The paper aims to theoretically and numerically investigate the confinement effect of inert materials on the detonation of insensitive highexplosives. An improved shock polar theory based on the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Döring model of explosive detonation is established and can fully categorize the con- finement interactions between insensitive high explosive and inert materials into six types for the inert materials with smaller sonic velocities than the Chapman-Jouguet velocity of explosive detonation. To confirm the theoretical categorization and obtain the flow details, a second-order, cell-centered La- grangian hydrodynamic method based on the characteristic theory of the two-dimensional first-order hyperbolic partial differential equations with Ig- nition-Growth chemistry reaction law is proposed and can exactly numerical- ly simulate the confinement interactions. The numerical result confirms the theoretical categorization and can further merge six types of interaction styles into five types for the inert materials with smaller sonic velocity, moreover, the numerical method can give a new type of interaction style existing a pre- cursor wave in the confining inert material with a larger sonic velocity than the Chapman-Jouguet velocity of explosive detonation, in which a shock polar theory is invalid. The numerical method can also give the effect of inert mate- rials on the edge angles of detonation wave front.
the insertion of a blasting cap or to allow the threading of detonating cord. Boosters packaged in metal containers are usually employed in wet blasting operations, such as seismic prospecting or underwater channel cuttings. Cardboard and plastic encased primers or boosters of varying sizes are generally used in dry blasting operations, where they are often strung or laced on a length of detonating cord and lowered into a borehole. After the placing of the booster, insensitive main charge explosives in prill (loose) or slurry (liquid-gel mix) form are poured into the borehole. When the charge is fired, the boosters ensure complete detonation of the main charge explosives. Several secondary highexplosives are commonly used as primers or boosters. These explosives are frequently mixed for booster use and, in some instances, are cast together in a homogeneous mixture or are formed with one type of explosive cast around or over the other. Common explosives used in boosters include:
T rinitrotoluene, commonly known as TNT, is a con- stituent of many explosives, such as amatol, pento- lite, tetrytol, torpex, tritonal, picratol, ednatol, and com- position B. It has been used under such names as Triton, Trotyl, Trilite, Trinol, and Tritolo. TNT, as its name suggests is made by nitrating Toluene using Nitric and Sulphuric acid. In a refined form, TNT is one of the most stable of highexplosives and can be stored over long periods of time. It is relatively insensitive to blows or fric- tion. It is nonhygroscopic (does not absorb water) and does not form sensitive compounds with metals, but it is readily acted upon by alkalies to form unstable com- pounds that are very sensitive to heat and impact. TNT may exude an oily brown liquid. This exudate oozes out around the threads at the nose of the shell and may form a pool on the floor. The exudate is flammable and may contain particles of TNT. Pools of exudate should be carefully removed. TNT can be used as a booster or as a bursting charge for high-explosive shells and bombs. It gives off black smoke during the explosion due to the production of Carbon. The reason for the pro- duction of this carbon is the relative shortage of Oxygen within the TNT molecular structure (Fig5). The oxygen balance is –74% See later notes.
18–23. Design and operation of collection systems a. Collection systems and chambers will be designed to prevent pinching explosives (especially dust or thin layers) between metal parts. Pipes or tubes through which dusts are conveyed will have flanged, welded, or rubber connections. Threaded connections are prohibited. The systems will be designed to minimize accumulation of explosives dusts in parts other than the collection chamber. Ac- cordingly, pipes or ducts through which highexplosives are con- veyed will have long radius bends with a center line radius at least four times the diameter of ducts or pipes. Short radius bends may be used in systems for propellant powder provided they are stainless steel, with polished interiors. The number of points of application of vacuum will be kept to a minimum. As far as practical, each collec- tion system serving one bay will require a single header leading directly to the collector. A common header serving more than two bays is prohibited. No part of a collection system servicing an operation within a bay or cubicle will expose personnel outside that bay or cubicle. Wet primary collectors are preferred. Not more than two primary collectors (wet or dry) will be connected to a single secondary collector. If an operation does not create a dust concen- tration which may produce a severe health hazard, manual operation of the suction hose to remove explosives dusts is preferred to a permanent attachment to the explosive dust producing machine. A p e r m a n e n t a t t a c h m e n t i n c r e a s e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f p r o p a g a t i o n through a collection system of a detonation occurring at the ma- chine. Interconnection of manually operated hose connections to explosives dust- producing machines will be avoided.
Figure 1 demonstrates how performance and security characteristics can be composed by addition of single data. More information is obtained when the performance and security respectively characteristics are multiplied with each other. This results in a ``performance ®gure'' (Figs. 2 and 3), according to 2 or 3 parameters taken into account (Table 8). The graph (Fig. 2) shows that common explosives are found below a virtual border line for which is valid that highexplosives are sensitive, and ± on the other hand ± insensitive explosives, which can be handled without restrictions, do not have an attractive performance.
Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has become an alternative to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS/MS is an analytical tool of choice as the technique is more superior on the selectivity and sensitivity besides its powerful capabilities for detecting compounds in complex matrices. Perr et al.  have developed a GC/MS/MS method by using positive chemical ionization (GC/PCI/MS/MS) approach to analyze organic highexplosives of nitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene, 3-nitroltoluene, 4-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, RDX, 4-amino-2,6 dinitrotoluene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, tetryl and HMX with low LOD (0.0006- 0.0414 ng/mL). This method successfully reduced sample preparation steps as the samples can be analyzed without any sample pre-concentration as well as reducing sample loss or sample contamination.
This article has presented an overview of current work being undertaken by the Blast & Impact research group at The University of Shefﬁeld on the subject of characterisation of blast loading. To date, a large body of experimental trials have been performed using highexplosives, and their inﬂuence on the loading imparted to a target has been well characterised. areas of study include the global impulse and discrete pressure-time loads imparted to targets resulting from the detonation of shallow-buried explosives, as well as several smaller bodies of work in quantifying the free-air blast load acting on non-inﬁnite sized targets. The experimental work has demonstrated strong repeatability and very good agreement with performed numerical analyses, enabling the authors to investigate the underlying physics present. Work is still ongoing on these topics. Acknowledgements
Molecular mass/density and oxygen content/sensitivity relation- ships of polynitroadamantanes and their aliphatic counterparts, important for their explosive properties, were studied. Densities, sensitivities and detonation properties of polynitroadamantanes obtained/calculated are the same as those of standard high explo- sives. Some of them might have better characteristics than TNT, and similar ones to pentrit and hexogen, respectively. Their ali- phatic counterparts might be exceptionally sensitive and could have a high energy content, which excludes them from possible use as highexplosives.
Opportunities of the electric conductivity method for study physical-chemical transformations in detonation and shock waves are discussed. A measuring scheme of improved temporal resolution allows us to find a complex structure of detonation conductivity in cast TNT, TNT/RDX, and mixtures of highexplosives with metals. The detonation conductivity turns out highly non-homogenous; the maximum conductivity corresponds spatially to the chemical reaction zone. Nature of conductivity for a large group of highexplosives is stipulated by liberation of free carbon under exothermal chemical reaction. Results obtained lead to conclusion about the phase state and the spatial structure of the carbon particles in the chemical reaction zone and outside it. The highest conductivity is registered for mixtures HE/metal that is due to the metallic component. A temporal decrease of the conductivity for this case reflects interaction between the metal and the detonation products. The interaction depends considerably on additive content, grain morphology, and overdriving the detonation wave. The oxidation time of Al is obtained for detonation of HMX/Al mixture. Compression of the magnetic flux by the detonation wave is used for noncontact diagnostics of detonation.
This article has presented an overview of current work being undertaken by the Blast & Impact Research Group at The University of Sheffield on the subject of characterisation of blast loading. To date, a large body of experimental trials have been performed using highexplosives, and their influence on the loading imparted to a target has been well characterised. Areas of study include the global impulse and discrete pressure-time loads imparted to targets resulting from the detonation of shallow-buried explosives, as well as several smaller bodies of work in quantifying the free-air blast load acting on non-infinite sized targets. The experimental work has demonstrated strong repeatability and very good agreement with performed numerical analyses, enabling the authors to investigate the underlying physics present. Work is still ongoing on these topics.
Picric acid, or 2,4,6-trinitrophenol is a sensitive compound that can be used as a booster charge for moderately insensitive explosives, such as T.N.T. It is seldom used for explosives anymore, but it still has applications in many industries, including leather production, copper etching, and textiles. Picric acid is usually shipped mixed with 20% water for safety, and when dried it forms pale yellow crystals. In small quantities picric acid deflagrates, but large crystals or moderate quantities of powdered picric acid will detonate with sufficient force to initiate highexplosives (or remove the experimenter's fingers). Picric acid, along with all of it's salts, is very dangerous, and should never be stored dry or in a metal container. Contact with bare skin should be avoided, and ingestion is often fatal.
1.3.2 Examination of suspected explosives should start with macroscopical and microscopical observations and, when appropriate, a burn test. The usefulness of these initial tests assumes the examiner has a working knowledge of explosives. While the visual examination and burn test may be suggestive of an explosive, it is necessary to use additional analytical techniques to identify the explosive compound itself or its key constituents. The key constituents are highlighted in red (or shaded in B&W copies) for each applicable type of explosive on the chart in Appendix A.
The unique feature of almost all pyrotechnical gas generators is the concentric assembly of three different chambers with different designs corresponding to their pressure conditions and functions. The inner- most chamber with the highest pressure resistance contains the ig- niter unit consisting of a plug, squib and booster charge. Depending on the generator construction a pre-ignition unit may also be installed, whose task is to ignite the pyrotechnic mixture without electric current in case of high temperatures, which could occur in case of a fire. During normal electrical ignition the thin resistance wire of the igniter is heated and the ignition train started. The booster charge normally used is boron / potassium nitrate. The hot gases and particles gen- erated by this charge enter the concentrically arranged combustion chamber and ignite the pyrotechnic main charge. Both chambers are designed for pressures up to 40 MPa. The pyrotechnic main charge consists generally of compressed pellets which generate the working gas and slag residues by a combustion process. The products leave the combustion chamber through nozzles and enter the low pressure region of the filter compartment, where the slag is removed from the gas flow. The filter compartment is equipped with various steel filters and deflector plates. The resulting gas flows through the filter com- partment apertures into the bag.
set, and 2) ongoing efforts by the U.S. Congress to pass legislation that will criminalize the distribution of information on explosives under certain circumstances--Paladin has bee forced to carefully evaluate some of the books and videos we sell. In light of the current political and legal
General. Caution: TNT and picric acid are high explosi V es and should be handled only in small quantities. Picric acid also forms shock sensiti V e compounds with hea V y metals. All synthetic manipulations were carried out under an atmosphere of dry argon gas using standard vacuum-line Schlenk techniques. All solvents were degassed and purified before use according to standard literature methods: diethyl ether, hexanes, tetrahydrofuran, and toluene were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co. Inc. and distilled from sodium/benzophenone ketyl. Spectroscopic grade toluene from Fisher Scientific was used for the fluorescence measurements. NMR grade deuteriochloroform was stored over 4 Å molecular sieves. All other reagents (Aldrich, Gelest) were used as received or distilled before use. NMR data were collected with Varian Unity 300, 400, or 500 MHz spectrometers (300.1 MHz for 1 H NMR, 75.5 MHz for 13 C NMR and 99.2 MHz for 29 Si NMR).
Since its discovery by the Chinese in the ninth century AD and subsequent widespread adoption over the next several hundred years, gunpowder and the high-energy materials that followed have a need for controlled methods of ignition [20,21]. To do so, a stimulus energy from a non-explosive source (e.g., flame, impact or electrical current) needs to be transferred to initiate the main explosive. With early gunpowder-based weapons, the inclusion of a fuse allowed for the time-delayed ignition of the powder. Control over the time of a gunpowder explosion (a longer fuse and/or delay) meant that early grenades and incendiary arrows could be lit, fired and only explode at a target location after some specified time. This precisely controlled, variable delay is realised through a series of reaction steps, called an explosive train .
Among nitrogen rich compounds, the 5-azido-1H-tetrazolate anion possesses one of the highest contents of nitrogen. For this reason, the tetrazole moiety was applied to generate new nitrogen rich compounds like the hydrazinium 5-azido-1H-tetrazolate, nearly reaching a nitrogen content of 90 %.  Whereas 5-azido-1H-tetrazole and its salts were thoroughly investigated,  organic 5-azido-1H-tetrazoles are rarely known.  The 5-azido-1H-tetrazoles known in literature have in common, that they are stabilized by an aromatic substituent, like phenyl and its derivatives.  Therefore, the investigation of alkylated 5-azido-1H-tetrazoles could lead to valuable new nitrogen-rich building blocks. The problem when working with 5-azido-1H- tetrazoles is their high sensitivity towards friction or impact. Some alkali salts of 5-azido-1H- tetrazole even detonate spontaneously out of solution.  As a consequence, an alkylation of ionic 5-azidotetrazolate, analogue to known alkylations of 5-amino- or 5-nitrotetrazolates,  was avoided. Taking these risks into account, it was necessary to develop a secure route for the preparation of alkylated bis-5-azidotetrazoles. Common syntheses for 1H-5-azidotetrazole use either diaminoguanidine [17b] or the reaction of sodium nitrite in hydrochloric acid with tetrazolyl hydrazine.  In order to introduce the hydrazine-moiety into alkylated tetrazoles, 5-bromo-1H- tetrazoles proved to be suitable starting materials, as already demonstrated in paragraphs 188.8.131.52 and 2.3.1. The advantage of this synthesis is that the first hazardous compounds appear in the last step as the desired bis-5-azido-1H-tetrazoles and can thereby be performed with a minimum of risk for the operating chemist.
chemical composition (oxidizer agent diluted in water, hy- dro-carbon based fuel, emulsion agent and other additives). From this point, the explosive engineer would narrow the choices to commercially available explosives with the de- sired characteristics. The most likely explosive to be chosen would be the Pentaerythrol tetranitrate (PETN). PETN is relatively easy to manufactory and largely used as explosive core in the mining industry. According to ; PETN has a detonation velocity of 8.400 m/s and a heat of explosion of 1408 kCal/kg. Both within the requirements force the energy output into a shockwave and less into pressure. It is impor- tant to remark that there will always be shockwave and force in any high explosive. The aim of the explosive engineer in this application is assure that more energy will be converted in shockwave than in pressure.
g. The following subparagraphs contain guidance regarding locations and heights of air terminals that may be used to achieve the required 100–foot zone of protection on concrete or steel arch earth covered magazines. Other configurations are also considered to provide the 100–foot zone of protection if they were reflected in safety submissions or standard drawings approved by the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board after 1984. Installations must determine if alternative configurations on older magazines afford the 100–foot zone of protection. Where an LPS installed before 1984 does not meet that criterion, it must be programmed for repair. The LPS repair program must prioritize corrective actions based on a hazard analysis of each violation consistent with AR 385–10. First priority will go to correcting deficiencies on facilities storing chemical ammunition (chemical surety material as defined in AR 385–61, exclusive of ton containers). Assistance in evaluating existing alternative arrangements or air terminals may be obtained through command safety channels. Alternative configurations for new magazines must be approved by site plans or safety submissions before construction.
except for “others”, are extracted from IPCC 2014 (Stocker et al., 2014). All values are reported in Tg N y -1 . Conversion details; 1 Tg = 10 12 g or 10 6 tonnes. “Others” denotes emission sources with unknown global estimates, which may include aircraft ( ≈ 0.7 Tg N y -1 ) (Seinfeld and Pandis, 2006), oxidation of NH 3 ( ≈ 3.0 Tg N y -1 ) (Nelson, 2006) and dispersed use of nitrate explosives (estimated