. As mentioned in Chapter 2, the question of how much bandwidth should be allocated in a model based protocol for congestion control, has not been addressed satisfactorily. In this Chapter we use simulation to investigate how many video streams can be carried over a path of several routers so that a given 95th percentile of the end-to-end delay is satisfied. The simulation is driven by video packet traces obtained from Cisco’s telepresence, IPTV, and surveillance cameras.
Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) severing as the relay is an effective technology method to extend the coverage. It can also alleviate the congestion and increase the throughput, especially applied in UAV networks. However, since the energy of UAVs is limited and the resources in UAV networks are scarce, how to optimize the network delay performance under these constraints should be well investigated. Besides, the relationship among different resources, e.g. power and bandwidth, is coupled which makes the optimization more complex. This article investigates the problem of joint power and bandwidthallocation in UAV backhaul networks, which considers both the delay performance and the resource utilization efficiency. Considering the heterogenous locations characteristics of different UAVs, we formulate the optimization problem as a Stackelberg game. The relay UAV acts as the leader and extended UAVs act as followers. Their utility functions take both the delay durance and the resource consumption into account. To capture the competitive relationship among followers, the sub-game is proved to be an exact potential game and exists Nash equilibriums (NE). The Stackelberg Equilibrium (SE) is proved afterwards. We utilize a hierarchical learning algorithm (HLA) to find out the best resource allocation strategies, which also reduces the computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Keywords: UAV backhaul networks; Stackelberg game; delay durance; resource allocation; energy efficiency
DBA , based on the TDMA protocol, improves performance compared with performance of the static bandwidthallocation. DBA is achieved by header fields of packets . Header fields in the downstream direction includes allocation identifiers (AllocIDs) to identify TCONTs, start time pointers to denote the start time of time slots, and end time pointers to denote the end time of time slots. Those fields specify that only one of TCONTs is served at any time. Header fields in the up- stream direction include AllocIDs to identify TCONTs and dynamic bandwidth reports (DBRs) to report queue lengths in TCONTs. DBRs notifies the OLT to allocate bandwidth dynamically due to queue lengths of ONUs are different. Bandwidth is allocated dynamically to sat-
To solve this problem, many studies recommend that the buﬀer be kept small while the link bandwidth is to be increased, and most studies, e.g. [3,9,16,17] in the open literature have been focusing on the estimation of the required bandwidth for LRD traﬃc based on the buﬀer overﬂow probability. However, a deterministic bandwidthallocation strategy seems not to be quite eﬀective for LRD traﬃc. For example, if the traﬃc volume in a certain (relatively long) period of time is less than the estimated bandwidth, which can happen for LRD traﬃc with nonnegligible probability, then the network wastes the bandwidth for as much period of time. Therefore, it would be more eﬀective if we can adaptively change the bandwidth allocated for LRD traﬃc, which is the motivation of this study.
From this point onwards, we will consider an MPLS network and we will focus on the problem of calculating bandwidth for an LSP to ensure a quality experience for the user when certain characteristics about the arrival traffic are known. It is interesting to note that the term “quality experience” has different meanings for different applications. For example for real time voice, the primary concern will be to minimize end-to-end delay but it is resilient to some packet loss. Whereas a data centric application like FTP requires zero packet loss but can endure network delays. There is a spectrum of applications with different quality requirements and expectations from the network. Generally, there are two ways of doing bandwidthallocation; one is to guarantee packet loss and the other to bound end-to-end delay and jitter. Below we give a brief survey of techniques for guaranteeing packet loss. The subject matter of this thesis is bandwidthallocation under end-to-end delay guarantees and a detailed review of the relevant literature is given in the following section 1.3.2.
Abstract: Network resource management and traffic engineering are important subjects in today’s Internet. In terms of traffic engineering, bandwidthallocation and splitting it in a fair manner among different users have become challenging. In addition, optimizing the utilization of network resources, increasing the user utility and throughput are also considerable. So, the user satisfaction with regard to the resource allocation and Quality of Service (QoS) are the most important factors that should be taken into the consideration. At the first step, Network Utility Maximization (NUM) problem has been considered as an initial stage to design any traffic engineering method. In this paper and by considering the mentioned issues, first of all we take into account the NUM problem and optimization decomposition methods by focusing on Traffic Management Using Multipath Protocol (TRUMP), and its weaknesses to tackle the fair resource allocation problem associated with it. We then propose a model to tackle the fair bandwidthallocation issue by implementing an optimized sending rate adaptation model using an intuitive investment method to optimize the link prices (delay and loss) to achieve an efficient fair bandwidthallocation model. The model is evaluated by using different simulations and different topologies under various network conditions. Our results show that the proposed model behaves fairer than TRUMP in certain path selections. As an average from the results and at a minimum point our model achieves 26% improvement in fairness in contrast to TRUMP. In addition, for large networks we can enjoy approximately 90% improvement in fairness measure.
In traditional bandwidthallocation process, OLT (Optical Line Termination) sends the data obtained from the network to each ONU (Optical Network Unit) after demodulating, ONU sends the received information to each user after demodulating . In this mechanism, the data transmission is linear and sequential , if the multi-factors were acting on different applications, this mechanism can’t effectively solve the problem of queue scheduling. If it has interactions between different business and the business user level, delay, packet size and other factors intertwined, the inefficiency of allocation will be reduced .And for the traditional bandwidthallocation process, the algorithm which OLT and ONU used in bandwidthallocation is the interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time (IPACT) .In this algorithm, it takes bytes as the unit to calculate, but in the scheduling of the queue, it us packet as a unit. Thereby, it caused the phenomenon that the bandwidth will be set aside if the bandwidth less than a packet length, and also, it will have a greater USR (unused slot remainder) and result a waste of bandwidth resources.
Bandwidthallocation typically involves reserving part of the transmission rate of the output port of each router along the path of a connection for the traffic flow associated with the connection. The problem of allocating bandwidth under quality of service (QoS) restrictions has been analyzed extensively in the literature. Most of the proposed schemes calculate the necessary bandwidth so that the packet loss is bounded. The equivalent bandwidth, proposed originally for ATM networks, see Perros , is a good example of such a scheme. A survey of various call admission algorithms can be found in Wright .
In the idle period (6:00) and peak hours (20:00), after the implementation of the strategy of cloud bandwidthallocation, the distribution of the accumulated probability of the cache bandwidth provided to each file is as Figure 3 and 4. From Figure 3, when the threshold speed is set to 256KB / S, over 46% of 1,686 files being downloaded can’t get accelerate bandwidth provided by the cache cloud. Most files which need cache cloud to provide acceleration bandwidth required bandwidth not high. When the threshold rate was 256KB/S, the gain- bandwidth cloud acceleration values greater than 4Mbps file only about 5 percent of the total file was being requested. When the threshold rate is 400 KB/S, the ratio of the value is only about 23%. In addition, even if the threshold value is set to be as high as 400 KB/S, as many as 30% of the file does not need to get acceleration bandwidth from the cache cloud. Finally, in the two different rates, only a very small amount of files need to get the acceleration bandwidth over 20 Mbps from the cache cloud.
This research discusses the bandwidthallocation and pricing problems by taking the service qualities into account. The model hypothesizes that there is only a DSL service provider and a Cable service provider in the market; the two service providers offer two similar Internet service commodities, and both of the rivaling parties confront limited total bandwidth and service level. By establishing a mathematical model and Lagrange function, reaction functions of the two service providers can be obtained. Through the derived reaction functions and some condition, this paper obtains closed form formulas for the market equilibrium prices and bandwidth resource allocations for the two competitive ISPs.
difficult to meet if high network utilization is desired. In this paper, dynamic bandwidthallocation algorithms are proposed to improve the bandwidth utilization. The first approach based on scene change identification, in which the bandwidth is allocated based on the maximum and mean bandwidth of the scene, is applicable to delivering pre-recorded videos. The second approach, in which the bandwidth is adjusted based on the current frame size, can be used to deliver real-time videos on-line. When the bandwidth deviation is large enough, the bandwidth renegotiation process is triggered. Compared with the CBR service, network utilization can be improved sig- nificantly for the same CLR. In general, to achieve a very low CLR and high bandwidth utilization, the renegoti- ation frequency may become high. Algorithms, which are proven to be effective in reducing the renegotiation frequency while keeping the bandwidth utilization at a reasonable level, are also proposed.