In North-East India, the agricultural entrepreneurship and agribusiness have been recog- nized as one of the important avenues for rural development. The region has unique diversity in agro-climatic conditions and has a huge potential for enhancing the production and prod- uctivity of various agricultural and horticultural crops (Gogoi and Borah, 2013). The state of Assam experiences 11.45% GSDP growth rate (2014–2015) at current prices (India, 2017). The agricultural and allied sector plays a dominant role in the economic development of the state which contributes more than 26% to total GSDP in 2008 – 2009 current and constant prices (see Sharma, 2007). Increased agricultural production can encourage the entrepreneur- ial activities in rural areas such as diversification of farms, new products, the growth of rural service sector, emergence of the agro-processing ventures, and spreading out the product into new markets (see Larsen et al., 2009). Assam has been divided into three important physical regions based on its agro-climatic zones: (a) Brahmaputra Valley, (b) Barak Valley, and (c) the Hilly areas. In Lower Brahmaputra Valley zone, around 90% of human labor employment in the farm as the crop and homestead has contributed a substantial share of net returns (see Bhowmick, Sarma, and Talukdar, 1999).
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(family Cluciaceae) with its 400 species is reported to distribute in tropical parts of the world. The genus has 36 species in India mostly in forest as well as in non-forest areas of East, Western Ghats, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Of which, 16 species are endemic in and use for timber, food and medicinal values. However, the genus found to be disappearing from natural habitat in Assam. This study was , patch vegetations and homesteads on distribution, diversity and status of Garcinia species in Upper Brahmaputra Valley of Assam. The study recorded 10 species Roxb, G. cowa Roxb. G. morella Desr (Roxb) Kurz., G. spicata (Wight & Arn) Hookf., . The study also revealed that except G. all these species were available in different evergreen and semi-evergreen forests with Mekai-Nahor association. Moreover, were recorded from the patch vegetations , which is a small tree of the genus, was found only in the Out of 12 reserve forests (RF) of Upper Brahamaputra valley, distribution of G. kydia Hook.f. ex. T. Anderson was recorded from 8 IVI of these species in the forest is very less in number in comparison to the other plants and its abundance is mainly restricted to core forest areas where anthropogenic disturbance is very less. mara RF was highest with 33 plant species and lowest
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(iv) Selection of the Respondents: In the present study, villages 1. Bordeori Village of Narayanpur Revenue Circle in Lakhimpur district as biggest 2. Baghgarah Village of Bihpuria Revenue Circle in Lakhimpur district as middle and 3. Dusutimukh Village of Bhogpur of Narayanpur Revenue Circle in Lakhimpur district in Assam as smallest in the South Bank of Brahmaputra Valley in Assam as per the serious discussion and guidance of the Deori Community since there is no sufficient census report for its definite facet. (v) Tool used: Questionnaire is used as the tool for the study.
The research paper is based on descriptive study which followed the quantitative method. A Purposive and Stratified Random Sampling Technique was adopted for the selection of sample so that necessary data can be collected from the Deori women regarding the Costumes and Ornaments from the South Bank of Brahmaputra Valley in Assam.
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The Government of India recognised 16 SCs in Assam as well in the Brahmaputra Valley as per Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes modification order 1956(1). Out of them, the seven groups: Mali, Bania, Hira, Jal-keot, Jhalo- Malo, Kaibartta and Mahara are indigenous to the Valley, while the other seven groups namely Namasudra, Sutradhar, Dhubi, Lalbegi, Bansphor, Mehtar and Mushi are immigrants from the East Bengal and Bihar. The other groups Dholi-Dugla and Patni are partly indigenous and partly immigrant in origin. Most of the immigrants SCs, except the Namasudras and Sutradhars, have settled in the urban areas. The pattern of literacy among the various social groups of SCs in the study area provides an insight into the socio-economic situation. Interestingly, there exist significant disparities in the literacy rate among various groups of SCs.
Data on daily total sediment load Data, stage and discharge are collected for the station Jiyadholmukh and the data on daily rainfall are collected for rain gauge Panbari and Tinimukh for a period of ten years from 2003 to 2015 from Brahmaputra Board, Lakhimpur District. Tinimukh is located in mountains at the upper catchment of the basin where as Panbari is located near Jiyadholmukh in the lower reaches of the river. An analysis of correlation of rainfall with stage and discharge is done to understand their exact relationship in the studied basin. For analyzing the trends and estimating the relationship between these two parameters are plotted on a graph. Sediment rating curve fitting is done for the river for the year 2014.
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Flood is one of the most important environmental problems in Brahmaputra valley of Assam, occurred in every alternative year. About 3,150,000 hectors of land in Assam is flood prone. Historical records reveal that the process of siltation caused by flood waters along river beds has also become a big problem especially after the 1897 earthquake in Assam (Gait, 1905). As per census report of Assam 2001, one third of the total area was affected by flood. During the year 2002, a total of 674.148 hectares of land area were affected by floods and estimated loss was Rs 18,678.60. The region is mainly composed of Alluvium of Quaternary period (Bordoloi, 1995).
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The char (river island) which was surveyed is located in Nalbari district of lower Assam. Till 1985, it was a part of Kamrup district. The nearest road head of the char is twenty five kilometres away from the state capital Guwahati. As the char is surrounded on all sides by the river it can be approached from both sides of the river Brahmaputra. I reached the char from the northern bank of the river. The char is approximately twenty kilometres in length and ten kilometres in breadth. The locals refer to three parts of the char as three villages viz. Kalar-char, Bhanganmari and Kuhiamari. Kalar-char is the oldest village. One government Diary farm has recently come up in Kuhiamari. The population of the char is approximately 5000-8000. Most of the inhabitants belong to the Neo-Assamese Muslim community whose forefathers migrated to Assam from neighbouring districts of Bengal. Apart from them there are some families of Assamese Hindus belonging to Kalita caste who were settled there after their original village on the northern bank of the river was eroded. A few houses of Nepalis cattle graziers are also there near the Dairy farm. There is ferry for going to char.
The current research study investigates the motivational pattern viz. Achievement among the young tribes of Assam. The sample consisted of 120 tribal students (60 male and 60 female) ranging from 18-24 years. Attempts were made to include all the prominent tribes of Assam viz. Bodo Kachari, karbi, Miris, Lalung, Dimasa Kachari and Rabhas, who have their origin from Tibeto-Burman family of mongoloid group who have settled together at the Brahmaputra valley as inhabitants in the state of Assam. Historically these inhabitants of the Brahmaputra valley are South-east Asian origin being the cultural entity of the state of assam. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and a semi structured interview schedule were used to gather information about their family types, parental deprivation, parental relations, social and political belongingness. Mean, Standard Deviation, and t-test were the statistical measures adopted in this study. In addition discriminant analysis has been worked out to strengthen the predictive validity of the obtained data. TAT scores reveal significant difference (t-value 7.13) among the Tribal male and female on achievement motivation. It is interesting to note that among tribal the females are high achievers as compared to males. Discriminant analysis has been worked out, which shows achievement (.811) showing clearly that achievement motive is the relative variable in discriminating both the gender inhabiting in the Brahamputra Valley of Assam.
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It is evident that field experiments give the unique opportunity of collecting data over an extended spatial domain within a short time span that is useful in bringing out the special features of aerosols within the campaign area. The Brahmaputra valley in north eastern region (NER) of India with a unique terrain is among the highest rainfall receiving zones in world (Cherrapunjee and Maw- synram that receive world’s highest annual rainfall are within this region). Ma- jority of the population in NER resides in the Brahmaputra valley spanning from east to west in the state of Assam. The valley is highly vulnerable to aerosols loading during winter (Nov-Feb) and pre-monsoon season (March-May) owing to the fact that the valley has hills of altitude more than 1500 m all around (Figure 1(a)), except a narrow opening in the west . The wind over the re- gion is primarily westerlies during the winter and pre-monsoon season that has the potential to carry dust laden air from north-west and west Asian countries along with the contribution from IGP  . The winter is also mostly dry with daytime relative humidity remaining below 50% for most of the times. The aerosol within the atmospheric boundary layer therefore has the potential to re- main over the area for long duration. The north eastern part of India has not been explored much either in the form of fixed station measurements or during any of the campaigns mentioned above except partly during the CAIPEEX pro- gram . Therefore, to examine the spatial variability of the aerosol characte- ristics along the BRV, a land campaign was conducted by North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in collaboration with Dibrugarh University, by collecting in-situ data from west to east along the BRV during the period from February 3 to March 2, 2011. In this paper, we present the results of columnar and surface aerosol measurements, absorption and scattering measurements carried out during the campaign. The RF calculated using SBDART model for the campaign locations are also presented in this paper.
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Geologically, the island is a part of the great alluvial tract of Brahmaputra river, which is by nature a geo- synclinal basin formed concomitantly with the elevation of the Himalayas to its north. The island, along with the floodplains of Brahmaputra river in its adjoining areas is formed by alluvial deposits in the form of older alluvium, newer alluvium and recent deltaic deposits of the Pleistocene age [Krishnan (1982)]. Moreover, the area is surrounded by a very complex geological setting of very young and unweathered sedimentary formations covering the entire Brahmaputra basin. On the northern side, the basin is flanked by the Sub-Himalayan ranges consisting mainly of tertiary sandstone, and is marked by the presence of many raised, relatively young terraces. On the eastern and southern sides, the Brahmaputra valley borders with the Naga-Patkai ranges consisting of tertiary formations riddled with numerous active faults. Geological surveys aided by drilling for oil in this part of the valley have shown that under the recent deposits, there are thousands of metres of tertiary sediments which overlie the Archaean Basement complex. Being an active floodplain, the island is marked by an array of alluvial features including natural leaves, crevasses, splay deposits, point bars, channel bars etc. The main channel of Brahmaputra on the southern side is characterised by rapid aggredation, dramatic channel shifts and excessive bank line recession.
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The extensive Himalayan river drainage network is considered to be controlling 25% of the global sediment budget (Raymo and Ruddiman, 1992). The Asian monsoon strengthening led to a higher amount of rainfall in the southern edge of the Himalaya, increasing the net discharge of the southern Himalaya. During the summer monsoon, the amount of precipitations and the river discharge are reduced in the drier region of the northern and central regions of the Himalaya. This creates semi-arid environments where much of the summer river discharge is derived from the melting of snow cover. River courses can be strongly influenced by tectonic uplift (Friend et al., 1999). The structural features and the bedrock lithologies can control river paths, the latter are likely modified by tectonic uplift during orogenic development (Stokes et al., 2008). Transverse rivers bisect large scale geological features (Oberlander, 1985), whereas rivers flowing parallel to the strikes of such structures are known as longitudinal or axial. The drainage pattern in the Himalaya is unusual: the central part of the range is drained by the Ganga and its tributaries, and the eastern and western terminations are exclusively drained by the Brahmaputra and the Indus rivers, respectively. The latter rivers take their source in Mount Kailash and have near symmetrical courses, each of them flowing along the range in opposite directions as axial rivers. They become transversal when crossing the eastern and western terminations before flowing in the foreland basin to eventually reach the Bengal and the Indus Fans, respectively. Another characteristic of the Himalayan drainage network is that the high range does not constitute a major drainage barrier despite its high elevation. As the Indus and the Brahmaputra, numerous rivers flowing in the Himalayan foreland basin have their source to the north of the high range. The gaps allowing these rivers to reach the south of the range are characterized by high exhumation rates (Burbank et al., 1996; Jessup et al., 2008; Thiede et al., 2006; Zeitler et al., 2001). It is widely considered that the mountain landscapes and their geomorphology are mainly shaped through erosion. Sediments are removed and redistributed in the lithosphere, and the resulting mass re-equilibration can lead to lithospheric uplift and rock exhumation through isostatic rebound. Rock exhumation is the result of erosion and uplift. In other words, the creation of high topography lead to isostatic rebound and fresh rock exposure erosion, and therefore exhumation processes.
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The records of the last century show a trend of widening of the Brahmaputra in Assam. The Brahmaputra occupied around 4000 sq. km in the 1920s and now the Brahmaputra occupies about 6000 sq. km (WRD, 2008). Based on the satellite image estimation of area eroded in the Brahmaputra for the recent years of 1997 to 2007-08 (WRD, 2008), the total land loss per year (excluding avulsion) is reported to be from 72.5 to 80 Sq. km/year. Bank erosion has been continually wiping out more than 2500 villages and 18 towns including sites of cultural heritage and tea gardens affecting lives of nearly 500,000 people. In north India numerous streams and rivulets rise in the Himalayan foothills and sub-mountain region from Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east. These streams are subject to flood due to the incidence of heavy rainfall in their respective catchment areas during monsoon. The instant rainfall over the steep terrain causes sharp rise in the water level of streams resulting flood in the sub-mountain region downstream. The rainfall in India shows great temporal and spatial variations, unequal seasonal distribution and geographical distribution and frequent departures from the normal. As reported by Central Water Commission (CWC) under Ministry of Water Resources, government of India, the annual average area affected by floods is 7.563 million ha. This observation was based on data for the period 1953 to 2000, with variability ranging from 1.46 million ha in 1965 to 17.5 million ha in 1978. On an average, floods have affected about 33 million person between 1953 and 2000. There is every possibility that this figure may increase due to population growth. The National Flood Commission (1980) has reported that the total flood prone area of India was 34 million ha. It has also mentioned that an area of 10 million ha has been protected, but the effective protection may be available to only 6 million ha. Main problems in India with respect to floods are inundation, drainage congestion due to urbanization and bank erosion. The river system, topography of the place and flow phenomenon are the different contributing factors responsible for flooding. Being a vast country, the flood problems in India may be visualized on regional basis.
Need of development of road network is increasing day by day for connection of more villages and towns with the main city centre. Procurement of huge quantity of earthwork required for construction of rural roads for connection of remote and unconnected areas in India under Pradhan Mantiy Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) easily and cheaply is a major problem. Again materials used for the construction of sub-grade should have to conform to the compaction requirements, should have adequate strength and if possible, should be able to collect without affecting the environment. In most of the road construction activities in Assam, India, and the earthworks are being collected by cutting the hills which may be a potential cause of environmental degradation in the region. The mighty Brahmaputra which is one of the most heavily sediment- charged large rivers of the world is passing through the state of Assam. The river carries an average annual sediment load of about 400 million metric tons at Pandu (Assam) with an average daily rate of about 2 million metric tons per day during the rainy season.
The heavy fractions of sands along the Brahmaputra River are primarily the source of the iron titanium and iron oxide minerals magnetite and ilmenite. Most of the heavy minerals are in the 60- to 200-mesh size range. Most of the samples have between 8 and 15 percent heavy minerals. Ilmenite ranges from about 4 to 9 percent and ru- tile ranges from about 3 to 5 percent. Such percentages are much higher than those of Someshari river sands of Bangladesh. Considering the high heavy mineral concentration in river sands, the possibility of commercial uti- lization of the heavy minerals in sands along the Brahmaputra River is quite a burning issue at the present time.
4.2. Phylogenetic Analysis. These accessions were clustered into two main groups: A and B, as indicated in Figure 2. Clus- ter A is comprised of 16 accessions most diverged that form seven subclusters with bootstrap support of 79 (Eastern 033066, Rift Valley 032108, Eastern 033060, and Western 047102), 59 (Rift Valley 040472), 62 (Eastern 033061), 96 (Ethiopia 015141), 98 (Coast 032344 and Coast 032373), 63 (Western 047048), and 88 (Eastern 046585, Coast 032338). Three accessions in this cluster (Western 044082, Rift Valley 040539, and Australia 016157) had their bootstrap less than 50; hence, their branches were not reliable.
Majuli, with its natural beauty in the lap of the mighty Brahmaputra, and one of the India’s biodiversity and cultural hotspots have tremendous potentiality to practice eco- tourism activities. The formation of Majuli, its geographical location, its climate and environment, its people and their life during flood, its rich culture and festivals, its arts and crafts etc. are the sufficient elements to attract curious eco-tourists.
Climate models, while far from perfect in their represen- tation of reality, are essential for interpreting the results from observations and thereby attributing any observed changes in event frequency to anthropogenic climate change or other factors. Taken at face value, the two climate model simu- lations of 10-day precipitation maxima in the Brahmaputra basin provide somewhat contradictory results. However, for the weather@home simulations when comparing the natural simulations with GHG-only runs instead of historical simu- lations, the change in extreme precipitation is significantly positive as well and is therefore more comparable in magni- tude to the increase in the two longer observational datasets and EC-Earth simulations. Comparing the GHG-only runs to the historical simulations gives an indication of the impact of aerosol within the weather@home model, which might be slightly overestimated given that black carbon is not included in the models aerosol treatment. Nonetheless, HadRM3P clearly indicates that the increased risk in extreme rainfall due to GHG induced warming has been effectively counter- balanced by aerosol emissions. The EC-Earth model is in- terpreted as having fewer aerosol effects and hence showing more of the greenhouse-gas-driven increase. Both results are in agreement with the observations due to the large uncer- tainties in the limited-length observational records.
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Singh  traced the sources of sediment in Brahmaputra using the Sr and Nd isotopes of the sediment collected between Pasighat and Dhrubi (lower part of the basin) and concluded that Eastern Syntaxix zone (the big bend around Namcha Baruwa) in the basin is the primary contributor of sediments. However, our model results do not show
Understanding of river behavior on downstream of bridges help in their proper planning, design and maintenance. Morphology of the Brahmaputra River and its aggradation/degradation process has been discussed with reference to flow of water and sediments in the river. Hydraulic analysis is made of the river behavior downstream of bridges as a result of sediment deposition upstream and inadequate energy dissipation due to skewed hydraulic jump downstream. Proper understanding of river behavior in the vicinity of the brides is extremely important in their planning, design and maintenance apart from the safety of the structures. They obstruct the normal waterway. On the downstream side of the structures, there is degradation due to release of water with less sediment load and residual kinetic energy flow with higher turbulence. Depending upon the extent of constriction and location of the structure in the flood plain, the approaching river may often be unstable and asymmetric. In such case the river may shift its location and wander anywhere within the flood plain resulting in erosion of bed and banks. Costly training works are required to prevent the possible shift in the existing river course and outflanking of the structures.