The objective of this work is to compare CFD solutions of different shapes of absorber plates for flatplatecollector. The plate giving best result has been selected for fabrication. After fabrication, test was carried out and practical results were obtained. The results then compared with CFD analysis
plate collectors usually consist of a glass cover and metal plate absorber with the integrated pipes and housing. The solar energy absorbed by the metal plate absorber is transferred into the liquid flowing within the pipes. The glazing on the upper surface and the insulated housing bottom limit the thermal losses. In the flatplatecollector, in the gap between the glazing and the metal plate absorber, the air is present. From the metal plate absorber, this air is warmed, then heats the glazing and becomes the source of losses. To avoid this harmful phenomenon, the so-called evacuated tube collectors have been introduced. They consist of glass evacuated tubes, through which the absorption pipes are installed  and .
The flatplatecollector is the heart of any solar energy collection system designed for operation in the low temperature range 50°C or in the medium temperature range 100°C. it is used to absorb solar energy, convert in to heat and then to transfer that heat to a stream of liquid or gas. It absorbs both the beam and the diffusion radiation and usually planted on the top of building or other structures. It does not require tracking of the sun and requires little maintenance.
The objective of present study is to perform CFD simulation of flatplatecollector with air flow. The CFD model was validated with experimental results. Based on the results of the experiments CFD analysis of air on solar flatplatecollector is carried out. There are certain limitations for experimental results thus data at each and every point cannot be obtained, hence CFD is the tool which handles complex situations where experimental is not applicable because of limitations and cost effectiveness problem. The overall aim of this work is to understand the flow and temperature distribution of air through solar flatplatecollector.
Flatplate collectors normally yield an efficiency of about 60 to 70 % under optimum design . The output performance depends on various parameters, one being the absorbtivity of the FPC , others include collector design, properties of heat transfer fluid, collector orientation, etc. . Many research outcomes are reported in the literature for the improvement of heat transfer efficiency of flatplatecollector. The selective coating of the adsorber plates with materials of high absorptance is reported in  ; use of nano copper oxide and nano titanium dioxide as selective coating material is discussed in  and the effect of water based Al 2 O 3 nanofluid
 V.K.Goel et all studied the reverse flat-platecollector is a non-concentrating collector. It can collect solar heat at high temperatures which cannot be achieved by conventional non- concentrating collectors. In this paper, the authors have proposed a number of modified versions of the originally proposed reverse flat-platecollector. The new designs are of single, as well as double, absorber type. The thermal performance of these modified reverse flat-plate collectors is compared with that of a single absorber reverse flat-platecollector, as well as with the corresponding normal flat-platecollector. It is found that the new design having two absorbers gives the best thermal performance as compared with other configurations. The analytical models presented in this paper very well describe the experimental results.
ABSTRACT: A Single basin solar still with basin Area (0.9mx0.7m) was design & fabricated with integration of flatplatecollector (0.9mx0.9mx0.3m) to increase the heat transfer rate. Experiments were done with different modifications of solar still and the readings were taken .First reading is taken from still without modification of flatplatecollector .The second setup consists of still with flatplatecollector modified by heat absorbing materials (pebbles, chips, red stone) . The final experimental setup consist of still integrated with flatplatecollector and glass wool. The results indicated that the productivity of the still without modification of flatplatecollector, still with flatplatecollector modified by heat absorbing materials, still integrated with flatplatecollector and glass wool was 36.92 %, 42.68 % and 46.60 %. Also it was found that the productivity of the still was highest with the minimum depth of water. KEYWORDS: FlatPlateCollector, Heat Absorbing Materials, Solar Still,
The conventional energy sources are inadequate to accommodate the demand of energy which increases due to rapid industrialization and population growth. To overcome these problem non-conventional energy resources are used. Solar flatplatecollector is a solar energy collector which is used to absorb solar radiation from sun and employed for heating the fluid flowing through it. Generally it uses circular pipe through which fluid is flow. Flatplatecollector is use to raise the temperature of flowing fluid up to desired temperature that is up to 1000C. This collector absorbs both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Due to this reason it can works effectively on cloudy days. Hence, performance of solar flatplatecollector is increased.
ABSTRACT: Sun emits energy due to fusion reaction of Hydrogen atom, which is almost inexhaustible. Solar Energy available on atmosphere of earth is approximately 1367 w/m 2 . Whole world search for alternate source of energy until fossil fuels are exhausted. India is country gifted by God with lots of sunshine more than nine month in year. Extensive work has been done on flatplatecollector to increase performance still there is very limited literature available on performance enhancement by changing geometry of absorber tube. This paper summarise the all previous work on FPC in order to enhance performance using various geometry such as circular, semi-circular, elliptical ,triangular, square and rectangular shape of absorber tube .
agro-industrial application, pre-heating of water for steam generation using boilers, drying and dehydration of agricultural products (Amrutkar et al., 2012).The major components of flatplatecollector includes transparent cover glass, highly conductive absorber plate, highly conductive heat and water transporting tubes and insulation to avoid thermal losses. Flatplatecollector as the name indicating is not always flat, it may be flat, curvy or wavy depending upon the design and requirements. It is called flat because it seems like a flat (Pravin et al., 2012). During the working principle of collector, the incident solar radiation is absorbed by absorber plate to convert it into useful thermal energy (Amrutkar et al., 2012). Flatplatecollector is useful for domestic applications due to its simple design, easy to maintain and handle and mainly it falls in low to medium temperature range which is suitable for domestic applications and can serve up to 15 to 20 years (Pravin et al., 2012). The technology of the flatplatecollector was introduced more than a century ago but still it has many flaws e.g. lower efficiency, higher thermal losses, and most importantly the higher initial costs and requires a large space for installation which makes consumers unwilling behavior to adopt and install this technology. Recently, different scientists have developed selective materials to increase overall efficiency of FPC by reducing thermal losses and increasing heat transformation from absorber to receiver. However, the use of these selective materials have increased its initial cost. Furthermore, most of these materials are not locally available. This study has be carried out to develop low cost 1 m 2 flatplatecollector using locally available materials. The performance evaluation of collector has also been carried out in terms of its collection efficiency and energy production under local climatic conditions of Pakistan. The economic feasibility of flatplatecollector in comparison with conventional water heating system has also been carried out for energy production in domestic and remote areas.
ABSTRACT: Application of solar energy for domestic and industrial heating purposes has been become very popular. Flatplatecollector type solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar applications. However the effectiveness of presently used fixed flatplate collectors is low due to the moving nature of the energy source. Recently lot of research has been carried out on the improvement of the thermal efficiency of solar flatplatecollector. This paper presents a study of the research conducted on changes in design parameters and its effect on efficiency of solar thermal flatplatecollector in recent years. This well design collector can produce hot water at temperature up to the boiling point of water which is used for various domestic and industrial heating purposes.
A few investigations were directed to limit the convective warmth move from the safeguard plate to the glass spread on the impact of the air hole between the safeguard plate and the glass spread. The straightforward calculation to join the speed and strain to change the predominant convection term into convection by expanding the air hole thickness. Moreover, The thickness change transformed an efficient stream into a riotous one, bringing about an expansion in heat misfortunes. Both convection misfortunes just as air hole concealing impacts in a FPC. We indicated the separation between the safeguard plate and the glass spread ought to be 4–5 cm to lessen these effects. Given three different lengths of air gaps of 25, 50, and 150 mm The FPC with 50 mm air gap consumed 11.64 percent and more than 25 mm and 150 mm air gaps, respectively, 7.72 percent power. The variability in collector output was negligible for air gaps exceeding 40 mm
Water flows through the system when warm water rises as cooler water sinks. The collector must be installed below the storage tank so that warm water will rise into the tank. These systems are reliable, but contractors must pay careful attention to the roof design because of the heavy storage tank. They are usually more expensive than integral collector storage passive systems.
Five number of heat pipes have been used in the solar collector and placed over the absorber plate. The cross sectional view of an elliptical heat pipe and a schematic diagram of the test rig are shown in Fig. 3 and 4, respectively. Copper has been used as container material and stainless steel as wick material. Wrapped screen wick structure with two layers of wick has been used in the heat pipe. Methanol has been used as a working fluid of the heat pipe. The specification of the heat pipe is given in Table I. The solar collector is a flatplatecollector having dimension of length 0.83 m and breath 0.81m. Thickness of the absorber plate is 2mm, aluminum sheet has been used as absorber material and is painted black paint, and thickness of glass plate is 3.2mm. Experiments were conducted on the designed elliptical heat pipe solar collector with different mass flow rate of 18kg/hr, 24kg/hr, 30kg/hr and 36kg/hr on various days. The condenser and evaporator length varied (ie Lc/L e ratio 0.1764,
70 | P a g e the local environment (Perth) by using Polysun simulation software including technical aspects, financial analysis and the comparison PV/T to two different solar technologies such as PV and flatplatecollector. The results based on modelling and simulation indicated that, designed PV/T system for residential use in Perth exposed that in terms of cost wise less efficient than individual PV and individual solar water heating system but more efficient than a system using PV and solar water heating system together. The advantages of PV/T system are obtained when there is a demand for both heat and electricity. From the results observed, the electricity output of a PV/T system is greater than compared to a similar sized of a PV system. In terms of thermal performance, a PV/T system produces less thermal output than a similar sized of solar water heating system. If there is a demand for electricity only, having a PV system would be a better option than PV/T due to lower costs and shorter payback period. In the case of heat demand only, having solar water heating system is a better option than PV/T system due to lower unit costs and better thermal performance. In the case of both heat and electricity demand, using a PV/T system is a better option than a system using PV and solar water heating together due to lower unit costs, shorter payback period and less area requirement Therefore, PV/T system tends to be economically profitable under the climate and economic circumstances in Perth.
A double-exposure collector (DEC) also provides enhanced collection of diffuse sky radiation. For an optimal adjustable-mirror configuration, the diffuse radiation enhancement factors were 1.59, 1.62 and 1.66 at latitudes 35°, 40° and 45° respectively. The experimental results prove that the DEC units provide as much as four times as much useful heat per panel area than conventional collectors during the winter. And more than twice as much useful heat as per panel area received during the summer when compared to simple flatplate collectors. The existing DEC's therefore should be even more attractive for solar energy applications in the latitudes range from 35º to 45° . The retention efficiency N is a more basic characteristic of collectors than the collection efficiency even though they are related by y = (αβ)N. The fixed flat-platecollector is clearly attractive, but the useful working temperature is usually well below 100ºC.
The parabolic type solar oven is made up of flat-platecollector or the absorber plate whose function is to absorb solar radiation and convert it to heat; the glazing or window part which can be glass or other highly transparent material that can stand the oven temperature; casing which comprises of inner and outer walls separated by lagging material to reduce heat loss by conduction; and reflector which can be plain mirror or any reflective surface .A solar oven functions on the principle of greenhouse effect, whereby radiation from the sun, primarily in the form of visible light, . This is made possible through the use of glass or plastic, which is permeable to visible light but reflects radiation in the infra- red range.
One way of improving the performance of a liquid flat-plat collector is to reduce or suppress the heat lost by convection from the top. This is done by having a vacuum above the absorber plate. As a consequence, it become essential to use a glass tube as the cover because only a tubular surface is able to withstand the stresses introduced by the pressure difference. A number of evacuated tube collector(ETC) design have been developed. One design consists of a number of long cylindrical flat-platecollector module side-by-side. Each module is evaluated, cylindrical glass tube containing a rectangular metal absorber plate. The absorber plate has a selective surface coating and heat pipe is attached to it. A glass-to-metal scale is provided between the heat pipe and the end cover of the glass tube. The length of the heat pipe inside the evacuated glass tube constitutes the evaporator section in which heat is absorbed and the fluid inside the heat pipe evaporates. The evaporated fluid rises to the condenser section where it condenses. The heat of condensation is conducted to the fluid flowing in the collector header pipe through an aluminum block clamped on the heat pipe.
According to the study of conventional solar water heating system available in market now a days we found the scope for this project. Thermo siphon system is most commonly used for solar water heating purpose. But thermo siphon system requires extra space for natural circulation, and due to bulky in nature its applications are limited. Also it has lower efficiency. So that, it is necessary to develop a compact sized solar water heating system (SWHS) with same capacity and having more efficiency than thermo siphon system. The available solutions we found are, the compactness of SWHS can be achieved by using parabolic tough collector instead of flatplatecollector. The efficiency of the system is increased by forcing large amount of water in circulation tubes. This is done with the help of forced circulation SWHS. To absorb maximum solar radiations solar tracking system can be used. The shape memory alloy actuated (SMA) pump can be used instead of electrically driven pump.
9) FlatPlateCollector (FPC): Flatplate collectors are the simplest and probably cheapest way to harvest solar energy and produce thermal heat. A flatplatecollector mainly consists of a transparent cover that allows solar irradiation in, a dark, selective absorber plate that converts the incoming radiation to heat and transfers it to the tubing system attached to it, and a heat-insulating structure on the backside to minimize heat losses FPCs are usually employed for low-temperature applications such as providing domestic hot water and space heating, while some types of flat-plate collectors, such as double-glazed collectors (operating at 80–120 °C), could be used to drive single-effect absorption chillers. Heat losses associated with these collectors are prohibitively high at higher operating temperatures. This factor affects the amount of useful heat gain and thus the thermal efficiency of the collector.