The study developed criteria for a successful adaptation to effect of climatechange taking case of Gandaki river basin of Nepal. In study area, the forest users have already been implementing some adaptation activities at community level adaptation in past. 20 experts were involved to develop criteria using Delphi techniques. These experts have in-depth knowledge on subject matter and long working experiences in the study area. Based on literature review, the researcher presented 46 criteria to expert panel grouped under six different categories. Six different categories include; technical aspects of adaptation activity, effectiveness in achieving adaptation outcomes, efficiency of cost and benefits, equity for the local beneficiaries, social acceptability and sustainability of adaptation activities in communities. From round one of expert consultation, all 46 criteria were accepted as relevant (>=70% positive response) and 11 more criteria were added by experts. New set of 57 criteria were then presented to the same panel of experts for rating priority. Based on expert prioritization, three criteria were rejected and 54 criteria were accepted (>=60% priority score). The Deplhi technique was successfully used in this case study. The set of 54 criteria are recommended as new set of criteria suitable for assessment of community-basedadaptation to climatechange applicable to forest user communities in Gandaki river basin Nepal.
By building adaptive capacity, CBA responds to a socio-economic development objective. In our model, a business-as-usual scenario implies that communities will fall under absolute poverty levels (i.e. one dollar a day per capita in purchasing parity prices) as a consequence of adverse climatic conditions and extreme weather events. The latter will also reduce health and educational levels among populations. Avoiding these future costs is a pre-condition for any successful development policy in Kenyan ASALs. Furthermore, numerous adaptation measures we investigated can be considered as facilitators of future development interventions and to be compatible with wider economic development. For instance, empowering communities through institution-building and enhancing decision-making processes means that any future development intervention in these communities will be facilitated by pre-existing social and institutional capitals. Similarly, economic diversification can protect communities not only from extreme weather events but also from price volatility, such as food prices. In short, while adaptation interventions are not one and the same with classic development interventions, the synergies between both can be extremely strong. In particular, resilient development will involve adaptation and vice versa. These potential “double dividends”, whereby adaptation enhances socio-economic development, were beyond the scope of our quantitative analysis. This means that benefits of community-basedadaptation interventions could be even higher than the ones represented by our findings.
Academic excellence was considered an important contribution of climate-health CBA projects by the research team and institutional partners, with IHACC’s scientiﬁc articles reportedly increasing “cred- ibility” and “publicity” for partner organizations. Scientiﬁc outputs were described as increasing trust in the research, with demand from mostly national level partners for information on local/regional pro- jections of climate impacts and evidence-based opportunities for redu- cing vulnerability. As one researcher commented, “ without research we ’ re shooting in the dark in terms of vulnerability reduction ” (ID#37). IHACC was viewed to have made substantial contributions to academic excellence, re ﬂ ected in contributions to the scholarship, success at in- tegrating traditional knowledge and cultural values into the research, and developing baseline understanding on climate-health outcomes. Comparison across regions was reported to be important, although the tangible bene ﬁ ts to communities of such comparison was questioned by partners given the signiﬁcant diﬀerences between the study regions, with the impact more at the level of contributing to global under- standing on climatechange and Indigenous issues. A number of chal- lenges to achieving academic excellence were raised, with researchers across regions struggling to maintain a focus on climatechange and adaptation with many other pressing issues facing communities (e.g. poverty, unemployment, ill health, health care access). This necessi- tated balancing the overarching adaptation goal of the project, de- mands of institutional partners for climate speci ﬁ c information, and immediate community needs, and resulted in a greater focus on present day climate-related health outcomes.
Some of the methods can be adapted for use in determining community-basedadaptation to climatechange and CommunityBased Risk Assessment (CRA), which has received immense attention in the scientific and policy debate, and is seen as complementary to mitigation . CRA has evolved from the concept of participatory risk assessment. CRA is a participatory process for hazard, risk and vulnerability assessment including coping capacity and final strategy which allows for risk reduction to be carried out in a scientific way by involving stakeholders, especially the local community. This includes risk and social mapping; transect walks, asset inventories, historical and seasonal calendars, risk and hazard prioritization, management options, surveys, focus group discussions (FGD), interviews etc. This tool is mostly used for engagement of stakeholders in national and local risk reduction plans made by governments and non- governmental projects [16–20]. This method can also be used for identifying and understanding climatechange effects and local adaptation practices by the community. This mainly involves investigating and gathering information regarding livelihoods, resilience, local risks and hazards. This tool demands special attention for making it simple . Another challenge of this tool is
In addition to technologies aimed at mitigating per- mafrost thaw impacts on existing infrastructure, the uti- lization of hazard mapping for monitoring and categorizing areas of risk to identify preferential areas for development is the key to adaptation in permafrost environments (Champalle et al. 2013). Planning for and making infras- tructure decisions based on potential permafrost thaw in Northern communities is more cost-effective adaptation than retrofitting infrastructure, (Melvin et al. 2017) and development suitability and hazard mapping have a large part to play in supporting local planning decisions. Hazard mapping is a spatial representation of risk associated with a specified hazard (Champalle et al. 2013) and can determine the current and future hazard risk to an area (Preston et al. 2011). Hazard mapping has a long tradition in disaster risk reduction and risk communication (Preston et al. 2011). It is also used for climateadaptation applications in northern Canada for risks associated with permafrost, coastal haz- ards, landslides, sea ice, riverine flooding and forest fires (Champalle et al. 2013; Collaborative for Advanced Landscape Planning 2016; Hatcher et al. 2011; Sheppard 2012). There has been widespread use of hazard mapping across the northern regions of Canada to prepare and plan for climatechange in a region which is expected to be significantly impacted by warming temperatures. Cham- palle et al. (2013) provide an extensive review of hazard mapping utilization for adaptation in the built environment in northern Canada and identify barriers impeding utiliza- tion of hazard maps. The barriers include, a limited end- user awareness of the existence of these maps, coupled with a mismatch in the way that data are made available meaning end-users are unable to access and view hazard maps. The review also suggests that a closer working relationship between mapping experts and end-users would be beneficial in increasing operability, understanding, and trust in outputs. Despite increasing interest in hazard mapping, few studies have evaluated how such maps are used in decision-making or documented the perspectives of end-users (Ford et al. 2018; Preston et al. 2011). This is a missed opportunity for assessing the effectiveness of haz- ards maps, learning what works and what does not, and for sharing good practices and experiences (Bours et al. 2014b, 2015; Ford and Berrang Ford 2015).
The concept of Community Shelter Development (CSD) is related to a variety of terms including participatory, local community, community-based, collaborative-joint and disaster risk reduction. The CSD in the coastal area is an adaptation approach by integrating food security and ensuring safe shelter. The study area is located Kashipur village, Tala Thana, Satkhira District under Khulna Division in the south-west coastal region of Bangladesh. The Pair-Wise Ranking is a socio-technical tool to analyze the relative importance of different factors. The SWOT Analysis has been conducted to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Geographic
Farmers felt that the intensity of drought has been increased and flood has been decreased. It would be worthy to mention that respondents having sound academic background and more access to extension services hold strong believe on environmental factor for cause of climatechange over supernatural factor. These findings of perception would be effective to increase the awareness of climatechange in hillock farming community. These findings would provide a benchmark for the policy maker to formulate need based extension strategy for climatechangeadaptation in hilly areas of Sylhet region and a local solution of a global problem.
Another source of information that is web-based is the information provided by local governments. Local government websites often provide more general information on sustainable living, rather than information specifically targeted at tenants. For example in Newcastle, the Newcastle City Council (NCC) website provides general information on topics such as composting, grey water re-use, worm farming and provides general links to other sites (The City of Newcastle 2011). More recently, NCC has begun running workshops on keeping backyard chickens, solar power and conducting energy assessments (The City of Newcastle 2012). Lake Macquarie City Council (LMCC), provides brochures and workshops on sustainable living such as information about green cleaning, sustainable eating, saving water/energy/waste and sustainable transportation (Lake Macquarie City Council 2012d; Lake Macquarie City Council 2012e). They have also developed their own sustainable living guide, but this guide does not mention renters as a specific group. These resources are, however, available to renters as members of a carbon conscious community. In the next section we turn to our analysis of these resources, exploring how tenants are resourced in their
The management impact of climatechange has been a global agenda in Indonesia for last decade. Based on policy studies conducted in eight districts/cities in West Java Province, shows that development activities in climatechangeadaptation and mitigation require a strengthening mechanism of development management. It also shows the gaps in policy development implementation between national government, province government, district government and community. In addition, institutional development management need to collaborate between stakeholders and local community need. Through a participatory multi- stakeholder dialogue, it is found that the development climatechangeadaptation and mitigation activities need to implement community-based development management. The development programme process starting from initiating activities at the community level in one village, and encourage collaboration between the various communities to experience and enlarge the scale of activities, establishing common understanding from the community to in line with Regional Development Planning to set up a productive area as an economic effort considering the sustainability of natural resources. This is a social learning form to educate the community, increase satisfaction and encourage solidarity stakeholders. This community-based development management will further contain the characteristics of local culture and give priority to the value of collaboration in vulnerability due to climatechange impacts.
Abstract Participatory innovation in agriculture is key in enhancing food security in Sub-Sahara Africa. The Collective Learning Community (CLC) concept entails bringing people together for shared learning, discovery and generation of knowledge. It enhances formation of networks to promote continuous interaction and communication. Farmers in Mauche Ward of Njoro Sub-County depended on rain fed agriculture vulnerable to rainfall variability and the negative eﬀects of climatechange. Linkages needed for innovation to support growth and development in the potato value chain were generally weak; hence inadequate clean potato seed and lack of market access were major challenges to potato production A Collective Learning Community (CLC) comprising of farmers and other potato value chain actors was established to exchange knowledge and collaboratively innovate for climatechangeadaptation. The Net-Map toolbox was used to assess the links between actors based on exchange of information, sharing of resources and inﬂuence. This enabled the CLC to clarify roles and power relations among the actors; and to identify weak points in the network that needed addressing. Membership to the CLC enabled farmers to access climatechangeadaptation technologies, clean potato seed and negotiate for a better potato price. The study recommends collective learning, positive selection for clean seed production, group marketing of potato and involving of local leadership in climatechangeadaptation initiatives for sustainability.
5. Topic=("climat* change" OR "global warming" OR "climat* variability" OR "climate hazard" OR "extreme weather" OR "natural hazard" OR disaster OR tsunami OR flood* OR drought OR hurricane OR storm OR cyclone OR "sea level rise" OR (climate AND fire) OR mudslides OR landslides OR precipitation OR temperature OR "rainfall variability") AND Topic=("natural capital" OR "ecosystem services" OR "green infrastructure" OR "ecological infrastructure" OR "soft infrastructure" OR vegetation OR "natural infrastructure" OR (river AND flood* OR drought) OR ecosystem OR wetland OR "natural resources" OR forest OR woodland OR dryland OR grassland OR "coral reef" OR biodiversity OR coast* OR mangrove OR tree OR "sea grass" OR watershed OR mountain) AND Topic=(people OR society OR community OR city OR population OR livelihood OR sector OR forestry OR "water sector" OR "water management" OR "rainwater harvesting" OR agroforestry OR fisheries OR agricultur* OR village OR rural OR farmer) AND Topic=(adapt* OR vulnerab* OR cop* OR "sustainable management" OR protect* OR "disaster risk reduction" OR mitigation OR "risk management" OR resilie* OR "ecosystem-basedadaptation" OR "ecosystem approach" OR "natural resource management" OR "ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation" OR "ecosystem-based approaches for adaptation") NOT Topic= (biofuel OR "carbon stock*" OR (stock AND carbon) OR "renewable energy" OR bioenergy OR "alternative fuel" OR
The time has come for the world community to seriously address the problem of sinking nations. The failure of political will at COP 15 cannot continue in future climatechange negotiations. Agreements to agree in the future are no longer sufficient. The world community must completely understand and accept that economic growth based on rapid exploitation of fossil fuels (which has been the modus operandi for centuries) will lead to the complete destruction of sovereign nations within centuries. Rather than ignoring the problem or putting complete blind faith in the rapid development of a massive technological solution, the international community must seriously consider the development and implementation of large-scale adaptation strategies like those discussed in this article.
The present findings in terms of rangeland condition assessment as perceived by Afar pastoralists in Ethiopia is similar to the results of others (Holechek et al. 2001; Angassa and Beyene 2003), who indicated that reduction in plant productivity and livestock number are the main indicators of rangeland deterioration attributed to the im- pact of climatechange. It is important to note that pasto- ralists’ perceptions are all about the knowledge that is available in connection with their local environment, which is critical in decision-making based on those verifi- able truths. Increasing land use changes, as human de- mand for food and natural resources rise in dry land ecosystems, eventually contributes to climatechange (Grover et al. 2011). These changes have been indicated and tackled using pastoral communities’ knowledge towards seasonal rainfall and temperature changes. The increase in DS’s temperature that has been perceived by most respondents of the study area is in line with PFE, IIRR, and DF (2010) and NMA (2007), which have reported that temperature in the lowland of Ethiopia is generally predicted to increase by more than 0.1 ° C in the next century. In addition, scientists expect that the average global surface temperature could rise by 1 to 4.5 °F (0.7–2.5 °C) in the next 50 years and by 2.2 to 10 °F (1.4–5.8 °C) in the next century with a significant variation in regional temperature (FAO 2008).
Local Level Risk Management (LLRM) is a tool used to ad- dress risk by engaging with local organisational and institu- tional structures (United Nations Development Programme, 2006). This approach is used in Navua, Fiji (Fig. 2), which is an area susceptible to severe flooding. Recent flood events in 2003 and 2004 resulted in extensive damage to crops, livestock, houses, roads and bridges with thousands of peo- ple losing their homes and belongings (Mataki et al., 2006). The aim of this United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) two year project was to further develop the com- munity’s understanding of the pre-existing flood early warn- ing system (Fig. 3). The LLRM’s “soft solution” approach also seeks to work closely with the community, local organ- isations and various levels of government to enhance the un- derstanding of natural hazards to the region, as well as the linkages between development and disaster risk in the Navua area. The approach is therefore taking practical steps to ap- ply a DRR approach in light of existing development issues. It aims to address current risk based upon historical models of hazard impact, thus draws on mainly traditional DRR ap- proaches.
Forecasts for declines in the yields of staple crops show that climatechange will place unprecedented pressures on our ability to grow the food we require, and these impacts will be particularly severe in developing countries. The need for new crop varieties that can withstand these challenges is now widely recognized and is frequently cited in climatechange discussions. These are essential not only to reduce hunger but also to strengthen global food security in the medium- and long term. Therefore the development of crop varieties that can cope with heat, drought, flood and other extremes may well be the single most important step we can take to adapt to climatechange. https://www.croptrust.org/our-mission/crop-diversity-why-it-matters/ (Accessed date 7/10/2016)
The findings of the study afforded the researchers in drawing various suggested activities on climatechange of selected farmers in the Local Government Unit of Malvar. Provision of budget and installation of windbreaks may be considered by the LGU of Malvar, through the Office of Agriculture, to conserve soil and its moisture. The LGU of Malvar may encourage the small farmers of different barangays to observe zero tillage to help maintain and improve the environment through orientation, seminar, or general assembly. There is a need for providing new/innovative financing schemes that address the problems of the farmers who lack in collateral, and minimize long processing of documents and other requirements. Different financial institutions as well as the LGU of Malvar may consider taking this into consideration. The LGU of Malvar may orient and train the farmers of other approaches/strategies to adapt to climatechange. The proposed extension service activities by the researchers may be implemented, monitored, evaluated, and reviewed to ensure its efficiency on strengthen the farmers’ awareness and adaptation on climatechange. Since this study deals with numerous concerns, a similar or a follow-up study may be conducted using other variables.
“Transfer” is a technical risk management term for having another organization take responsibility for reducing the risk. Your risk is mitigated by another party. Buying an insurance policy is an example of transferring risk by having another party reduce the consequences if the risk occurs. An environmental management organization will probably not be buying insurance policies, but transfers can occur when other organizations will act in ways to reduce your risks. Maybe your risk could be mitigated when a highway is rebuilt or as part of other infrastructure work. Maybe you can agree to lead a reforestation effort if a partner agrees to restore some other habitat. Maybe some agency has announced it will be taking hazard mitigation actions that would have the co-benefit of reducing some of your risk. If others’ actions are lowering the likelihood or consequence of your risks then you have transferred the risk reduction responsibility to them. You aren’t mitigating the risk, but it is being reduced. Note that you cannot unilaterally transfer a risk. Other organizations need to affirm that they will actually mitigate the risk; otherwise the risk will still be there. You can opt to transfer some of a risk by partnering with another organization or by making a financial contribution to someone else’s mitigation project. If you are working with partner organizations on your adaptation plan, this is an opportunity to decide which organization is going to be the lead for which risks.
Numerous studies have cited the difficulty of obtaining credit as a crucial factor in determining the ability of farmers to adapt to climatechange in other settings (Deressa et al., 2009; Maddison, 2007). Credit markets are an important feature of Pakistan’s rural agricultural economy owing to the range of different types of lenders that offer credit (Aleem, 1990). They may be an important part of the adaptation decision because some adaptations require significant up-front investment that may have to be leveraged with credit. We distinguish between two types of credit. Formal credit is provided by established institutions like banks and microfinance organisations. Chandler and Faruqee (2003) find that formal credit only accounts for 7% of households who are in receipt of credit, but makes up 22% of the volume of loans. Informal credit is provided by a range of actors, such as family members or landlords. Salient in Pakistan is the role of the middleman who often supplies credit in exchange for providing farmers with marketing services. There is a common perception that middlemen charge high rates of interest on loans (Haq et al., 2013), although it is argued by Aleem (1990) that higher rates of
The parameter estimates of the MNL model provide only the direction of the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable shown in Table 1. Thus, the marginal effects measure the expected change in probability of a particular choice being made with respect to unit change in an explanatory variable (Green, 2012; Long, 1997). The signs of the marginal effects and respective coefficients may be different, as the former depend on the sign and magnitude of all other coefficients. Then, the interpretations for each of the adaptive strategy are has reduced farm productivity and household food security. Although farmers have been able to deal with past related hazards is forcing farmers to engage more frequently in emergency coping strategies such as consuming seeds reserved for planting and
The science is clear, climatechange is here and is a challenge that people need to deal with over coming decades. Human activities have already caused some irreversible changes to ecosystems and further damage is likely. It is necessary to think how we will adjust not only to these specific changes but to the new uncertainty about our future climate. This is particularly relevant for developing countries, where it will be necessary to address many institutional and capacity issues in order to ensure sustainable adaptation to climatechange. Adaptation is the process of adjusting to new conditions, stresses and natural hazards that result from climatechange. Adaptation to climatechange takes place in response to impacts experienced already, as well as in anticipation of expected impacts. In this sense, adaptation can be a spontaneous, autonomous process that takes place depending on existing capacity (so-called ‘adaptive capacity’) and it can also be planned. Planned adaptation can take many forms and be driven by decision makers from a distance and by policies on a macro scale as well as locally by those involved. Both autonomous and planned adaptation may require additional outside support in terms of financing, knowledge and technology, including, in particular, guidance on how to assess who and what needs to adapt and how to do it. For this reason, there are a raft of adaptation policies, plans and projects, which are supposed to facilitate the move towards adaptation at all levels — from local to national. Adaptation planning involves the full spectrum of activities from identifying and assessing to implementing adaptation measures, and is informed by the assessment of impacts and vulnerability.