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Portland Cement Residues Polymers Composites  and Its Application to the Hollow Blocks Manufacturing

Portland Cement Residues Polymers Composites and Its Application to the Hollow Blocks Manufacturing

Agricultural wastes and sawdust combined with cement matrix in the manufacture of building elements has been prac- ticed with success in developed countries. In this study, sawdust from wood species (Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus grandis) and an agricultural waste—rice husk (Oriza sativa) were combined with Portland cement type V (high initial strength), modified by polymer styrene-butadiene (SBR) addition. Hollow blocks produced with Eucalyptus grandis and rice husk residues showed better compressive strength; however, those produced with residues derived from Pinus caribaea presented non-satisfactory results, due to the particle size that was used.

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FaL-G MORTAR COMPRESSED HOLLOW BLOCKS

FaL-G MORTAR COMPRESSED HOLLOW BLOCKS

FaL-G is the product name given to a cementitious mixture composed of Fly ash (Fa), Lime (L) and Gypsum (G). It is low-cost and environmental-friendly material very useful even in rural housing industry. FaL-G in certain proportions, as a building material is an outcome of innovation to promote large-scale utilization of fly ash. It gains strength like any other hydraulic cement in the presence of water and it is water resistant when hardened. This paper addresses the technology of making FaL-G mortar compressed hollow blocks with low- calcium (Class F) dry fly ash as the base material. The FaL-G masonry hollow blocks were prepared without the use of conventional cement. Quarry dust and sand were used as fine aggregates as sustainable materials. The properties and compressive strength of FaL-G masonry hollow blocks were tested with different parameters. The experimental results reveal that the FaL-G hollow blocks are suitable to be used for the construction of masonry structures.

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Comparative Analysis of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks and Laterite Interlocking Blocks as Walling Elements

Comparative Analysis of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks and Laterite Interlocking Blocks as Walling Elements

The sandcrete hollow blocks were produced using vibrating block moulding machine with double 150mm (6 inches) moulds and single 225mm (9 inches) mould. Cement and sand were measured in ratio 1:9 by volume batching with the aid of head pans. The materials were then thoroughly mixed together manually until a homogeneous mix with uniform colour was obtained. Water was then added in sufficient quantity to ensure workability of the mixture. The water was judged to be sufficient when a quantity of the mixture pressed between the palms caked without bringing out water [6]. The composite mixture was then introduced into the mould in the block moulding machine and the block vibrated for one minute to ensure adequate compaction as practiced by Raheem (2006) [6]. The green block on wooden pallet was removed from the block moulding machine and placed on the ground for curing. Water was sprinkled on the green blocks, at least twice a day for proper curing for twenty eight days.

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Experimental Study of Geopolymer Concrete Blocks

Experimental Study of Geopolymer Concrete Blocks

Hollow blocks are very popular and are extensively used in building construction throughout the country because of the many advantages such as durability, strength and structural stability, fire resistance, insulation and sound absorption it possess. The cement concrete blocks have an attractive appearance and are readily adaptable to any style of architecture. The blocks are used for both load bearing and non load bearing walls. The raw materials cement, sand and stone chips are used for the concrete mixture. The size of the stone chips should be 12 mm and below but well graded. In this work 400mm x 100mm x 200mm size of the blocks are used. The locally available hollow block made of cement, fine and coarse aggregate with water is shown in Figure 3. The construction works of hollow blocks are shown in Figure 4.

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Experimental Study of Geopolymer Concrete Blocks

Experimental Study of Geopolymer Concrete Blocks

In the case of blocks, the specimen having five different percentage of Fly ash and GGBS (60%FA:40%GGBS, 50%FA:50%GGBS, 40%FA:60%GGBS, 100%FA, 100%GGBS) with 8M were tested and it is placed in the machine in such a manner that the load is applied to the same sides of the blocks at cast. The axis of the specimen is carefully aligned with the centre of the thrust of the spherically seated plate. A thin plywood is used between the faces of the specimens and the steel plate of testing machine. The compressive strength of hollow concrete blocks are within the limits specified by IS: 2185 (Part I)-1979, Hollow and Solid Concrete Blocks. The different mixes of Geopolymer hollow blocks are shown in Figure 4.16. The compressive strength test on hollow blocks are shown in Figure 4.17. The 3 rd day compressive strength test on Geopolymer hollow blocks are

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Study Of Compressive Strength Characteristics Of Hollow Sandcrete Blocks Partially Replaced By Saw Dust Ash

Study Of Compressive Strength Characteristics Of Hollow Sandcrete Blocks Partially Replaced By Saw Dust Ash

Abstract: - The high cost of conventional Building materials is a major factor affecting housing delivery in Nigeria. This has necessitated research into alternative materials of construction. This paper presents the results of an investigation carried out on the use of Saw Dust Ash(SDA) as partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement(OPC) in sandcrete hollow blocks, in order to determine the optimum quantity of SDA in percentage by weight of OPC, so as to effectively reduce the cost of Building production. The percentage of SDA is in gradation of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, two mix ratios (1:6 and 1:8) were used, and the blocks produced were tested for Density and Compressive strength. The results of the tests showed that as the percentage of SDA increased, Density and Compressive strength decreased. At 28days the Compressive strength of blocks with 10% SDA replacement are 2.2N/mm 2 and 2.0N/mm 2 which satisfy the requirement. specified by the National Building Code (2006). It was concluded that up to 10% SDA replacement can be used for non-load bearing walls for 1:8 mix at 28days curing age. Also, up to 10% replacement for 1:6 mix can be used for load and non- load bearing walls.

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Effects of fine aggregate types on the strength properties of building blocks

Effects of fine aggregate types on the strength properties of building blocks

of fine aggregates on the strength properties of building blocks. The fine granite dust and run-off sand. A cement-fine aggregate cement ratio of 0.5 were used throughout the work. Sixteen hollow blocks of dimension, 450mm x 225mm x 150mmand 12 solid blocks of dimension 600mm x 150mm x 150mm were cast for each of the fine aggregate samples. The bulk density of the fine aggregates used 3while the water absorption rates were 6.12%, 4.65%, 10% and 5% for sharp sand, quartz sand, granite dust and run-off sand respectively. Mixing of the particles was done manually using spades on a clean relatively impervious surface. The on a level surface and cured by sprayingwater morning and evening for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. For each of the curing ages, 4 samplesmade with each of the aggregate types were tested for the compressive strength of the hollow blocks while 3 samples each were tested for the flexural strength of each of the solid building blocks. The highest and lowest values of the compressive strengths of the hollow blocks which were obtained for quartz sand and granite dust block samples and 3.42N/mm 2 . For the same period of curing, were the highest and lowest values which were off sands respectively. Results of the tests show that quartz sand is an excellent alternative to sharp sand for the production of building blocks. It was compressive and flexural strengths of building blocks are significantly affected by

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COST EFFECTIVENESS TO RESIDENTIAL BUILDING USING GREEN BUILDING APPROACH

COST EFFECTIVENESS TO RESIDENTIAL BUILDING USING GREEN BUILDING APPROACH

industrially advanced countries of the west for the past three decades [11]. This paper presents feasibility of the usage of the materials such as fly ash, quarry dust and 6 mm stone chips. It deals with the partial replacement of cement with 30% fly ash, natural sand with 50% quarry dust and coarse aggregates with 20% 6 mm chips obtained from quarry dust. In this project interlocking hollow blocks were introduced as i. and ii. The interlocking TC roof block and TC joist block (beam) provided makes excellent interlocking and rigid bonding between the blocks. These interlocking TC roof block having grooves helps to convert to hold rigidly. These TC roof blocks are placed in the tension zone of the solid concrete slab. Feasibility study was carried out that the usage of TC blocks, fly ash, quarry dust and 6 mm stone chips because co 2 emission less and eco friendly

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Experimental Investigation of Engineering Properties of Hollow Concrete Blocks using Basalt Fibre

Experimental Investigation of Engineering Properties of Hollow Concrete Blocks using Basalt Fibre

engineering properties of hollow blocks using basalt fibre. This project involves material collection, testing of material, casting of hollow blocks, testing of hollow blocks. The ultimate target of this project is to overcome the crack induced in walls by using basalt fibre in hollow blocks. Usually the property of the fiber is strengthening. For the preparation of hollow block for that optimum value basalt fibre of length 12mm are added as 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% to volume of cement. In this research, the effect of inclusion of basalt fibre on the compressive strength of hollow block was studied. The main aim of the investigation program is to find the optimum value of fibre content and also the impact of addition of fibre on the compressive strength of hollow concrete blocks. The hollow concrete block samples were tested for compressive strength after 28 days of curing period and a notable increase in compressive strength is observed for all the percentage addition of fibre when compared with the hollow concrete block without fibre. In addition to that, hollow block wall is constructed and NDT test was done. This project thesis explains the study in detail.

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Experimental Investigation of Engineering Properties of Hollow Concrete Blocks using Basalt Fibre

Experimental Investigation of Engineering Properties of Hollow Concrete Blocks using Basalt Fibre

engineering properties of hollow blocks using basalt fibre. This project involves material collection, testing of material, casting of hollow blocks, testing of hollow blocks. The ultimate target of this project is to overcome the crack induced in walls by using basalt fibre in hollow blocks. Usually the property of the fiber is strengthening. For the preparation of hollow block for that optimum value basalt fibre of length 12mm are added as 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% to volume of cement. In this research, the effect of inclusion of basalt fibre on the compressive strength of hollow block was studied. The main aim of the investigation program is to find the optimum value of fibre content and also the impact of addition of fibre on the compressive strength of hollow concrete blocks. The hollow concrete block samples were tested for compressive strength after 28 days of curing period and a notable increase in compressive strength is observed for all the percentage addition of fibre when compared with the hollow concrete block without fibre. In addition to that, hollow block wall is constructed and NDT test was done. This project thesis explains the study in detail.

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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT CONDUCTION THROUGH HOLLOW BUILDING BLOCKS

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT CONDUCTION THROUGH HOLLOW BUILDING BLOCKS

Solid and Hollow concrete blocks of size (450x225x225)mm Fig. 1-3, made using plane river sand with maximum size 4.75mm and specific gravity of 2.6 homogenously mixed with ordinary Portland cement of 43 grade confining to NIS 087: 2000 [3]. Each set of comparison block was produced from the same raw material and the same process in an effort to isolate the effect of void area on heat transfer and performance of the hollow blocks. The physical dimensions of the test solid concrete blocks (SCB) and hollow concrete blocks are shown in Table 1

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Study Of Staircase Effect On Seismic Performance Of Multistoried Frame Structure

Study Of Staircase Effect On Seismic Performance Of Multistoried Frame Structure

Hollow bricks are widely used as building structural elements. Their acoustic properties are greatly influenced by the pattern of the blocks.[15] Multilayer materials have been widely used as an effective sound attenuation material feasible prediction via a so-called transfer matrix method is often used. This method is based on a theory, which says that the relation between the pressure and bulk flow of two ends of a sound propagating route can be expressed by a matrix.In solid blocks sound insulation is very high as the sound waves cannot pass through it properly.In case of both concrete and clay hollow blocks there are two surfaces for reflection of sound wave so the may can be better insulator but with same they have higher echo effect[23].Fiberous material such as cellulose fiber or glass fiber or any other fiber can act as good acoustic insulator as they are good in absorbing the sound wave.So composite hollow blocks have better sound insulation[24].

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Influence of Infills on Fundamental Time Period of RC Structures

Influence of Infills on Fundamental Time Period of RC Structures

Solid concrete block (SCB), aerated concrete block (ACB), common burnt clay brick (CCB), hollow open cavity concrete block (HCB) and performed foam cellular concrete block (PCB) infills are used in modelling. Three different height categories were considered for the study such as 10 storey, 20 storey and 30 storey with storey height as 3m and bay width as 4m. The size of beams and columns are selected as 300mm x 600mm and 500mm x 500mm.The building plan dimensions selected for modelling are 12m x 12m, 24m x 24m and 36m x 36m.There are altogether 54 building models were analyzed. The buildings were fixed at bottom and all the degrees of freedom of the displacement are restrained against movement.

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Effect of Acidic Environment on Hollow Sandcrete Blocks

Effect of Acidic Environment on Hollow Sandcrete Blocks

The procured hollow sandcrete blocks were prepared using Sand, Ashaka brand of Portland cement and water in the ratio (6:1:0.8). Particle Size Distribution (PSD) was carried out on the sand according to [11] which in addition specifies the allowable silt content of the sand sample. The cement was subjected to the following tests-initial setting time, final setting time, soundness and compressive strength according to [6]. No test was carried out on the water used to produce the blocks. A total number of seventy two (72) blocks of size 230mmX230mmX460mm were produced for the research. The blocks were produced in line with [10] specification. Proper curing was achieved by spraying water morning and evening (twice per day) for a period of seven (7) days.

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CONSTRUCTION OF A TEST ROOM FOR EVALUATING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDING WALL SYSTEMS UNDER REAL CONDITIONS

CONSTRUCTION OF A TEST ROOM FOR EVALUATING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDING WALL SYSTEMS UNDER REAL CONDITIONS

Experimental studies on thermal performance of building wall are rare. This is attributed to difficulties associated with experimental work in general, and to the nature of buildings, regarding size and varieties of building wall systems. Measurement of thermal conductivity of building blocks which are composite in nature poses another hurdle. The authors experience with the guarded and unguarded plate thermal conductivity devices used for composite building blocks has produced erroneous results.

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On Some Properties of Hollow and Hollow Dimension Modules

On Some Properties of Hollow and Hollow Dimension Modules

Throughout this paper, all rings will have identities and all modules will be unital right modules. Let M be a module. Any small submodule K of M is denoted by (K ≪ M). A submodule K of M is small in M if for every submodule L of M ∋ K + L = M then K = M. A module M is called lifting if, for all N submodule of M, there is a decomposition M = H ⊕ G ∋ H submodule of N and (N H) ≪ M. We call a non-zero R-module M hollow if every proper submodule is superfluous in M. Or a module H is said to be hollow if it is an indecomposable lifting module. Therefore we can say any factor modules of hollow modules are again hollow. If M has a largest submodule, i.e. a proper submodule which contains all other proper submodules, then M is called a local module therefore it is obvious that a largest submodule has to be equal to the radical of M and in this case Rad(M) M. Let M be an R-module and N, L are submodules of M then L is a radical supplement (Rad– supplement) of N in M if N + L = M and (N L) ⊆ Rad(L). Therefore M is Rad–supplemented if every submodule in M has a Rad-supplement. A module M is called (D 1 )-module if

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Some methods of beam analyses include; finite element, finite difference, stiffness, energy and double integration. Moment of inertia method was chosen for this work because it readily suits the purpose and it takes into consideration, the sectional properties of the beam. The moment of inertia theorem was used to analyze the cross section and the parallel axis theorem was used to find the moment of inertia of each component area about the centroidal axis of the cross section which the neutral axis runs along. The double integration method for deflection of beams was used to derive the equation for the deflection at mid span which is the point for maximum bending for the simply supported beam point loaded at mid span. The hollow core position was maintained in the compression zone of the section. The corresponding neutral axis for every shift in hollow core position from the top of the beam section towards the neutral axis was determined.

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Basic MBF Blocks Properties and Rank 6 Blocks

Basic MBF Blocks Properties and Rank 6 Blocks

Abstract Considered all the Monotone Boolean Functions (MBFs) blocks of the sixth rank, it proved a series of new properties MBF blocks. The proposed methods can be used to analyze large ranks MBFs. The tables which describe all of the blocks from 4th to 6th rank are provided. On the basis of these tables are counted typical depending to these blocks.

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Cyclic behaviour of hollow and concrete filled circular hollow section braces

Cyclic behaviour of hollow and concrete filled circular hollow section braces

14 plastic hinge during plastic analysis of the structure. Class 2 cross-sections can obtain the section plastic moment resistance but have limited rotational capacity owing to local buckling. Sections which are unable to achieve the full plastic moment resistance but which can reach the yield strength in the extreme compressive fibre are classified as Class 3 cross-sections. Class 4 sections are those in which the occurrence of local buckling prevents the attainment of yield stress in the section. Classes 1 – 3 are fully effective in compression, whereas a reduced cross-sectional area is used for calculating the compressive resistance of Class 4 sections. The cross-sectional slenderness limits for tubular hollow sections in BS EN 1993-1-1 (2005) are given in Table 2.3. The cross-sectional slenderness is defined in this table as the ratio between cross-section width (D for circular sections and h for rectangular sections) and tube wall thickness (t). Circular sections offer a greater degree of continuity around the perimeter than rectangular sections and in the case of concrete- filled tubes they provide a more uniform confining pressure to the concrete core. Hence circular hollow sections have been selected for this research. Since Class 1 sections are recommended in BS EN 1998-1 (2004) for structures with a high ductility class (Table 2.2), these were chosen for the initial investigations.

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(iii) The deformation scale factor for comparable circular and rectangular hollow section of CFRP increases approximately by 67% and that of steel increases at over 200 % (comparing circular hollow section to rectangular hollow section). This implies that at the same or comparable cross- sectional areas, CFRP circular hollow sections will deform more under compressive critical loads. The increase in the deformation scale factor explains that on a basis of shape factor rectangular hollow sections are always safer and on this note the increase in deformation of steel circular hollow section to rectangular steel section is quite large and presents a good reason why CFRP hollow sections of comparable cross sectional areas are of an advantage serving as compressive structural elements. Both sections offer closer range of safety and can be used interchangeably.

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