Afterwards, the researchers oriented the PTs with the PBL approach in creating a list of key features of a good classroom teacher. The list shall become the PTs basis on issues to look into during the following classroom observations. After a month of preparation, PTs were then assigned to undergo two months of classroom observations in a nearby elementary school. In addition, the PTs needed to do two practice teaching sessions before the end of the observation period. During the classroom observations and practice teaching, the PTs used their list of key features of a good classroom teacher to evaluate each other. Pre-post conferences were accomplished before and after each practice teaching session. Researcher observations, interview, and PTs’ reflection logs were later collected and analyzed. In addition, a course evaluation survey was also administered after the semester. Data collected were analyzed using the Miles and Huberman (1994) method for generating meaning from transcribed and interview data. While, the course evaluation data were tabulated using the software Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.
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Informed by the Tier 1 analyses, this stage of the project links observations of classroom practice to a range of ratings of effectiveness and quality. A sample of 125 ‘focal’ schools were selected from the Tier 1 analyses. The schools were chosen across the range of ‘effectiveness’ scores for English and Maths and in different LEAs across the country from amongst those attended by children in the EPPE3-11 sample. Trained researchers conducted detailed classroom observations in each school in 2004 and 2005. Classroom observations were conducted using schedules developed in the USA for the NICHD study. These two schedules (Pianta NICHD 2001 and Stipek 1999, named after their authors) covered a wide range of pedagogical practices and pupil behaviours. The frequency of different behaviours was observed for individual pupils as well as more global rating of general classroom quality. For further description of the research instruments see Sammons et al. (2006a &
The student semi-structured interviews were designed to allow the researcher to probe more deeply into the students’ experiences of the flipped classroom as reported through the survey. The students were given the option of either participating in a focus group interview or individually; all chose to be part of a focus group. Focus group participants varied from 2-3, and there was a total of 23 focus group interviews conducted. The interviews all occurred in a meeting room or empty classroom at the respective students’ schools. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed and took approximately 20-30 minutes. The teacher interview schedule was designed to elicit information about the teachers’ motivations for implementing the flipped classroom approach, how it was enacted in practice and their perceptions of the benefits and challenges of incorporating the approach. Teacher interviews were conducted individually either prior to or just after the classroom observations, and took approximately 40 minutes. All interviews were conducted by the researcher and transcribed by either the researcher or research assistant. A minimum of two classroom observations were undertaken with each class. The purpose of the observations was to provide the researcher with insight into how the approach was enacted in classrooms, and as a consistency ‘check’ to compare ‘reality’ with the teachers’ and students’ self-reports. Descriptive accounts are provided primarily when describing each classroom’s context in the results.
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Using data collection approaches, such as audio recording, photographing, and note- taking, the other research assistant and I conducted classroom observations that concentrated on literacy teachers’ teaching practices in three literacy classes. I was mainly responsible for collecting data on Mandarin literacy classes. Using semi- structured interviews, the other research assistant and I interviewed the four literacy teachers on site. The interview questions were designed and have been field-tested by the principal investigator of the original project in previous similar research. I revised the interview questions to better serve the purposes of the research focus of my MA thesis on the implemented curricula. The revised, ethically approved interview questions focused on teachers’ views on implementing the transnational literacy curricula and their input about professional development for educators in the transnational education settings. The other research assistant and I transcribed the audios of observed English and Mandarin literacy classes and interviews with English and Chinese literacy teachers respectively. I used constant comparison method (CCM) (Cohen et al., 2011) as my central method of data analysis to examine various ethnographic data that illuminated the implemented curriculum. I used NVivo 11 in the course of data analysis and organization. Themes in the coding process were derived both deductively and inductively.
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mixed-methods approach would be useful for the evalua- tion of student-centred teaching and learning in under- graduate medical education. The triangulation of our findings from teacher interviews (to identify their espoused theories) and classroom observations and a student focus group (to identify theories in action) revealed that the teachers’ vision of student-centredness and their actual teaching was coherent across Weimer’s theoretical model of five dimensions of student-centred teaching: “balance of power”, “the function of content”, “the role of the teacher”, “the responsibility for learning” and the “purpose and process of evaluation”.
In addition, three non-participant classroom observations were carried out over a period of 15 weeks. The main purpose of these observations was to support and contrast the data collected through the student teachers’ journals. Although three classroom observations had been planned for each of the four participants, two of the participants were observed only twice due to the cultural and extra curricular activities programmed at their institutions. The observation length varied depending on the schedules of each institution. On average, the researchers observed each participating student teacher for two and a half hours in total. During the classroom observations, researchers sat at the back of the classroom, took notes and completed an observation protocol. At the end of the study, all the participants were interviewed in Spanish. The researchers used an interview protocol including a set of open-ended questions and took notes while interviewing the participants. The interviews were recorded.
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http://www.ioe.ac.uk/hgm/research/SkillsforLife/). This work in common with other studies (e.g. Hopey 1998) was principally based on surveys, and interviews with managers, tutors and learners, together with some testing of learning gains. Whilst this research has found some positive signs, it has also suggested there is a long way to go if the expectations of the impact of ICT on learning for this group of learners are to be met. Research is needed in order to support a move beyond present practice, and to find more effective ways of using ICT to improve learning for learners with basic skills needs. One element that was clearly lacking from previous studies was a detailed account of what tutors actually do when they are using ICT for adult literacy and numeracy. The aim of this present study, therefore, was to carry out detailed classroom observations in order to collect, review and analyse existing practice, examining how the use of ICT has changed teaching and learning in Basic Skills, and so to begin to more closely identify the factors involved in effective teaching with ICT in the area of adult literacy and numeracy. Once this study is complete then it is
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In this study, the participating teachers expressed their opinions on how they used collaborative learning strategy for promoting their students’ creativity in EFL writing. For example, participating teacher TA claimed that his focus was on collaborative learning in which students displaying different levels of performance worked together in small groups to achieve a common goal. Classroom observations revealed that all the teachers who claimed to employ this strategy used a combined set of collaborative teaching activities like working in groups (WG), (e.g., TE) working in pairs (WP) (e.g., TF), and whole-class teaching (WC) (e.g., TJ). Collaborative learning encourages and promotes the maximum use of cooperative activities based on pair work and group work of learners in the classroom (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1991).
Despite classroom observations being significantly correlated with teacher performance, they are still the least accurate measure of long-run teacher performance. The MET study (2012) compared the predictive ability of three measurement methods, observations, value-added scores and pupil surveys. They found that even when observers were highly trained, independent and calibrated each day, a single classroom observation was a far worse predictor of teacher success compared with value-added test scores or even pupil assessment. This is because an observation is only ever going to be a snapshot of what is going on in a classroom, whereas the other measures a come from a culmination of events over the academic year. Having multiple observations increased the reliability of observations and was further improved if the additional observations were conducted by different individuals even if they were for short time periods.
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According to the teacher, another set of skills that must be acquired by students in this current examination period is higher order thinking skills. During the interview, the respondent stated that “this skill is supposed to help the students think critically whilst answering the literature review questions during their examination.” The teacher further elaborated that according to the objectives designed in the teacher’s yearly scheme of work, students are required to acquire this skill not only for examination purposes, but also for better understanding and enjoyment of the novel. Although the teacher explained that higher order thinking skills are taught for both literature enjoyment and examination, based on the classroom observations and activities, most activities performed were primarily used to promote excellence in examinations rather than teach values learned from the novel to promote global citizenship.
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Using participants’ interviews, classroom observations, and samples of students’ work, case study methodology was used to investigate participants’ perspectives of supports and barriers to learning and teaching senior chemistry in Samoa. Analysis of both common and distinctive ideas across the three case studies revealed the ways in which factors that relate to Samoan cultural values, the institution, and the classroom could act as barriers or supports to students’ chemistry achievement. This happened in complex ways. While some factors were considered by both teachers and students to be either a barrier or a support to chemistry learning, others were perceived differently by teachers and students, and
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acknowledge the other students who had their hands raised and would convey to the students, “I’m on my way.” Numerous examples of evidence for teachers asking for input were present in all teachers’ classrooms. The evidence resulted from the teachers asking groups of students, whole class, to individuals for their input. The following quotes from teachers are examples taken from the classroom observations: To the class: “Why do we organize anything we write”; “What do you think is the most important information in those notes, Hazel?”; and “Donnie, what do you think?” In addition, the teachers would use positive humor by talking in funny voices to take on a different character to being able to use idioms or analogies such as “Allison, I hope you have you listening ears on because it’s going to blow your mind” and “When you see this it will knock your socks off.” Ensuring a positive environment for growth appeared to stand out in terms of the number of examples that were documented during the classroom observations. An overall sense of camaraderie between the teachers and students was gleaned from the classroom observations.
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Flanders' Interaction Analysis is a system of classroom interaction analysis. The Flanders' Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC) consists of ten categories of communication which are said to be inclusive of all communication possibilities. There are seven categories used when the teacher is talking and two categories when the learner is talking. In his pioneering work, Flanders used the term Interaction Analysis for his ten-category observation schedule that he had designed for general educational purposes, to be relevant to a variety of lessons rather than for any subject in particular. In his work, he combined a politically powerful idea with a very practical simplicity. The powerful idea was that the teaching was more or less effective depending on how “directly” or “indirectly” teachers influence learner behaviour.
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“The Virtual Classroom”, according to Hiltz and Turoff (1994), “is a teaching learning environment constructed in software, which supports collaborative learning among students who participated at times and palce of their choosing. While students may access only the records of their activities the instructor can review activity status of any student, require that activities be done in sequences, and designate activities as required or optional.”
In general, some achievements have been made by flipped classroom teaching reform in application-oriented universities. It makes students from the previous study as an acceptor to become the absorption of knowledge. It puts students in the main position of learning. Through pre-class learning, practical application in class and communication and interaction after class, the knowledge that students get is internalized. Therefore, flipped classroom comprehensively improving students' learning ability and their own quality. however, we still need to view flipped classroom dialectically. Flipped classroom teaching reform is still facing a series of challenges and needs to be improved, but the role of flipped classroom in education and teaching should always not be ignored.
This dissertation highlights issues related to the variation of a teacher’s classroom observation ratings across his or her multiple classrooms. However, there are a few meaningful and important issues that are beyond the scope of this dissertation and should be researched in future work. First and foremost, this dissertation did not provide evidence related to whether ignoring classroom-level variation in observation ratings would lead teachers being misclassified in a teacher evaluation system. Whitehurst et al. (2014) found that adjusting the observation scores by controlling for the classroom effects could move some teachers out of their original ranking positions in teacher evaluations. However, Lazarev and Newman (2015) pointed out that the adjustment of observation ratings might not be appropriate if teacher assignment was not random. For example, if less proficient teachers were assigned to lower-performing classrooms or if schools were less successful in retaining effective teachers, then such an adjustment would mask the real comparisons among teachers. Therefore, how to incorporate the observation rating adjustment in teacher evaluations and how this adjustment for contextual factors (e.g., raters, schools, classrooms) would function in rewarding or sanctioning teachers in high-stakes settings could be investigated in future research.
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One potential problem with these microscopes was concern that the image quality of the Digital Blue™ QX5™ may not be as clear as one might wish. Therefore, the teacher in the experimental group was provided with three ProScope™ computer microscopes, as well as three Digital Blue™ QX5™ models. Like the Digital Blue™ QX5™, the ProScope™ also connects to a computer by a USB port, and it also comes with multimedia software that allows the user to take still pictures and to make video clips and time-lapse movies. One advantage of this digital microscope is that it can be connected to a standard analog microscope. The ProScope™ can convert images from an analog microscope to digital pictures. However, this model, which costs about $745 for a microscope, stand, and lenses at 10X, 50X, 100X, and 200X magnifications, is much more expensive than the Digital Blue QX5™ microscope. Therefore, the cost is rather prohibitive for the school system to buy enough of these tools for a whole class of students to use in small groups. Thus, a teacher reading this research study might be interested in how well each microscope performed in the classroom. Information has been provided in chapter 5 that could help teachers decide
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classroom practices contribute to the research process. The first type of research uses real classroom events as the basis for discussing and exploring the process of teachers’ knowledge development. For example, using the research techniques of classroom observations and interviews, Borg (1998a) conducted a detailed case study of one EFL teacher to examine his pedagogical system of grammar teaching. One of the key findings was that the decision for explicit formal instruction of grammar does not necessarily reflect a teacher’s belief that such instruction promotes language learning. As the participant explained, he integrated some explicit work into his teaching because he felt such instruction meets students’ expectations and that the students would respond to it positively. Another major finding was that in grammar teaching, teachers do not necessarily adhere exclusively to one particular approach. Overall, as Borg concludes, the teacher’s pedagogical system consists of a belief in the importance of work on grammar in terms of applying grammatical rules and awareness-raising, the needs of the actual students in the class, meeting students’ expectations, and the need to engage the students actively in their own learning.
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The elements and principles of brain based learning can be applied in the classrooms by identifying the teaching strategies that help the brain to learn naturally. These elements and principles can be utilized in classroom during teaching learning process by using appropriate resources and various instructional methods that can improve learning. The elements and principles of brain based learning with resources and instructional method that can be used in classroom. Though the effort has been made by researcher to enlist elements, principles and strategies, the list of strategies is non-exhaustive. Understanding of elements and principles of brain based learning help in selection of appropriate resources and methods for teaching to make learning effective. The brain based learning can be best described as engagement, strategies and principles. Learners need to be engaged in classroom using various strategies and resources based on principles of brain based learning. Emotional engagement, physical involvement, breaks, threat free environment, social interconnectedness, etc. must be included in a classroom to enhance learning.
The interviews suggest that the implementation of the Tools of the Mind program is demanding according to teachers’ self- report. Even so, all five subjects in the study report achieving a level competence and mastery of the curriculum that is provid- ing them with a sense of accomplishment. At the conclusion of the school year, two of the five teachers mentioned that they were thinking about applying to the Tools of the Mind En- dorsed Teacher Program which would give them certification status. One cannot discount the bias, or halo effect of the re- searchers in this small study. As interested observers appearing on a regular basis throughout the year, we were repeatedly re- inforcing the idea that what teachers have to say is important and worth documenting. Yet, what they observed as cognitive and social benefits, i.e., fewer classroom behavioral problems, more collaborative behaviors, a higher level of verbalization and communication, dove-tails with the empirical research findings of Barnett et al. (2008). This 2008 study compared Tools classrooms and a control group on a number of parame- ters. ECERS scores (the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale) and SELA scores (Support for Early Literacy Assess- ment) were among the tests used for assessing differences be-