Extraction Yields

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Does Size Matter? Comparison of Extraction Yields for Different Sized DNA Fragments by Seven Different Routine and Four New Circulating Cell Free Extraction Methods

Does Size Matter? Comparison of Extraction Yields for Different Sized DNA Fragments by Seven Different Routine and Four New Circulating Cell Free Extraction Methods

difference in extraction yield) in norovirus-positive samples, while CMV-positive sam- ples showed a 5.5-fold spread between the mean for the lowest- and highest-yielding instruments. A limited number of other studies have examined 3 or more extraction systems and evaluated the viral yield for HIV (2–5), hepatitis B virus (6, 7), CMV (8), enterovirus (9), and herpes simplex virus (10). Yang et al. evaluated 6 different extrac- tion instruments targeting 5 different respiratory bacterial and viral pathogens (11); Dundas et al. used 4 methods with 3 viruses, mycoplasma, and Bordetella (12). None of these studies have identified a clearly superior extraction instrument among the studied applications; rather, 2- to 10-fold differences in yield are often seen across instruments. Thus, for studies that compare molecular test results across multiple laboratories, a significant component of the variation seen could be a result of extraction method differences. When comparing methods that have extraction coupled to PCR, it is often difficult to partition the amount of variability seen in the 2 different steps. We designed this study to evaluate extraction yields across 11 methods, 7 of which are commonly used in clinical laboratories and 4 of which use newly available circulating cell-free (CCF) extraction kits (CCF kits) designed to maximize the yield of cell-free DNA (cfDNA). This is a companion study to a recently completed CMV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) commutability study performed with all 6 of the instrument systems utilized in this study (R. Hayden, unpublished data).

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Generating Recommendation Dialogs by Extracting Information from User Reviews

Generating Recommendation Dialogs by Extracting Information from User Reviews

We presented a system for extracting large sets of attributes from user reviews and selecting rel- evant attributes to ask questions about. Using topic models to discover subtypes of businesses, a domain-specific sentiment lexicon, and a number of new techniques for increasing precision in sen- timent aspect extraction yields attributes that give a rich representation of the restaurant domain. We have made this 1329-term sentiment lexicon for the restaurant domain available as useful resource to the community. Our information gain recom- mendation agent gives a principled way to dynam- ically combine these diverse attributes to ask rele- vant questions in a coherent dialog. Our approach thus offers a new way to integrate the advantages of the curated hand-build attributes used in statisti- cal slot and filler dialog systems, and the distribu- tionally induced, highly relevant categories built by sentiment aspect extraction systems.

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Extraction and antioxidant activity studies of Cucurbita moschata extracts

Extraction and antioxidant activity studies of Cucurbita moschata extracts

The solvents such as water, Ethanol-water, Ethyl acetate and Methanol were utilized to optimize extraction process so as to arrive at extract with higher yields and better antioxidant potency. It was observed that water provides highest yield among all the solvents followed by ethanol-water. Ethyl acetate and methanol yielded very relatively lower amounts of extracts. Water with ethanol were also selected as the extraction solvents since both are commonly used in the food industry in a variety of ways. The extraction yield is highly valued because a low extraction yield means a lower productivity despite high antioxidant potency. The extraction yields were expressed in terms of the solid content in the dried product per soluble solid content in plant material used on a dry basis. Table 1 showed the extraction yields of the various extracts from seeds. Despite the low values obtained for the extraction yields, the antioxidant contents found were good, indicating that the extraction was efficient. Nevertheless, a relationship between the extracted mass and the corresponding total phenolics and flavonoids were not observed in all cases. Most of the phenolic or polyphenolic compounds in nature have antioxidative activities, e.g. tocopherols, flavonoids and derivatives of cinnamic acid, phosphatidic and other organic acids.

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Extraction of Polyphenolic Content from Peperomia pellucida (L) Kunth Herb with 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Bromide

Extraction of Polyphenolic Content from Peperomia pellucida (L) Kunth Herb with 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Bromide

Extraction of the polyphenolic content from Peperomia pellucida (L) Kunth herb (Piperaceae family) using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as a solvent was attempted. The herbs were extracted using the ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction method with some combination factors such as extraction time, microwave power, liquid-solid ratio, and ionic liquid concentration. The optimum yields of total polyphenolic content (13.750 µg GAE/g sample) were obtained by using a microwave power of 30 % Watt, extraction time of 10 minutes, the liquid-solid ratio of 14 ml/g, and ionic liquid concentration of 0.7 mol/l. Based on the results, compared to conventional organic solvent, the solvent of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide could provide higher extraction yields of polyphenolic content. Moreover, the extraction of a secondary metabolite from this herb becomes more rapid, easy, and efficient.

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Optimized procedure for the determination of P species in soil by liquid-state 31P-NMR spectroscopy

Optimized procedure for the determination of P species in soil by liquid-state 31P-NMR spectroscopy

Results: A freeze-drying pretreatment not only provided the greatest extraction yields of total and organic P from both farmland and forest soils but also enhanced the intensity of signals for inorganic and organic P species in 31 P-NMR spectra, except for polyphosphates. Re-dissolution of freeze-dried soil extracts in relatively dilute alkaline solution and addition of a small aliquot of concentrated HCl to the NMR tube prior to analysis improved the quality of NMR spectra. Finally, the visibility of relatively weak P signals, such as for phosphorus diesters, phosphonates, polyphosphate, phospholipids, and DNA were reproducibly enhanced when 31 P-NMR spectra were generated after at least 15 h of acquisition time.

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Customizing an Information Extraction System to a New Domain

Customizing an Information Extraction System to a New Domain

We introduce several ideas that improve the performance of supervised information ex- traction systems with a pipeline architecture, when they are customized for new domains. We show that: (a) a combination of a se- quence tagger with a rule-based approach for entity mention extraction yields better perfor- mance for both entity and relation mention extraction; (b) improving the identification of syntactic heads of entity mentions helps rela- tion extraction; and (c) a deterministic infer- ence engine captures some of the joint domain structure, even when introduced as a post- processing step to a pipeline system. All in all, our contributions yield a 20% relative increase in F1 score in a domain significantly differ- ent from the domains used during the devel- opment of our information extraction system.

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Extraction and antioxidant activity studies of Cucurbita moschata extracts

Extraction and antioxidant activity studies of Cucurbita moschata extracts

The solvents such as water, Ethanol-water, Ethyl acetate and Methanol were utilized to optimize extraction process so as to arrive at extract with higher yields and better antioxidant potency. It was observed that water provides highest yield among all the solvents followed by ethanol-water. Ethyl acetate and methanol yielded very relatively lower amounts of extracts. Water with ethanol were also selected as the extraction solvents since both are commonly used in the food industry in a variety of ways. The extraction yield is highly valued because a low extraction yield means a lower productivity despite high antioxidant potency. The extraction yields were expressed in terms of the solid content in the dried product per soluble solid content in plant material used on a dry basis. Table 1 showed the extraction yields of the various extracts from seeds. Despite the low values obtained for the extraction yields, the antioxidant contents found were good, indicating that the extraction was efficient. Nevertheless, a relationship between the extracted mass and the corresponding total phenolics and flavonoids were not observed in all cases. Most of the phenolic or polyphenolic compounds in nature have antioxidative activities, e.g. tocopherols, flavonoids and derivatives of cinnamic acid, phosphatidic and other organic acids.

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Effect of Extraction Methods on the Active Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Ethanolic Extracts of Echinacea purpurea Flower

Effect of Extraction Methods on the Active Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Ethanolic Extracts of Echinacea purpurea Flower

E. purpurea has recently been grown in Taiwan for years. The total phenols and caffeic acid derivatives con- tents in different E. purpurea parts were in the descending order: flowers > leaves > stems > roots [12]. The op- timal extraction conditions of E. purpurea flowers were 50% ethanol and 65 ˚C of extracting temperatures, and its ethanolic extract exhibited good antioxidant, antimutaginic, and anticancer activities in previous study [4] [13]. However, in solid-liquid extraction technique, a single extraction is generally not sufficient to remove all the phenolic compounds comparing to multiple extractions [14]. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of multi-steps extraction and multi-batches extraction methods on the extraction yields, active compounds and antioxidant properties of the 50% ethanolic extracts of freeze-dried E. purpurea flower.

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Analysis of Thermal Profiles of Various Power Extraction Limits in a  PWR Heated Channel

Analysis of Thermal Profiles of Various Power Extraction Limits in a  PWR Heated Channel

fluid flow neglects the energy term due to the pressure gradient and friction dissipation. The channel was considered as a single channel, hence we neglected mixing due to the presence of many channel. The profiling was analyzed and it was clear that the second condition had the least power extraction. This was due to low temperature at the cladding surface, which results to low outlet temperature at the channel, hence low power extraction. The first and the third conditions has almost the same power extraction. But from technical point of view, it is better to use the first condition as a standard in the operation of PWR, even though the power extraction was a bit higher in the third case. This keeps the temperature outlet away from the critical saturation temperature of the coolant, and also heating above certain temperature and close to the fuel melting point leads to higher temperature difference between the centerline and the surface, this greatly limits power extraction and can also lead to failure of the fuel when the melting temperature is reached. Hence it is advisable to always operate the outlet temperature close to the saturation temperature. This is a safety measure in the operation of LWR.

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Extraction and characterization of Chitin and Chitosan from
Aspergillus terreus sps, synthesis of their bionanocomposites and
study of their productive applications

Extraction and characterization of Chitin and Chitosan from Aspergillus terreus sps, synthesis of their bionanocomposites and study of their productive applications

Nano-science is the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic molecular and macromolecular scales. Since the highest yields for both the polysaccharides were obtained from Sabouaraud Sucrose broth, the same were used for synthesis of bionanocomposites. Chitin (<5% DAc) was added as stabilizer to the AgNPs suspensions to remove the generated caramel and to prevent agglomeration and precipitation of the AgNPs. The composites so formed were twice with water to remove the caramel. The composites were brown coloured. That brown colour indicated that surface plasmon vibrations, typical of silver nanoparticles. Similarly, addition of NaBH 4 leads to

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Aminododecyldiphosphonic Acid for Solvent Extraction of Bismuth Ions

Aminododecyldiphosphonic Acid for Solvent Extraction of Bismuth Ions

solution. Infrared spectra were measured on a Perkin Elmer 16 PC-FTIR equipped with a thermostat to main- tain the temperature of the sample at 25.0˚C ± 0.1˚C. A Phywe WTM 320 with combined glass electrode was used to measure the pH of the aqueous solution before and after extraction. In a water-acetone mixture (15:5), a known mass of the ADDMDPA was titrated with a solu- tion of NaOH (5 mmol·L −1 ). Metal ions were determined

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Preparation of α Bromoketones and Thiazoles from Ketones with NBS and Thioamides in Ionic Liquids

Preparation of α Bromoketones and Thiazoles from Ketones with NBS and Thioamides in Ionic Liquids

ketones to -bromoketones with NBS and the conversion of ketones to thiazoles with NBS and subsequently thio- amides in a one-pot manner. -Bromoketones and thia- zoles could be obtained in good yields with good purity by simple ether extraction, and the ionic liquid reaction media could be reused for the same reaction while main- taining good yields and purity of the products. The pre- sent method offers a green approach to the preparation of -bromoketones and thiazoles in good yields with good purity from ketones with NBS and subsequently thio- amides at room temperature.

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Automatic Prediction of Friendship via Multi model Dyadic Features

Automatic Prediction of Friendship via Multi model Dyadic Features

Since participants were facing the camera directly most of the time, as seen in Fig 1, current technology for facial tracking can efficiently be applied to our dataset. OMRON’s OKAO Vision System was used in face detection, facial feature extraction, and basic face related features extrapolation. For each frame, the vision software returns a smile intensity (0- 100) and the gaze direction, using both horizontal and vertical angles expressed in degrees. Apart from gaze direction, the software also provides information about head orientation: horizontal, vertical, and roll (in or out). 38 additional face interest points, position and confidence, were also extracted. These were normalized to pixel coordinates, which turned out to lead to quite noisy data, and hence to diminished utility of these 38 points (in the future we will consider normalizing to face coordinates). We also calculated the openness of the left eye, right eye, mouth, and the location of the face. Details are shown in Table 2. Similar to our audio feature extraction method, one static feature vector per 30 second video clip was produced. All the features were computed at the same rate as the original videos: 30 Hz. Altogether, 139 dimensions were extracted in each frame from each camera view.

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Carrier molecules and extraction of circulating tumor DNA for next generation sequencing in colorectal cancer

Carrier molecules and extraction of circulating tumor DNA for next generation sequencing in colorectal cancer

The addition of poly(A) carrier RNA but not glycogen previously increased the recovery of automated silica-based extractions (BioRobots EZ1 and BioRobots M48, Qiagen) by an average of 24% (23). In another paper, a five-fold increased recovery was obtained in DNA extractions carried out on silica-based monoliths within a microfluidic device when poly(A) carrier RNA was added to the chaotropic salt solution (22). However, the Qiagen carrier RNA added into the plasma specimens of our patients in a ratio of 50:1 (RNA:ctDNA) had no effect on the NucleoSpin ctDNA re- covery. Not only the proper carrier RNA:ctDNA ratio but also the length of poly(A) chains and their folding in space probably play an important role in the extraction process.

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An improved method for RNA extraction from woody legume species Acacia koa A. Gray and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit

An improved method for RNA extraction from woody legume species Acacia koa A. Gray and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit

Our results demonstrated that the modified extraction method combining RNeasy and Fruit-mate™ consistently yields a sufficient quantity of high-quality RNA from the two woody legume species A. koa and L. leucocephala while the other methods failed to produce such high-quality RNA. RT-PCR results also indicated that the RNA extracted from this method is usable for downstream applications. This improved protocol is rapid and easy, and it will facilitate genetic studies of A. koa, L. leucocephala, and other woody plants.

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The Twist Factor of Yields

The Twist Factor of Yields

Researchers have been trying to use latent factors to predict future interests or yields. Some of them use two factors and others use three factors or some modifications of three factors. For example, Bomfim (2003) [2] and Rudebusch and Wu (2008) [3] considered two-factor affine models to explain interest rate dynamics. Diebold, Piazzesi, and Rudebusch (2005) [4] examined a two-factor Nelson-Siegel model with the first two factors, the level and the slope factor. Bjork and Christensen (1999) [5] proposed to add another slope factor on top of the existing slope factor. The new slope component had a slightly different form with the original slope factor and was designed to mainly affect short-term maturities. Bliss (1996) [6] allowed the slope factor and the curvature factor to have different decay parameters, 𝜆𝜆 1 and 𝜆𝜆 2 . Svensson (1995) [7] added a second

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Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping

Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping

The yields of DNA extracted from blood and saliva, as mea- sured by Picogreen (Invitrogen Ltd) are shown in Table 1. We aimed to collect 2 ml of saliva and 9 ml blood from each participant but not all provided ideal volumes. The ac- tual volumes of saliva obtained were not recorded but ap- proximate volumes of blood obtained from each participant were recorded (median 8 ml, range 4–10 ml). Total DNA yields from the saliva samples (mean 24 μg, range 0.2– 52 μg) were lower than from the blood samples (mean 210 μ g, range 58 – 577 μ g) and an approximate 2-fold differ- ence in yield remained after adjusting for the biological sample volume collected. However the yield from all but one of the saliva samples was sufficient for chip genotyping (chip genotyping protocols vary, but typically require 500 ng-1 μ g DNA at concentrations of 50 – 100 ng/ μ l). The chips used in this study each required 750 ng DNA.

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Optimisation and economic evaluation of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of waxes from waste date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaves

Optimisation and economic evaluation of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of waxes from waste date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaves

miscanthus and sugarcane, date palm gave exceptionally high yields (3.49%) and an elevated melting point (78 °C). This, in combination with the huge volume of the date palm leaves produced annually, makes this a promising natural wax for industrial exploitation. Different wax extracts demonstrated diverse thermal profiles, with melting points ranging from 30 °C to 78 °C, making date palm waxes a promising competitor in the commercial wax market. Many of the hydrophobic molecules identified within the date palm leaf wax could have potential applications as nutraceuticals, cosmetic

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Essays on Bond Yields

Essays on Bond Yields

We find that overnight indexed swaps outperform other fixed income securities at forecasting the Australian cash rate over the nearest two quarters, with one month ahead root mean squared forecast errors inside the typical 25 basis point cash rate movement. Beyond that, accuracy drops off substantially over longer horizons. The OLS regressions show that some of the influence of risk premia can be incorporated into the intercept term for each security, thus improving the forecast efficacy of all of the Australian fixed income securities. However, these regressions still leave much of the variation in the cash rate unexplained, especially over longer horizons of up to three years. The GMM IV framework allows us to address this problem by instrumenting the bond futures pricing with overnight indexed swap rates and implied yields on interbank futures contracts. Using our GMM IV framework, we find that the bond futures pricing contains policy expectations that forecast the average of future movements in the Australian overnight cash rate over horizons of one to three years from 2004 to 2010 to well within 75 basis points.

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An Entity Level Approach to Information Extraction

An Entity Level Approach to Information Extraction

proach. Our mention extraction procedure yields 95% recall over annotated role mentions and 45% precision. 9 Using extracted mentions as input, our task is to label some subset of the mentions with template roles. Since systems can label mentions as non-role bearing, only recall is critical to men- tion extraction. To adapt INDEP to this setting, we first use a binary classifier trained to distinguish role-bearing mentions. The baseline then classi- fies mentions which pass this first phase as before. We add ‘junk’ roles to our model to flexibly model entities that do not correspond to annotated tem- plate roles. During training, extracted mentions which are not matched in the labeled data have posteriors which are constrained to be amongst the ‘junk’ roles.

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