ESP and EAP

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Once Upon A Time: A Framework for Developing Creative Writing in ESP and EAP

Once Upon A Time: A Framework for Developing Creative Writing in ESP and EAP

Ali Ata Alkhaldi has a PhD in the field of applied linguistics from the United Kingdom. He is currently Assistant Profes- sor of English in Liberal Arts- English Department at the American University of the Middle East, Kuwait. He teaches a variety of courses such as ‘English for Academic Studies‛, ‘English Composition’, ‘Academic, Character and Skills Development’, and ‘Fundamentals of Speech Communi- cation‛. He was also a team leader and a senior lecturer of English language in Abu Dhabi, UAE. He has experience in teaching English for specific purposes such as ‘English for Engineering‛, ‘English for ICT‛, ‘English for Oil and Gas‛, and ‘English for Aviation‛. He delivered presentations at many local and international conferences. Furthermore, he has publications in international journals, and his main re- search interests are Materials Development, Creative Writ- ing, Second Language Acquisition Research, TESOL, ESP/ EAP, and SL theories.
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Investigating Current Status of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in Iran; Revisiting ESP Specificity Continuum

Investigating Current Status of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in Iran; Revisiting ESP Specificity Continuum

In this article, the authors tried to consider one of the EAP course books by SAMT publications for medical students titled (ESM) in Iran. Some pertinent factors like the aim of ESP books, their contents and lesson formats were briefly evaluated. In modern student–centered instruction approaches, the appropriateness of materials includes student comfort and familiarity with the material, language level, interest, and relevance. However, it sometimes happens that teachers are obliged to use the same materials and the same textbooks reminding one of assembly-line approaches repeatedly over and over again. If the due course books are properly designed and involve a sufficient basis of flexibility for rearrangement, it would better suit the students’ needs, abilities, and interests within the course. It goes without saying that motivating the students with variety, relevance and fun can change them to active participants and encourage them to take initiative and assume responsibility for their own learning. Well-organized authentic materials are just one means towards reaching the goals. Henry Sweet (as cited in Gilmore, 2007) was one of the first advocates of using authentic materials. As he asserts 'natural texts do justice to every feature of the language' while artificial contrived materials comprise 'repetition of certain grammatical constructions, certain elements of the vocabulary, certain combinations of words to the almost total exclusion of others which are equally, or perhaps even more essential'. Focus on communication, social skills, process-oriented methodologies and training proficient bilingual teachers are also significant to a great extent in order to prevent spoon feeding teaching methodologies now current in many Iranian institutions. Current EAP in Iran must be based on ' study skills models'. Training Academic literacy is another missing link in the present situation. It's been left untouched in the EAP education in Iran thus leading to a mismatch between theory and practice. It's true that the first and the foremost skill taught in EAP SAMT books is and should be READING. However, the lessons haven't been even designed for activating reading skills. They all contain text-based lessons. Apparently, the recommended micro-skills have been totally forgotten like the following:
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CREATING AN EAP/ESP CORE TEXTBOOK: FOCUS ON ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN ENGLISH RATHER THAN ABOUT ENGLISH

CREATING AN EAP/ESP CORE TEXTBOOK: FOCUS ON ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN ENGLISH RATHER THAN ABOUT ENGLISH

And another important thing to bear in mind when it comes ESP/EAP textbooks today: a textbook is a collection of set materials and as such can only serve as a loose matrix for student learning. With so much information readily available from various sources nowadays, students must, naturally, be encouraged to build on the core material through their own research, the results of which they should be invited to present in writing, share with class through presentations, and use in various other skill-building activities.

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The Comparative Development of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth, and Academic Vocabulary for ESP/EAP Learners

The Comparative Development of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth, and Academic Vocabulary for ESP/EAP Learners

This small-scale study investigates (a) whether academic vocabulary compares in development with vocabulary breadth and depth for Iranian ESP/EAP learners and, if the answer is positive, (b) whether this trend of development happens across proficiency levels. Fifty-seven graduate students served as the subjects who were also divided into high and low groups based on whether they had acquired the most frequent 2,000 words. Multiple regression analysis results show much shared variance between breadth and depth tests, and academic vocabulary test for the participants as a whole group. Therefore, as learners’ vocabulary breadth and depth increase, so does their academic vocabulary. A similar finding is also observed for the high group and low group. However, the finding for the low group is contrary to our expectation. The results suggest more systematic vocabulary development for the high group, less for the participants as a whole group, and least in the low group. This investigation has some implications for language, and more particularly vocabulary, instruction for ESP/EAP purposes in Iran.
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A Needs-based Evaluation of EAP Syllabuses

A Needs-based Evaluation of EAP Syllabuses

EAP syllabus is “a plan of what is to be achieved through teaching and learning, identifying what will be worked on in reaching the overall course aims and providing a basis for evaluating students’ progress” (Hyland, 2006, p. 83). A combination of reasons for ESP syllabus are listed such as defining the component parts of language knowledge and providing a practical basis for assessment and textbooks, giving moral support to teachers and learners, making language learning task manageable, providing a platform for materials development and a visible platform for testing ESP programs in reaching the course objectives (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987). Basturkmen (2006) notes that since the content in ESP derives from real life situations, syllabus designers should select the most relevant language discourses in terms of socio-cultural and stylistic variations to meet the learners’ target requirements properly; therefore, it is important to present the language using an eclectic method by combining the required features of the language systematically and gradually according to the target objectives. In fact, since ESP prepares learners for academic, professional, or workplace environments, “a key feature of ESP course design is that the syllabus is based on an analysis of the needs of the students” (Basturkmen, 2006, p. 18).
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Exploring the Relationship Between Modality and Readability Across Different Text Types

Exploring the Relationship Between Modality and Readability Across Different Text Types

To select appropriate texts, a large sample of instructional ESP/EAP texts used in the EFL context of Iran was collected. Then, they were screened and analyzed with reference to the features related to each text type. Finally, the most representative texts were selected for analysis. The first instrument of the study comprised a corpus of 33 texts including 11 narrative, 11 argumentative, and 11 expository texts. The first criterion for text selection was the discourse mode of the texts. We focused on narrative, expository, and argumentative texts as the most commonly used text types. Secondly, to ensure the representativeness of the texts without manipulations on the part of the researchers, a range but not a fixed number of propositions as the second criterion for text selection was considered. This range was found to be between 249 and 299 propositions based on a pilot analysis of the target texts. The range of words across the texts was from 512 to 609, 505 to 610, and 488 to 551 for the selected argumentative, expository, and narrative texts, respectively. Table 1 summarizes the features of the analyzed texts:
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Exploring Iranian EAP Teachers’ Pedagogic Content Knowledge and Teaching Practices, and Students’ Beliefs about EAP Teachers’ Methodology

Exploring Iranian EAP Teachers’ Pedagogic Content Knowledge and Teaching Practices, and Students’ Beliefs about EAP Teachers’ Methodology

This study set out to explore Iranian EAP teachers‟ PCK and teaching practices, and students‟ beliefs about their EAP teachers‟ methodology. Considering the first component of PCK, suggested by Grossman (1989), our findings showed sharp contrasts between language teachers‟ and content teachers‟ remarks. These findings were mirrored in the questionnaire as well. Generally, the language teachers believed that the principles of teaching EGP and teaching EAP are the same. However, EAP teachers need more preparation before the class, compared to EGP teachers. Their views are in line with Atai (2006) who holds that the principles forming the basis of EGP methodology and ESP/EAP methodology are similar. Similarly, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) argue that the underlying principles of ESP methodology and ELT methodology are the same, and “there is nothing specific about ESP methodology” (p. 142). Conversely, the content teachers asserted that teaching EAP and teaching EGP are totally different. The only reason they mentioned was the degree of emphasis on specialized language with specialist terms having different meanings in EAP courses. With content teachers‟ views in mind; however, some scholars (e.g., Anthony, 2011) believe language teachers are not responsible for teaching technical terms.
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The Impact of a Strategies-Based Instruction on Iranian  EAP Students’ Reading Strategy Use:  Developing Strategic EAP Readers

The Impact of a Strategies-Based Instruction on Iranian EAP Students’ Reading Strategy Use: Developing Strategic EAP Readers

In a study by Ajideh (2009), he aimed to present the influential role of teaching methodology and learning strategies as a result of teaching and curriculum reform in his article. He intended to highlight the differences between ESP and general English study through stating that although choosing language specification and teaching content is necessary for ESP course, instruction on learning strategies which leads to autonomous learning should be considered as fundamental for ESP course. Ajideh (2009) mentioned that the advent of ESP coincided with the introduction of communicative language teaching supporting a practical view toward learning English. Then, he criticized the two language use models of ESP proposed by Widdowson (1983) suggesting that ESP should be considered as an approach not a product which provides a certain methodology and material, but it should focus on language learning and learner needs as stated by Hutchinson and Waters (1987). Ultimately, he concluded that there should be a great effort to foster learning autonomy in ESP courses in Iranian academic teaching context. In this regard, teaching learning strategies, particularly metacognitive strategies, should play an important role in ESP classes to promote learning autonomy. Similrly, Hayati and Jalilifar (2010) investigated the impact of reading skills instruction through implementing TBLT on EAP learners’ reading comprehension. To do so, they selected 42 MBA students and randomly assigned them to experimental and control groups as participants. Four reading skills including, scanning, skimming, contextual clues, and critical reading were taught through task-based language teaching to the experimental class, whereas the common translation method was taught to the control group. Then, they examined the participants’ reading micro-skills at the end of instruction period using t-test formula. The findings represented that the learners in the experimental group who received reading skills instruction through TBLT performed better than the students of the control group demonstrating a higher academic performance and successful reading comprehension.
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SUMMARY WRITING - REMEDY AND RESOURCE

SUMMARY WRITING - REMEDY AND RESOURCE

Abstract. Analyzing a corpus of summaries written by second-year students of History and Anthropology (at Belgrade’s Faculty of Philosophy), the author points to the effectiveness of summary writing in mastering a range of writing/reading skills, particularly those that students have failed to acquire in their earlier education. A considerable emphasis is placed on the relevance of selected information, its coherence and organization, as well as to adopting the appropriate tone/stance while summarizing a text. Given the varied language proficiency levels of the ESP/EAP students in question, the teacher can use summary writing to cover tasks ranging from basic paragraph writing to the more demanding ones such as discourse analysis. Summary writing is here seen not only as a remedial tool and a rich source of material for dealing with the challenges of both writing and reading (basic to advanced) but also as an efficient device for assessing these skills. Hence the author`s strong belief that summary writing, as an integral part of an ESP/EAP course, paves the way for mastering other, more complex and more sophisticated academic tasks.
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A Nationwide Study of Iranian Language Teachers’ and Content Teachers’ Cognitions and Practices of Collaborative EAP Teaching

A Nationwide Study of Iranian Language Teachers’ and Content Teachers’ Cognitions and Practices of Collaborative EAP Teaching

In order for an EAP course to be successful, the EAP teacher plays a crucial role. Teachers are required to adjust their teaching practices to students’ needs - what exactly students need to do through the medium of English (Robinson, 1991), to select the most appropriate materials in order to raise learner interest in subject matter, and even cooperate with other subject specialists (Dudley-Evans, 2001). Johns and Dudley-Evans (1980, as cited in Dudley-Evans & St John, 1998) claim that it is best to approach subject specific work by collaboration. This can involve “cooperation” in which the ESP teacher finds out about the specific subject and syllabus in an academic context. Cooperation involves seeking information from the department about the content of the courses, the tasks required of students, and the expectations of the department and its related discourse community about the nature of communication in the subject (Dudley- Evans, 2001).
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Information Technology Students’ Language Needs for their ESP Course

Information Technology Students’ Language Needs for their ESP Course

course and its implementation in the teaching and learning process. Carter (1983) expresses that ESP courses should consider the material and the learners in a way that the ma- terial should be authentic and the learners should have a de- gree of freedom to decide what, when, and how to study. In the view of Belcher (2006), “ESP assumes that the problems are unique to specific learners in specific contexts and thus must be carefully delineated and addressed with tailored-to- fit instruction” (p. 135). The main purpose of EAP classes (English for Academic Purposes) is to improve the students’ technical vocabulary, their reading and translation skills and the textbooks seem to represent what the students need to know in order to pass the exam (Mazdayasna, 2008). In this regard, universities in Iran present ESP courses to help students overcome their foreign language problems. Irani- an university students at the undergraduate level of differ- ent disciplines have to pass an ESP course which utilizes a text-centered approach and can be described as examina- tion-centered. Because of two reasons, this problem is not that much conspicuous. First, in all majors at least an ESP course is presented to the students and they pass the course whether they learn English or not. Second, most of the books studied at the undergraduate level are translated into Persian, so it is a great help for them as they compare the English references with their translated texts.
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Student writing and academic literacy
development at university

Student writing and academic literacy development at university

Collaboration implies more parity in the respective roles of writing and subject specialists. The former often have academic backgrounds themselves in relevant areas especially applied linguistics research and expertise in English for specific and academic purposes (ESP/ EAP). There is potential for a synergy which can deliver optimally for supporting students’ learning and literacy development. Elton (2010, p. 151) points out that seldom is writing pedagogy ‘a constructive collaboration among equals’, the writing specialist with theoretical and peda- gogical knowledge about texts and writing and the subject specialist with epistemic knowledge of the discipline. Research into language use in academic and professional settings identified particular situated and contextual ways in which professional and disciplinary communication takes place (e.g., Berkenhotter and Huckin, 1995) - how writers get things done with texts and what rhetorical resources they use to achieve their aims. The work of Swales (1990) and Bhatia (1993) has been among the most influential and allowed for the specification of academic ‘discourse communities’. This links linguistic knowledge with other theories of learning – the ways in which the artefacts of a given community are typically written with what is needed to become integrated into ‘communities of practice’ (Lave and Wenger, 1991), an induction or apprenticeship model of learning resonant with sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978; Bruner, 1966). Chanock et al. (2012) describe closer collaboration on an initiative in the Australian context in which the non- subject specialist brings perspectives on reading from applied linguistics research to enable the lecturers to support students in an informed way, thus altering the roles. Students were helped to engage with scholarly texts in the first year of study. The researchers noted the reciprocal benefits for students, teachers and managers as the latter groups were able to re-examine a number of their preconceptions about their students’ abilities to engage with academic texts and recognise and control the reading and writing conventions of their discipline and in their feedback practices.
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189   Wireless Security Design [ PUNISHER ] pdf

189 Wireless Security Design [ PUNISHER ] pdf

The IEEE 802.1X standard combines a 128-bit WEP keys and the Extensi- ble Authentication Protocol EAP (RFC2284), which permits the use of various authentication methods such as certificate, smartcards, one-time passwords and public key authentication. Usually the authentication server is a Remote Au- thentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) but the standard did not specifically require it.

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Computers in EAP: change, issues and challenges

Computers in EAP: change, issues and challenges

C omputers have, over the last 15 years or so, become a vital aspect of academic study at British Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and elsewhere, and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) providers cannot simply ignore such developments if they are to adequately address their remit of equipping non-native speakers (NNS) with the language skills, the study skills and the study competences needed in order to operate successfully in an academic environment. This article begins by documenting the changing role of computers in EAP and some of the arising issues and challenges. In doing so the paper identifies some of the key publications within this important and ever-growing area. The second part goes on to illustrate how some of these issues and challenges can be addressed through an example computer-based project work lesson. This is outlined and then discussed.
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Mixed Method Strategies to DevelopThe Acquisition of ESP Students’ Skills of on Line Marketing

Mixed Method Strategies to DevelopThe Acquisition of ESP Students’ Skills of on Line Marketing

Abstract : English for Spesific purposes is one of the topicthat hold a great deal of advantages for students in Literature program. It aims to give a chance to the students to feel the working environment and see how it will be when they want to get involve into the bussiness. The variety jobs have been offered to youngsters but the most current opportunity is on line bussiness. It opens a wide range of chance for students to achieve. In order to do so, students should master some skills, not only pedagogic skills but also marketing skills. This research tries to answer the question of how to acquire ESP students’ skillsof online marketing using mixed method, consist of qualitative, quantitative into a mixed method research approaches. The population is the senior students who are going to do field observations in several offices, consists of 30 students of english literature department program. The results show that; (1) Mixed Methods has a significat impact on the acquisition of ESP students’ skills ofon line marketing, (2) online marketing is still a prosperous bussiness for the future. Further it is suggested to do more research on this area to enrich the knowledge of online bussiness as one of the new option of profession for students of english literature department program in FBS Universitas Negeri Medan (UNIMED).
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Effectiveness, durability, and safety of darunavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients in routine clinical practice in Italy: a postauthorization noninterventional study

Effectiveness, durability, and safety of darunavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients in routine clinical practice in Italy: a postauthorization noninterventional study

This study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with the identi- fier NCT01375881. Effectiveness, tolerability, and durability data from four groups of patients with HIV-1 infection (two DRV/r-experienced and two DRV/r-naïve) were collected from June 2009 to December 2012. Group 1 included patients who had been on treatment with DRV/r since July 2007 or earlier, and who were part of the DRV/r Early Access Program (EAP) (subjects included in the EAP were heavily experienced, not achieving virological suppression on current regimen, at risk of clinical or immunological progression, and with limited or no treatment options); Group 2 included patients already receiving DRV/r in routine clinical practice, with treatment initiated after marketing authorization (July 2007) who had retrospective data from the start of DRV/r treatment available; Group 3 included ARV-experienced DRV-naïve patients; and Group 4 included ARV-naïve DRV-naïve patients.
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The washback effects of ESP tests on teaching ESP at Iranaian universities

The washback effects of ESP tests on teaching ESP at Iranaian universities

Perception of the stake holders of the tests tasks and task specifications of the test is the next area of washback. The results of the study, descriptive and Chi-square test (Table One) show that almost more than 75% of the participants of the study stated that in addition to technical reading the other language skills should be evaluated. They also believe that a change in the purpose of the ESP tests is needed. That is, they should be administered as placement tests so that the language areas in which the learners need further instruction are diagnosed right before they start their master or doctoral studies. In other words, their performance on these scores should not influence their entry to universities as master/ doctoral students. Although the participants believe that ESP test items are not representative of the learners' academic needs, surprisingly enough they do not attempt to teach the academic skills needed by the learners. One possible reason, as the results obtained through classroom observations indicate, is that ESP teachers' perception of ESP is not valid. Neither do they know what ESP is, nor do they know enough about learning and teaching theories underlying ESP.
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Implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy in 2010. Report: Eastern Partnership. Joint staff working paper. SEC (2011) 641 final, 25 May 2011

Implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy in 2010. Report: Eastern Partnership. Joint staff working paper. SEC (2011) 641 final, 25 May 2011

In the field of Education two seminars on the Jean Monnet programme were organised to underline the role of this initiative to promote EU studies. The partial extension of the EU eTwinning programme for schools to partner countries, and possibly to Russia, was proposed. A presentation of the eTwinning programme including an indicative roadmap for participation was conducted in Chisinau in October 2010. A large regional Tempus and Erasmus Mundus information day will be organised in the second half of 2011 in Ukraine as well as an event on the mobility of students, scholars, researchers, youth and cultural actors from EaP countries ( in Poland in July 2011).
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network protocols handbook.pdf

network protocols handbook.pdf

One PPP EAP packet is encapsulated in the Information field of a PPP Data Link Layer frame where the protocol field indicates type hex C227 (PPP EAP). • Data - The format of the Data fie[r]

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Smile interpolation and calibration of the local volatility model

Smile interpolation and calibration of the local volatility model

Smile interpolation and calibration of the local volatility model Nabil Kahale? March 28, 2005 ESCP EAP,79avenuede laRe?publique, 75011Paris,France, nkahale@escp eap net Abstract TheBlack and Scholes[.]

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