Figure 2.5 shows one type of connection that is used between the engine pipe and the intermediate pipe. This is semi flexible designs that assist with alignments of the pipes and also helps to reduce vibrations. In this joint, the sealing ring (3) between the two pipes has a spherical end, which fits into a similarly shaped end of the exhaustpipe (4). The two bolts (7) that hold the flanges (2) and (5) of the two pipes together are fitted with springs (6), so that the sealing ring is held firmly onto its seat. This provides a joint that is firm, but not rigid.
Exhaust system in the bike is an important part of the motorcycle which play an important role in both economy and engine performance. Usually the exhaustpipe in general is used to carry the burnt gases from the outlet valve of the cylinder to the atmosphere. Depending on the capacity and engine design there might be one or more exhaustpipe. High pressure high temperature exhaust gas enters the exhaustpipe which should be cooled and is converted to non- polluting gasses.
Permanent hearing loss due to sound levels in the workplace has been a historical cause for concern. Every year over 300,000 healthy life years are lost due to occupational hearing loss in developed countries, nearly 4 million in developing countries . Mechanical Loss Coefficient as a materials ability to dissipate vibration and Young Modulus that is the stiffness of an engineering material. Using Granta software 2010, varieties of different steel were selected and studied. The effect of porosity on sound is of interest, so porous materials were considered. A thorough microstructural analysis of the materials reveals a correlation between microstructure and the sound output. A relationship between the ratio of a material’s Young Modulus / Hardness to the sound output was seen; however, more data are needed in this case to further validate the relationship. Hence, this paper work suggests a reinforced polymer for exhaustpipe development for a motor cycle. Several types of porous materials were looked into, such as polyurethane based foams, fiber glass, activated carbon fiber, and spray cellulose.
ABSTRACT: While designing a new automobile exhaustpipe is to lengthen it's durability period, which can be measured. in terms of its life span and mileage. The exhaustpipe is subjected to several stresses, most of which are due to vibration.thereforeit is necessary to analyze the vibration modes and the response of vibrations. For this purpose, two methods are used, analysis using FEM package and analysis by FFT analyzer.
Similar sample of pipe of 1800mm length having diameter is taken whose natural frequency is to be determined. But this time the pipe is bend using bending machine. Because of bending, the wall thickness of the pipe is reduced. This pipe was placed on well cushioned surface to avoid unwanted vibration from the surface. Initially, the pipe was marked after 100mm to check natural frequency of the pipe throughout the length. Then using FFT analyzer, the sensor was placed on each marking and readings were obtained for different part of pipe.
An aqua silencer consists of a perforated tube, activated charcoal layer and water which is installed in the exhaustpipe. The perforated tube consist holes of different diameters. The purpose of providing different diameter holes is to break up gas mass to smaller gas bubbles. Generally 4 sets of holes are drilled on the perforated tube. The other end of the tube is closed by plug. Around the circumference of the perforated tube a layer of activated charcoal is provided covered with metallic mesh over it. The entire unit is then placed in a water container. A small opening is provided at the top of the container to discard the exhaust gases and a drain plug is provided at the bottom of the container for repeatedly cleaning of the container. Also a filler plug is mounted at the top of the container. At the inlet of the exhaustpipe a non-return valve is arranged which prevents the back flow of gases and water as well.
The introduction of exhaust gas after treatment system for diesel engines is a measure to fulfill the legislation requirements. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with urea solutions are considered to be promising for this better performance. Particularly the urea- purification with no fuel penalty and high durability to sulfur-contained fuels. Therefore, in Europe, on road demonstrations of the Urea-SCR systems are conducted and practical application of the Urea-SCR systems is being discussed together with the infrastructures for supplying urea solutions. However, there are problems yet to be solved for practical usage of Urea-SCR systems. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is a well-established concept, but yet commercially not proved technology for nitrogen oxide [NOx] emission control for automobiles. The first one is the low activation for NOx reduction and NH3 slip under low exhaust gas temperatures and transient conditions encountered in real operating conditions. In particular, ammonia [NH3] SCR featured by a reluctant [NH3] is added to the exhaust gas is recognized as a flexible remedy for mobile diesel NOx emission. One of the major challenges in the automobile application of the NH 3 SCR process is the enhancement of the de-NOx performance at low exhaust gas temperatures below 300ºC and on board storage of Urea. One of the important factors that is to be considered is evaporation of NH3 liquid i.e. Ad blue solution with exhaust gas. One of the feasible methods to promote de-NOx activity at low temperatures is to lead the reaction to pass through the fast SCR path for the betterment of surface reaction and gas phase reaction, I have tried with vaporization by new kind of DEF/ Ad blue-Dosing Module with Manual Control, Supply module & Supply Line (made of copper material) wounded around the exhaustpipe in order to raise the temperature of DEF.
Basically an aqua silencer consists of a perforated tube which is installed at the end of the exhaustpipe. The perforated tube may have holes of different diameters. The very purpose of providing different diameter hole is to break up gas mass to form smaller gas bubbles the perforated tube of different diameter .Generally 4 sets of holes are drilled on the perforated tube. The other end of the perforated tube is closed by plug.
attached to the exhaustpipe. At a specific frequency, the cavity will resonate and the waves in the exhaustpipe are reflected back towards the source. However, there are also pass band frequencies where the resonator has no effect and so resonator muffler design is targeted to specific frequencies where the majority of the attenuation is required. In some designs, the muffler has several resonators of different sizes to target a range of frequencies. Expansion chamber mufflers reflect waves by introducing a sudden change in cross sectional area in the pipe. They do not have the high attenuation of the Helmholtz resonator, but have a broadband frequency characteristic, with pass bands when half the acoustic wavelength equals the cavity length. Their performance also deteriorates at higher frequencies when the cross axis dimension of the muffler is 82% of the acoustic wavelength (Davis, Stokes, Moore and Stevens ). Some expansion chamber muffler systems are also packed with sound absorbing material, which helps to improve the high frequency attenuation. In all muffler designs, the tailpipe length can have an important effect. The tailpipe itself acts as a resonant cavity that couples with the muffler cavity. The attenuation characteristics of a muffler are modified if the design tailpipe is not used. Also, the effect of exhaust gas flow speed has a detrimental effect on the muffler performance. Beranek gives examples in which the muffler attenuation is reduced from 35 dB to 6-10dB when the flow speed is increased from zero to 230 ft./sec. In typical industrial or diesel truck, engine applications the exhaust flow speed can be 164 ft. /sec to 390 ft. /sec. The effect of flow is related to the interaction of sound with turbulence and will be dependent on the internal design of the muffler.
ABSTRACT: Heat transfer affects the performance, emission and durability of the engine as well as the design, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. Automotive exhaust system and engine cooling is necessary for improvement of engine performance. Liquid jet cooling device is designed for automotive exhaust system based on heat transfer analysis of exhaust system of two wheeler auto bike. It is used to control and regulate the temperature of automotive exhaust system by means of liquid jet in liquid jet cooling device. This device can be fitted with exhaustpipe near manifold to control the temperature of exhaust system. Water is used as a coolant and it is a primary fluid for experimental investigation. Heat transfer analysis of automotive exhaustpipe is carried out using liquid jet cooling device. The experimental investigation is carried out for superficial liquid coolant velocity in the range between 0.016 m/s to 0.032 m/s for the engine speed of 1500, 2000 and 2200 RPM. It has been investigated from the experimental research that using liquid jet cooling device, higher heat transfer coefficient between exhaustpipe and cooling water is obtained for increasing the superficial liquid coolant velocity for each run of the engine which controls the exhaust system temperature. It is also reported that liquid jet cooling device control the temperature of engine and exhaust gases.
At low engine speeds, high exhaust gas velocities are necessary to achieve quick throttle response. By means of conservation of mass, a small diameter exhaustpipe will result in higher gas velocity, conducive to throttle response for acceleration. However, without sufficient cross sectional area, small diameter pipes may limit the mass flow rate needed to expel all combusted gases at higher rpm. Therefore, a compromise must be met to sufficiently provide high velocity flow with proper flow rate at peak engine speeds. Using tabulated data from Bell equation (1988) which accounts for both gas velocity and mass flow rate, a pipe diameter of 1.6 inch. was found to provide sufficient flow for engine speeds up to 8,000 rpm.
In general, sound waves propagating along a pipe can be attenuated using either a dissipative or a reactive muffler. A dissipative muffler uses sound absorbing material to take energy out of the acoustic motion in the wave, as it propagates through the muffler. Reactive silencers, which are commonly used in automotive applications, reflect the sound waves back towards the source and prevent sound from being transmitted along the pipe. Reactive silencer design is based either on the principle of a Helmholtz resonator or an expansion chamber, and requires the use of acoustic transmission line theory. In a Helmholtz resonator design a cavity is attached to the exhaustpipe. At a specific frequency the cavity will resonate and the waves in the exhaustpipe are reflected back towards the source. However there are also pass band frequencies where the resonator has no effect and so resonator muffler design is targeted to specific frequencies where the majority of the attenuation is required. In some designs, the muffler has several resonators of different sizes to target a range of frequencies. Expansion chamber mufflers reflect waves by introducing a sudden change in cross sectional area in the pipe. They do not have the high attenuation of the Hemholtz resonator, but have a broadband frequency characteristic, with pass bands when half the acoustic wavelength equals the cavity length. Their performance also deteriorates at higher frequencies when the cross axis dimension of the muffler is 82% of the acoustic wavelength (Davis, Stokes, Moore and Stevens ). Some expansion chamber muffler systems are also packed with sound absorbing material which helps to improve the high frequency attenuation. In all muffler designs the tailpipe length can have an important effect. The tailpipe itself acts as a resonant cavity that couples with the muffler cavity. The attenuation characteristics of a muffler are modified if the design tailpipe is not used. Also, the effect of exhaust gas flow speed has a detrimental effect on the muffler performance. Beranek gives examples in which the muffler attenuation is reduced from 35 dB to 6-10dB when the flow speed is increased from zero to 230 ft/sec. In typical industrial or diesel truck engine applications the exhaust flow speed can be 164 ft/sec to 390 ft/sec . The effect of flow is related to the interaction of sound with turbulence and will be dependent on the internal design of the muffler. 
waste heat recovery techniques. Various researchers made experiments on the duel fuel diesel engine with various methods for intake air preheating. Pradip G. Karale et  have explained the review on exhaust gas heat recovery for I.C engine. In this paper it is represented that the large amount of hot flue gases is generated from the I c engine. if that waste heat could be recovered a considerable amount of primary fuel could be save Mahi Md et have proved experimentally by preheating inlet air in single cylinder diesel engine there is % Nox Reduction can be obtained. Maximum length of exhaustpipe was surrounded by the inlet air passage to extracts more heat .Chirtravelan.M et  have shown that Nox and emissions at intake air temperature of 55 0 C were less compared to 32 0 C.Quangang
 Jackie, 2015 Studied the total waste heat recovering technology, using thermoelectric power generators (TEGs), coupled with a gasoline engine was investigated in this study conducted at Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria. The experimental analysis conducted by suryawanshi et al. The temperature of pipe surface of exhaust gases flowing through exhaust gas pipe is very high and it is around 2000℃ to 3000℃ so a heat exchanger is made, which conducts heat from exhaustpipe to thermoelectric modules, one surfaces of these modules is in contact.
is diminished and reverse flow is prevented, something which is often the cause of poor engine performance at low and medium engine speeds. The induction of the cylinder and the induction efficiency do not depend only on the length, they are also very dependent on the section of the pipe, the speed of the media, the change of the intersection and the flow coefficients. In our case it was only possible to influence the cylinder induction by changing the pipe length and treating the channel walls. Figure 3 shows the influence of the intake-pipe length on the cylinder induction efficiency. Since it was our aim to have an engine with greater power at higher engine speeds we can prove that a short intake pipe is an advantage. The disadvantage of this solution is that the power band is narrower, which can have a negative influence the motorbikes performance in real situations. The efficient induction of the cylinder is a compromise between the setting of the intake and the exhaustpipe as well as other factors, which in our case cannot be fully used.
This research provides an overview of the performance on the effect of the different exhaust length for motorcycle engine. The research also covers the effect in terms of emissions. The engine used was a motorcycle 125cc 4-stroke gasoline engine. There are two method was used; experiment and simulation. For experiment, load applied to the engine with different lengths of exhaustpipe. The engine speed of this study was controlled in the range of 800 – 1000 rpm. The test engine has been attached to the dynamometer. The engine specifications and measured components of exhaust system were used for modelling and visualization using GT-Power simulation software. The different length of exhaust will be used for the simulation. Brake power, brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the engine are discussed as the performance of the engine. Besides that carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon (HC) was discussed as the
In this article determination of appropriate valve timing using sensitivity analysis problem is investigated for a gasoline four stroke engine. In the first part of this study a 4-storke Spark Ignition engine (XU7JP4/L3) including its different systems such as inlet and exhaust manifold, exhaustpipe and engine geometry are modeled using GT-Power software and the model is coupled with MATLAB/Simulink to be able to control input and output parameters. Then in order to find the best model that fits experimental data, sensitivity analysis is performed and the best unknown parameters that can best model the engine are obtained. The input parameters are considered to be the inlet port temperature and pressure, and manifold friction coefficient. The target was achieving the least square error in engine power, torque and fuel consumption. In the second part of the study the optimized model is used for the sensitivity analysis and minimizing the engine specific fuel consumption up to 10 percent reduction in specific fuel consumption as a target. Sensitivity analysis is used for finding the best valve timing in different engine speeds to achieve the target.
Abstract — An exhaust manifold or header collects the exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into one pipe. Exhaust manifolds are generally simple cast iron or stainless steel units which collect engine exhaust gases from multiple cylinders and deliver it to the exhaustpipe. The goal of performance exhaust headers is mainly to decrease flow resistance, and to increase the volumetric efficiency of an engine, resulting in a gain in power output. The exhaust manifold has to withstand the pressure of exhaust gases and amount of heat generated in the engine. A parametric model of exhaust manifold has been developed to predict the transient thermal behavior. The parametric model is created in 3D modeling software Pro/Engineer. Present used materials for exhaust manifold are cast iron or stainless steel. Steady thermal analysis is done on the exhaust manifold to determine variation temperature distribution over time. The analysis is to be done using Stainless Steel are present used materials. We compare the results to verify the best material for exhaust manifold .Steady thermal analysis determines temperatures and other thermal quantities that vary over time. The variation of temperature distribution over time is of interest in many applications such as with cooling. The accurate thermal simulation could permit critical design parameters to be identified for improved life. The analysis is done using ANSYS on workbench of Steady state thermal analysis performed for calculating the heat flux and thermal difference or analytically heat flux is also calculated in this analysis. Select the optimum design and its behavior of physical properties.
Generally, the exhaust system begins with manifolds on the engine and ends with the tail pipe. Basically, it includes an exhaust manifold, heat riser, exhaustpipe, catalytic converter, muffler, resonator (optional), and tail pipe. Exhausts maybe made from steel, aluminium, titanium, carbon fibre or kevlar. Exhaust system comes in many different varieties depending on the type of engine and its intended use. An exhaust system is usually tubing used to guide waste exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine. The entire system conveys burnt gases from the engine and includes one or more exhaust pipes. Depending on the overall system design, the exhaust gas may flow through one or more of: