The decision Robert and his fellow directors now face is whether they should continue to pursue their current approach and invest in developing a strategy for manufacturing and selling both the Quickcover and Stadiumcover products, or sell this part of the business and focus on their already well estab- lished and successful engineering services business. Robert’s ability to influence this decision may hinge on his ability to persuade his fellow directors to accept his plan. This case is helpful because it offers a unique insight into how entrepreneurs develop emergent strategies to take advantage of new opportunities. It also advances our theoretical understanding of the relation- ship between strategic thinking and entrepreneurial approaches to opportu- nity recognition. The case highlights the concept of how intelligent opportunism can be used to explain the ways in which entrepreneurs develop emergent strate- gies in order to take advantage of new opportunities.
Establishing a basis for valuing change order during the progress of work is complicated. The conditions in the standard forms of contracts require that the variation be valued using the “rate stated in contract bill for such work”. If the description and measurement unit of a particular item is omitted or not properly described, there is a possibility that contractor will claim for variation which might be high in cost. Under this type of arrangement, determining the impacts that variations can have on the contract price and time can be arduous due to the interconnected nature of the construction work and the difficulty in isolating factors M&E services to quantify them. Nevertheless, the most frequent effects of variation order have been identified as: increase in project cost; rework and demolition; delay and possible time overrun; increase in overhead expenses .Sometimes when not properly administered, it can result to disputes
The relevance of cost and the need to predict it applying engineering principles and techniques is widely recognized by industry and academia. In essence, cost engineering is a discipline with a wide scope of concern, from [Roy 2003]: “cost engineering is concerned with cost estimation, cost control, business planning and management science, including problems of project management, planning, scheduling, profitability analysis of engineering projects and processes”. In particular, V-CES focuses on ‘cost estimating’, which is the first stage and function of cost engineering, with the objective of approximate, in an independent, objective, accurate and reliable way, the true cost of producing a product.
To model the design process of pressure hull, a dedicated system based on VISUAL BASIC was developed. During the design process, the principle “simple, convenient and smart” is an essential step to follow. The patterns for calculating and checking were built by computer programming language. Using this system, the designer will get the results quickly and correctly. Figures 1.1 and 1.2 are the examples of an underwater vehicle and how it is used for engineering work
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There is only one valid definition to business: to create customers. It is the customer who determines what the business is, (Lancaster, 1995). In the engineering and architecture consulting field, the potential client and their needs is the only work available. The purpose and scope of potential services provided by an A&E firm is completely dependent upon the available work, as defined by the customers within the firm’s market reach. If a firm is not continually staying on top of the changes in the market place/customer demand, the firm is in danger of losing market share and being improperly positioned with its work force. Work force will need to evolve with the market place. This could mean changes in employee training requirements along with potential hiring and firing to ensure that customer needs are within the engineering firm’s technical capabilities.
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Abstract This paper proposes a model integrates future scenario planning techniques, based on the Multicriteria Decision Aid (MCDA) approach, which can be used as a tool for attending companies’ strategic planning, applying it to an engineering company services, located in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The motivation of the studied theme is the possibility of applying MCDA techniques added to the future scenario concepts planning as a tool for strategic (and progress) planning. Thus, the usefulness of the proposed model was proven, since it enabled the manager to analyse investment alternatives in the light of the future prospecting conducted. Recent discussions suggest the use of resources in an optimized way due to the increasing scarcity. This fact makes decision-making and strategic planning based on future scenarios a complex task, since it has multiple and uncertain alternatives. A bibliographic review was performed to identify methods are more applicable to the problems. An innovative proposal is made to unite prospective with multicriteria in a compensatory problem; proposing a methodology with six steps.
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The empirical domain of this study is a single case study in the offshore outsourcing of engineering services. As Lewin and Peeters (2006) note, the extent of outsourced offshoring of engineering services - 62% outsourced versus 38% captive - is somewhat surprising, being as it might be considered a relatively critical, knowledge- intensive activity. Recently the specific challenges associated with this type of offshoring have begun to receive increasing attention. However, to-date this literature has tended to adopt a TCE perspective and, for this reason, has examined the operationalisation problems of offshore business models from the point where the transactions that are to take place have already been identified and explicated. Yet our research suggests that organisations face significant challenges in working out what these transactions should be. The purpose of this paper is to explore how firms work out what is to be transacted in an offshore services context.
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Service innovations are required by each organization to improve its business services , . Service innovations can be carried out by proposing new services or improving existing services. New services can be provided by enhancing existing services . Better services can be provided to its users by improving their service experiences . This can be achieved through the service technology and features improvements. Service technology and architecture, such as web services, cloud computing, mobile computing, and service-oriented architecture (SOA) have evolved in providing opportunities for realizing IT services systems that enable the service innovations , . This circumstance will trigger the ability to present the systems that support business services innovations.
Under the metaphor of physical security – millennia of experience with keeping physical assets safe would serve us in keeping digital assets safe . The main characteristics of cloud services is agility, goal to reduce time to sell, boost the velocity and rate of recurrence of software release, computerized and automated workflows across tool chains and reduce defects in production e.g. configuration errors, governance and configuration of underlying infrastructure. For incorporating security into the cloud service life cycle, an engineering approach is followed in different stages. Three important aspects of modeling cloud life cycle- include the actors, assets and their associated responsibilities. In first stage we start defining the problem and gathering the requirements, Configuration of the required components and resources, and define their responsibilities and roles. Actor: Service provider: roles include they should, define what need to be connected and offered as a service to the customer who demanded the service for their business needs, and to manage the services, using private, public, or hybrid model. Vendor should analyze the request for proposal, and request for service utilization using service discovery engine, using the orchestration and perform service certification related auditing, accounting, provide authorization, list the service, define service levels and cost of the services provided, define and sign SLA and Contract between the customer, provide the bundled and fabricated service which is packaged and delivered at one time or periodically as and when needed, define service termination based on ontology with joint responsibilities, cloud usage reporting and provisioning. Resources- define the component network, storage, resource requirements
SY received his B.S. degree in Control Instrumentation Engineering from Hankuk University of Foreign Studies in 1998. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electronics Engineering and Communication Engineering from Korea University, Seoul, Korea, in 2001 and 2006, respectively. He is currently working in the Telecommunication Systems Division at Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea. His current interest is the call processing system of WiMAX and sensor networks. TS received his Ph.D. degree in Information Security from Korea University, Seoul, Korea, and his M.S. and B.S. degrees in Computer Engineering from Ajou University, Suwon, Korea. From August 2005 to February 2011, he was with the Samsung Electronics of Korea. Since 2011, he has been a professor at the Division of Information and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea. His research interests include convergence platform security, mobile cloud computing security, mobile/wireless network security, WPAN/ WSN security, anomaly detection algorithms, and machine learning applications. EJK received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Electronics and Computer Engineering from Korea University, Seoul, Korea, in 2004, 2006, and 2013, respectively. From September 2005 to December 2005, he was with the Next Generation Wireless Communication (NGWC) Lab., Intel Korea R&D Center at Intel Corporation. From February 2006 to July 2009, he was with the Digital Media & Communications (DMC) R&D Center at Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea. Since August 2009, he has been with the Advanced Institute of Technology at KT Corporation, where he is currently a senior researcher. His research interests include wireless/mobile networks with an emphasis on QoS guarantee and adaptation, wireless sensor networks, wireless LAN/MAN/PAN, next-generation mobile networks, and machine-to-machine communications.
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d i f f e r e n t types of i n d u s t r i a l machineries and other engineering p r o d u c t s . While index of production f o r other i n d u s t r i e s r e g i s t e r e d a growth of 69.9% from 1960 to 1971 ( J a n - J u n e ) , t h a t for engineering i n d u s t r y swung by 131.3% over the same period. Within the
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This chapter presents the research background followed by the aims and objectives of the research. The research background establishes a timeline of significant political and regulatory milestones that influenced sourcing mechanisms within the English local government sector. The chapter progresses to contextualise the structure of the English local government sector that encompasses local councils. The role of local council elected members is discussed and the influence that they have upon the council budget and also the formulation of policy that affects the built environment. The role of the building surveyor and building services engineer is explored by identifying the key professional attributes to implement a council’s property-related policies. Subsequently, this chapter presents the problem statement, aim, objectives, and finally outlines the structure and content overview of the thesis. The content overview describes the process used to synthesise the data sources into the framework. The framework is unique in design, facilitating replication by other researchers and practical application by users from multiple industry sectors.
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during 1987- 90 under sponsorship of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India. The objectives of the study included: assessment of the participation level, analysis of the factors responsible for low participation and study of the job and career status of women engineers in India. The study was planned so as to provide a firm basis for status evaluation and to help in formulation of corrective strategies. The overall framework of the study consisted of collection and analysis of the data on enrolment and out-turns trends (numbers graduating per year), personal/family background, job status, career profiles and career problems of women engineers. Women who had obtained their Bachelor's degree in engineering during the sixteen-year period 1975-1990, in the country, in any branch of specialization, constituted the sample of that study. Out of the total sample size of about 20,000, direct contact could be established with 4678 women engineers and detailed personal, educational and professional data was obtained for 2753 through a structured, specially designed questionnaire. The data and analysis revealed that the number of women taking up engineering courses had increased significantly from only about 1% in 1975 to over 8% in 1990. However, the engineering job market was not open to accepting women as engineering professionals. About 26% (719 out of 2753) reported unemployed. The unemployment problem manifested itself more severely in the states and in the branches having higher enrolment rates and a larger population. Job opportunities for women engineers were limited in terms of sector of employment and the pace of their career growth was slow. The largest numbers were employed in Technical Educational Institutions followed by Government, Civil Services, Public Sector Units and R&D organizations. Non-acceptance of women engineers was particularly evident in the Private Sector Industry. These findings, obviously, were a cause for serious concern. Women’s representation in technical field is growing. For example, the percentage of women engineers graduating from IIT Bombay has grown from 1.8% in 1972 to 8% in 2005 .
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The second signiﬁcant weakness lies in the fact that there is no interaction protocol between parties speciﬁed in WS-Agreement. There is only a two-step conversation, an offer followed by an agree. Without an adequate set of speech-acts and speciﬁcation of how to construct interaction protocols, the usefulness of a WS-Agreement exchange is limited to cases such as buying from catalogues, with take-it or leave-it offers from the seller or buyer. For example, the Contract Net protocol is probably the most widely used interaction protocol in the multi-agent systems ﬁeld and it cannot be expressed solely through the WS-Agreement speciﬁcation. In the Contract Net protocol, there is no offer–accept situation, but rather call for proposals are made by a manager for contractor to carry out a task. Here, a manager can be a web service making a call for proposals for other web services to execute some task. After a call for proposal, the contractors send proposals to the manager. Even if we increase the WS-Agreement schema with various speech-acts, there is no concept of how to sequence messages to form a valid conversation. Another example of the inadequacy of WS-Agreement becomes apparent when we consider interactions based on auctions in which there is a sequence of sellers posting their item, bidders making bids and auctioneers announcing winning items. The sequencing of these actions are missing from the WS-Agreement speciﬁcation, but this shortcoming can be remedied by combining the WS-Agreement and the WSCL schemas.
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The DCE Library System which is renamed as Knowledge Centre and Library Online [KCLO] consists of a Central Library and 14 departmental libraries which collectively support the teaching, research and extension programmes of the Institute. All students, faculty members and employees of the Institute are entitled to make use of the Library facilities on taking library membership. The Library, besides having a huge collection of books on engineering, science and humanities offers library services through its various divisions. Library has more than 3000 active members. The Central Library moved to its new building in May, 2004 which has the reading area for 850 readers at a time and having a seven reading halls to accommodate approximately 1150 students at a time. Each hall having the collection areas as well reading area to provide better approach and access to their reading material.
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Context-aware services, especially when made available to mobile devices, constitute an interesting but very chal- lenging domain. It poses fundamental problems for both requirements engineering, software architecture, and their relationship. We propose a novel, reflection-based frame- work for requirements engineering for this class of applica- tions. The framework addresses the key difficulties in this field, such as changing context and changing requirements. We report preliminary work on this framework and suggest future directions.
Public filling areas, public filling barging points, public fill stockpiling areas, fill banks and C&D material recycling facility are collectively regarded as public fill reception facilities and are managed by the Civil Engineering and Development Department to accept public fill. Each facility has its own function. Public filling area is a designated part of a development project that accepts public fill for reclamation purpose. Public fill stockpiling area is a newly reclaimed land where public fill is stockpiled
user can use cloud based platform software directly through internet browser without the need to install any prerequisite software on their machines (e.g Desktop Computers, Laptops, Tablets, smart phone, etc). End users are not limited by geographic boundaries, they don’t have to pay any fees to start using (i.e. no up-front fees) because in cloud platform, “as end user you pay as you use” without any up-front fees (e.g. the more storage you’re consuming the additional fees pay you for extra storage consumed). There are many types of cloud deployment examples. The most commonly used type whilst discussion of cloud computing is the public cloud, in this type the applications and infrastructure are controlled and owned by the selling organization for the cloud-based implemented services. Due to some security and data privacy concerns, the cloud-based service tiers are replicated within private environment, behind the firewall, on-premises and maintained by hosting organization. Many believe that the effective spot for cost optimization in an organization will be found in a good balance of public and private clouds, the engineered platform addressed in this paper is hosted in public cloud and the platform is called “OncologyQuest”.
We use Web Services as the target platform technology because of their interoperability and Internet support characteristics. There are also some works using Web Services for the development of Context- aware applications, but most focus on the use of message parameters to transmit context information by the SOAP protocol. These solutions do not show how applications can adapt new activities by context changing and how these activities are implemented.
In particular, Client Agent is responsible for collecting users’ application requirements, for creating and updating the SLAs in order to grant always to best QoS. The Negotiator manages SLAs and mediates between the user and the broker; it selects protocols for agreements, negotiates SLA creation, and it handles fulfilment and violation. The Mediator selects vendor agents able to deploy services with the specified user requirements; it also interfaces with services deployed on different vendors’ providers. The Provider Agent interacts with virtual or physical resources at provider side. In mOSAIC the Cloud Agency was built upon the MAGDA  toolset, which provides all the facilities to design, develop and deploy agent-based services. The semantic engine uses information in the Cloud Ontology to implement a semantic-based Cloud services discovery exploiting semantic, syntactic and structural schema matching for searches.
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