CdTe is the commonly used semiconductor material for the detection of X-rays and low-energy gamma rays. The basic operating principle of the detectors composed of semiconductors is analogous to gas ionization devices. The passage of ionizing radiation creates electron-hole pairs which are then collected by an electric field. The advantage of the semiconductor is that the average energy required to create an electron-hole pair is some ten times smaller than that required for gas ionization. Thus, the amount of ionization produced for a given energy is an order of magnitude greater resulting in increased energyresolution. Moreover, because of their greater density, they have a greater stopping power than gas detectors . They are compact in size and can have very fast response times. An energyresolution of 1 keV for 6 keV X-rays (Fe kα) and better than 3 keV for 122 keVγ-rays ( 57 Co)is recorded
The correct formula for the variance of the output signal of a scintillation detector cannot be semiempirical. It must result strictly from the exact mathematical description of the processes that take place at registration of the incident particle by a scintillation detector. Only such formula has the predictive ability. Only in this case dependence of the energyresolution on characteristics of scintillation crystal and other parameters of the detector can be revealed, and the conditions at which the characteristics of the processes can be derived from the output signal. As the process of signal formation at the output of detector represents a random branching cascade process, the formalism of probability generating functions (PGF) is the most adequate for its formulation .
themselves. The accelerator deuteron beam energy was in the range 2.5–4.0 MeV and with the diamond detector positioned at 0 ◦ with respect to the beam axis the neutrons impinging into the detector were in the range 18.91–20.69 MeV with an intrinsic energy spread < 0.25% FWHM. With such narrow neutron energy spread, since the used diamond detector had an intrinsic energyresolution lower than 0.9% FWHM in the range of the energy deposited by the charged products, several well separated peaks were observed. These reactions, ordered in descending peak energy, are: (n,α 0 ); (n,p 0 ); (n,p 1 ); (n,d 0 );
for measurements of highly radioactive and of low-mass samples, and of very low cross sections. This new measuring station is complementary to the existing ﬁrst experimental area (EAR1), and the characteristics of both are extremely competitive in terms of ﬂux intensity, energy range covered and energyresolution. Depending on the requirements of the reaction under study precise and accurate re- sults can be achieved, and several detection systems are available to investigate (n, γ ), (n,cp) and (n, f ) reactions. These cross sections play a fundamental role in nuclear technologies, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental nuclear physics, and signiﬁcant results have been attained, relating to new reactor designs, to stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis models and to the investigation of the compound nucleus. Associated to the last ﬁeld, a recent measurement on the 25 Mg capture cross-section has
ground state 1s 2 1 S, as evident by the very small contribution of the 4 P peak. The high fraction spectrum was obtained with FPS, while the low fraction with GTS. (Middle) Same as in the top graph, but here the ground state spectrum was convoluted with the slightly larger energyresolution of the mixed-state spectrum and then normalized to the 1s2p 2 2 D line. (Bottom) Li-like Auger spectrum corresponding
We clearly identify from the overlap of the four limits at 8 V and 100 V below 4 GeV/c 2 mass WIMP that the most simple detector design is enough to probe such low-mass region. As discussed in section IV B, the main limitation here is the heat-only background for which only an im- provement of the ionization energyresolution or a reduc- tion of the associated event rate could increase the sensi- tivity for a given exposure. Even in case this background would be significantly reduced or suppressed, conclusions would be unchanged as the beta background would take over and neither the surface rejection capability, nor the ionization/heat based discrimination is still effective at such low mass. However, once the discrimination starts to be feasible with respect to the assumed energy resolu- tions, there is a significant gain confered by the double readout, especially at 8 V that is furthermore the bias condition to consider to probe the intermediate-mass re- gion. Also, the limits show that measuring ionization allows for spectral shape discrimination, which is partic- ularly important to differentiate 5 GeV/c 2 (10 GeV/c 2 )
energyresolution affects only the maximum value of the resonance peak keeping the resonance area the same and does not affect the low-energy tail. This effect was not in- cluded in the analysis carried out in Ref. , which led to a different result quoted there. The S (E) factor folded with 20 keV energy-resolution and obtained using Eq. (12) (the black solid line in Fig. 1), where Eq. (18) is used for the TH double differential cross section with the infinite resolution, is in a perfect agreement with our THM data. The total uncertainty of the TH data is 16% . An ad- ditional 11% comes from the uncertainty of the ratio of the direct transfer amplitudes corresponding to the popula- tion of the resonances at 312 and 960 keV, which is caused by the transfer reaction experimental uncertainties not re- lated to the TH reaction. Then the total uncertainty of the TH S (E) factor we estimate to be 19%. Thus we get from the THM S (0) = 70.0 ± 13.5 MeVb factor, which agrees with the direct R71 and R32 data fits. A significant part of the χ 2 for the THM data fit comes from the energy region E > 400 keV, where the contribution from the non-THM mechanism, sequential decay of 13 C, becomes significant.
Pseudoscalar and vector meson photoproduction will be studied too, both oﬀ the proton and oﬀ the neutron, measuring cross sections and beam asymmetries. Thanks to the high energyresolution for the incoming photon energy provided by the ARGUS hodoscope, the beam asymmetry in η photo- production will be measured at threshold, allowing for a more detailed study of the strong energy dependence observed by the GrAAL collaboration, and at higher energy (up to 1800 MeV) where no experimental data are available yet. The high eﬃciency of the Rugby Ball for neutron detection will allow the measurements of η and ω oﬀ the quasi-free neutron with liquid D2 target. Finally, the Φ photoproducion will be investigated as well.
The scattered-positron energy was determined from the calorimeter deposit since, above 10 GeV, the calorime- ter energyresolution is better than the momentum reso- lution of the CTD. The measured energy was corrected for the energy lost in inactive material in front of the CAL. The presampler was used in the RCAL, while in the B/FCAL a detailed material map was used . To render the energy response uniform across the face of the calo- rimeter, a correction obtained from fits to the nonuni- formity pattern in data and in the MC simulation  was made. The corrections were determined separately for the BCAL and the RCAL. After these corrections, the non- uniformities were greatly reduced and the data were well reproduced by the MC simulation . Too few positrons were scattered into the FCAL for such a correction to be derived.
During G ERDA data taking a performance degradation related to the Ge detector position in the strings has been observed . In best cases an energyresolution of 0.1% (FWHM at 2.6 MeV) is observed in BEGe detectors, in agreement with previous results. Going down in the string the resolution deteriorate until 0.15%. A suitable explanation for this behavior is that the signal cable (from detector to CC3) introduces a stray capacitance, increasing the noise and reducing energyresolution and PSD power. This observation motivated to put effort in the realization of a new read-out electronics for the LEGEND-200 experiment, including an amplifier stage close to each detector.
con ﬁ ned to clinically visible tophi. This prospective DECT study showed that (1) sustained lowering of SUA levels virtually cleared patients from all tophi within a few months. Furthermore, (2) even transient lowering of SUA level in patients in whom immune reactions against pegloticase prevented further treatment ( partial respon- ders) allowed for cutting down tophus volume by roughly 50%, suggesting that tophi are highly dynamic structures that lose their mass as soon as uric acid levels are low. Finally, (3) the speed of resolution of tophi depends on their anatomical localisation. Deposits at bradytrophic tissues such as tendons showed substantially slower reso- lution compared with deposits in the joints.
Coded aperture imaging found early use in x-ray astronomy, where transverse 2D imaging is the goal. The Fresnel zone plates (FZP) proposed by Mertz and Young in 1961 , and analyzed further by Barrett and Horrigan , provided a way to beat the resolution-versus- throughput tradeo of pinhole imaging. The idea was that each star projects a shadow of the FZP onto the detector plane, and these shadows are superimposed in the measured image. Each shadow exhibits a dierent shift determined by the position of the original star. When the measured image is developed into a transparent medium and illuminated with coherent light, each shadow acts like a lens and focuses the coherent light back to the source point, with some magnication. The result is a holographic image of the original scene. The hologram may be reconstructed optically or digitally, depending on the equipment available. The ability to perform this reconstruction is due to the orthogonality of the FZP shadows centered at dierent locations.
All simulated samples used for the measurement are processed through a simulation  of the detector geometry and response using Geant4 . All simulated samples are processed through the same reconstruction software as the data. Simulated events are corrected so that the object identification efficiencies, energy scales and energy resolutions match those determined in data control samples. The alternative t ¯ t samples used for modelling uncertainties, described in section 5.2, are instead processed with the ATLFAST- II  simulation. This employs a parameterisation of the response of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters, and Geant4 for the other detector components. The b-hadrons are decayed in either Pythia or Herwig , and all samples are reweighted, as detailed in section 5.2, such that the b-hadron production and the hadron-to-muon branching ratios match the values found in the Particle Data Group’s review of particle physics (RPP) . 4.2 W +jets normalisation
demonstrated by the ANTARES neutrino telescope which is operational in the Mediterranean Sea since 2007 . Building on this experience the KM3NeT research infrastructure  has been planned and is currently under construction. It will host two neutrino telescope installations: ARCA (Astroparticle Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) at an Italian site located about 100 km from Capo Passero (Sicily, Italy) at a depth of 3500 m, focussed on the measurement of high energetic astrophysical neutrinos and ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) at a French site located about 40 km from Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475 m, focussed on low energetic atmospheric neutrinos. The same technology will be used at both sites but different detector densities will be implemented optimized for the different addressed energy ranges.
The yield of the solar digester could be improved, if we could introduce a means of agitation for the homogenization of the substrate and consequently its internal temperature. The modelisation, similation and experimentation allowed us to realize a patch solar digester with a veru low price could’nt be over than 500£. Forthermore, It contributes to the resolution of several energies problems, economic and environmental problems by the solar energy utilization which is an renewable energy instead of the electric power or any other kind of conventional energy for the warming of our digester, free biogas production which could be used in house or in other domestic fields and environmental protection by the presence of a treated sludge which can be thrown in nature without danger or to use it as fertilizer in agriculture.
The Inner Tracker has been installed between the beam pipe and the DC inner wall. The high-rate capability of GEM detectors made possible to place the IT very close to the interaction point, thus improving the resolution of K S decay points located within a few cm from the IP. An accurate study showed that an improvement on this resolu- tion of a factor ∼ 3 could be reached. The overall material budget of the IT is only ∼ 0 . 2% of X 0 . This is impor-
the photon energy and the corresponding working distance. For spectral measurements at the nitrogen or oxygen edge, purging will not produce a sufficiently pure helium environ- ment and fluctuations of the residual oxygen or nitrogen con- tent are problematic. In these cases the vessel is pumped, to 250 m Torr, which is as low as it will go with all the motors inside. A subsequent helium fill is sufficiently pure, so that there is little atmospheric absorption signal in the measured spectra and normalization is reliable. High voltage feedthroughs in the bulkhead have been adapted to prevent breakdown in helium. The scanning stage high voltage ~ 170 V ! poses no problem. The photomultiplier tube is hermeti- cally sealed against the helium and held in air at atmospheric pressure. Cable connections carry the bias ~ 1100 V ! through helium without breakdown.