(Bauman & Elliot, 1983). Adiponectin is a recently discovered hormone that has been studied extensively in humans and rodents, but very little is known about adiponectin in cattle. Given that adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing effects in other species, it would be valuable to know if adiponectin plays a role during early lactation in conjunction with the period of negative energy balance (NEB) and decreased circulating insulin concentrations. The primary goals of this preliminary study were to determine if adiponectin could be measured in bovine plasma, and to monitor adiponectin concentrations over the first 11 weeks of lactation in Holsteincows. We also looked for relationships between adiponectin and insulin, milk yield, body condition score (BCS), and progesterone (time to first
Ketosis is a metabolic disorder closely associated with liver lipidosis. Numerous tests have been developed to detect hepatic dysfunction in dairy cows. Bromosulfophthalein (BSP) clearance is established as a sensitive index of hepatic function. The objective of this study was to examine the difference of biliary excretion of BSP between ketotic and healthy Holsteincows and to correlate this excretion with other indicators of liver dysfunction. Twenty puerperal Holsteincows divided in two groups (10 cows each) were involved in the study. The fi rst group included healthy and the second group ketotic cows. Blood samples were taken 10 days after parturition. Concentrations of total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, Ca, P, total lipids, urea and glucose were determined. Immediately after blood sampling, BSP test was performed. Blood samples were taken 5 and 45 minutes after injection, and the percentage of retained pigment in the sample obtained at minute 45 was calculated. Blood albumin and glucose concentrations were signifi cantly higher in healthy then ketotic cows. Total bilirubin concentration was signifi cantly higher in ketotic than healthy cows. BSP excretion was signifi cantly higher in ketotic compared to healthy cows. There was a signifi cant positive correlation between BSP values and total bilirubin concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows and a signifi cant negative correlation between BSP values and glucose concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows. In conclusion, biliary clearance of BSP may be used as a reliable method for the detection of hepatic dysfunction associated with clinical symptoms of ketosis in dairy cows.
In this study we estimated the allele and genotype frequencies of SCD1 and DGAT1 gene polymorphism. The analysis was conducted on 408 Holsteincows from five dairy herds in Isfahan province. Genotypes were identified using PCR-RFLP technique. Two genetic variants (A and V) of the SCD1 gene were observed in this experiment. The frequency of A-allele ranged from 0.49 to 0.66, while frequency of V- allele 0.34 to 0.51. Regards with DGAT1 gene, also two genetic variants (A and K) were determined that frequency of A-allele ranged from 0.54 to 0.68 and K-allele 0.32 to 0.46. It was found that these two genes were polymorphic in Isfahan Holsteincows, which suggested that could be associated with composition and production traits.
Background: The prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows is high with large impact on econ- omy and welfare. Its current field diagnosis is based on point ruminal pH measurements by oral probe or rumenocen- tesis. These techniques are invasive and inaccurate, and better markers for the diagnosis of SARA are needed. The goal of this study was to evaluate clinical signs of SARA and to investigate the use of blood, faecal and urinary parameters as indicators of SARA. Six lactating, rumen cannulated, Danish Holsteincows were used in a cross-over study with three periods. The first and second periods included two cows on control diet and two cows on nutritional SARA challenge. The third period only included two cows on SARA challenge. Control diet was a conventional total mixed ration [45.5% dry matter (DM), 17.8% crude protein, 43.8% neutral detergent fibre, and 22.5% acid detergent fibre (DM basis)]. SARA challenge was conducted by substituting control diet with grain pellets (50% wheat/barley) over 3 days to reach 40% grain in the diet. Ruminal pH was measured continuously. Blood samples were collected once daily at 7 h after feeding. Samples of faeces and urine were collected at feeding, and at 7 and 12 h after feeding. Blood samples were analysed for pCO2, pO2, pH, electrolytes, lactate, glucose, packed cell volume (PCV), and total plasma protein concentration. Milk composition, ruminal VFA, and pH of faeces and urine were measured.
Initially, we examined the effect of oral administration of the β -(1 ! 3),(1 ! 6)-D-glucan on the quality of milk produced by Holsteincows. The lactating Holsteincows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 10 5 /ml were used for this experiment. The Holsteincows were orally administered with (n = 2) or without (n = 3) the β-(1 ! 3), (1 ! 6)-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans-cultured fluid (AP-CF; 300 ml/cow, 0.42 g/dl β-(1 ! 3),(1 ! 6)-D- glucan) once a day for three months, and the somatic cell counts and solid non fat in the milk were monitored. The results show that the initial difference of somatic cell counts between the administered cows and the control cows was not significantly changed throughout the
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Monitoring of Claw Diseases/Disorders Because of the relatively short period of data collection (8 months) the database of health traits was small. There were substantial differences between farms in their approaches to monitoring herd health. Omitting herds with low LIR, we obtained our data from farms that employ regular health monitoring. The ID trait was mostly represented by dermatitis and necrobacillosis and NID by ulcers (see Tab. I). A sizeable proportion of OCD records (26%) were included due to lameness (see Tab. I). Lameness is very general disorder with a number of different causes. It is an indicator of claw and leg problems and is a reasonably proper part of OCD. We conclude that such diagnoses as lameness, dermatitis digitalis and interdigitalis, necrobacillosis and ulcers are most important for the genetic evaluation of health traits in the Czech Republic. Pérez-Cabal and Charfeddine (2015) stated that six infectious and non-infectious claw disorders are monitored in Spanish Holsteincows: dermatitis, sole ulcer, white line disease, interdigital hyperplasia, necrobacillosis, and chronic laminitis, and that this same grouping of claw diseases/ disorders according their causes was used by van der Spek (2015).
The aim of this study was to identify the effect of ambient temperature and season of the year on conception difficulties in Holstein cattle. The experiment was conducted on the School farm in Žabčice. Data were collected from July 2016 to January 2017. Experimental population counted 263 breeding Holsteincows, which were inseminated during the observation period. Results of this study confirmed the effect of temperature and season on conception rates in dairy cows. In winter season, successful conception was recorded in 56.36 % of cows in average ambient temperature 1.48 °C, in summer season the conception rate was only 40.43 % in average daily temperature 18.96 °C. A more detailed analysis revealed the highest conception rates in the dairy cows in January (88.24 %) and February (91.67 %). On the contrary, the worst results were recorded in September (22.73 %) and October (28.57 %). Evaluation of conception rate according to ambient temperature intervals showed best results for the temperatures below 5 °C. A part of the study was also evaluation of an association between daily milk yield and conception rate. This hypothesis cannot be conclusively confirmed, because milk yield was mostly similar in both groups (pregnant and non‑pregnant) on the days of insemination.
Namjo et al. (2016) evaluated the effects of several environmental factors such as lactation stage, produc- tion season, age at first calving, somatic cell count in milk yield, province and calving year on the occurrence of negative energy balance in Iranian dairy cows and concluded that all considered factors, except age of cow at first calving, had significant effects on the occurrence of negative energy balance. They considered fat to pro- tein ratio as a measure of energy balance. In a previous study, Pakdel et al. (2010) fitted six non-linear models including the Wood, Wilmink, Ali and Schaeffer, Rook, Nedler and Morant for describing the somatic cell score curves in the first four lactations of Iranian Holsteincows. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh (2016) compared seven mathematical models including Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra for describing the lac- tation curves for fat to protein ratio in the first three lac- tation periods of Iranian Holsteincows and determined Dijkstra function as the best fitted model during the first three lactations.
The means for BUN, SPtn and macro-mineral concentrations in high producer cows were significantly (P<0.05) greater and cholesterol was lower than in low producer cows (Table 1). The mean concentrations for BUN, SPtn, creatinine, TGs, cholesterol, BHB, SCa, SMg, SIP, SNa and SK were within the normal range. The highest blood parameter concentrations with the exception of cholesterol were observed in high producer cows. The means for milk parameters excluding lactose and MIP in high producers were greater than in low producer cows, in which it was significant (P < 0.05) only for MCa, MMg and MIP (Table 2). The mean concentrations for MUN, MPtn, Table 1. Mean ± SE blood parameters in high and low producer dairy Holsteincows (n=76).
paired with at least one outbred equal (2689 equals in sum). Inbred cows with their outbred equals were matched on characteristics such as (1) identical sire, (2) ﬁ rst calving interval occurring at the same farm, (3) ﬁ rst calving in the same year and period (± 2 months) and (4) dam reaching the same breeding value (± 5 %). Inbred cows and their matched out- bred equals were subsequently divided according to the inbreeding coeﬃ cients of inbred cows into four groups (F x = 1.25 %, F x = 2.0–3.125 %, F x = 4.0–12.5 %
Cow reproduction, which poses no problems, is the most important prerequisite for high milk and meat production bringing a good economic income to cattle breeders. While the calf is the actual result of fertility, the calving process initiates new lacta- tion (Říha et al., 2000). That being so many authors genera lise this eﬀ ect as a biological regularity ex- pressed by the relation that “without reproduction there is no production” (Bouška et al., 2006). Con- sidering that in many cases the entire agricultural enterprise is dependent on the economic results of dairy cow breeding it deems necessary to seek and exploit all possibilities and reserves to improve the economic results of breeding milked cows. As opti- mal fertility we generally consider one healthy calf from one cow a year; this is important particularly for cows with no market milk production. Much like Burdych a Všetečka (2004), also Říha et al. (2000) con- sidered economic losses immediately related to fer- tility as the most serious; what is more they pointed out that the losses were due to embryonic mortali ty. Reproduction disorders are also the main reasons
The effects of udder linear traits are shown in Table 3. The longest PL was found for cows with above-average fore udder attachment (class 4), with highest rear udder attachment (class 5), and with deepest central ligament (class 5). In the case of udder depth, cows with moderately deep udders showed the longest PL. This finding differs from Hamoen (2002), who described the lowest cul- ling rate for cows scored from 5 to 7 points cor- responding to our scoring class 3 or 4. There is an early linear dependence between PL and the front teat placement classification when PL is extended
The periparturient cow or transition cow may be most adversely affected by heat stress, with increases seen in respiration rates and rectal, vaginal and skin temperatures during summer versus winter months. Heat stress did not significantly alter heart rate (Huhnke and Monty, 1976). There are significant hormonal and metabolic changes that occur within a 4 week period as the cow makes the transition from a state of tissue deposition during pregnancy, to a state of tissue mobilization for lactation (Stockdale and Roche, 2002). The transition period is generally about 3 weeks prepartum to 3 weeks postpartum, a time when the incidence of metabolic disease is greatest (Drackley, 1999). One study reported that late lactation, heat stressed cows (32˚C) had a 69% decline in milk production (Yousef and Johnson, 1966). Pregnant cows exposed to no shade treatment had depressed milk yields in the subsequent lactation versus cows assigned to shade. This was directly related to decreased calf weights that seem to significantly alter the cow’s postpartum milk yield (Collier et al., 1982). Benson and Morris (1971)
Abstract This experiment was conducted to determine the association between several risk factors which may affect culling of the Iranian Holsteincows. The data consisted of 329,772 lactation rec- ords collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran (2003 to 2012).The logistic regression was applied to investigate the associations between the response variable, the risk of culling, and predictor variables including the calving season, parity, birth type, calving ease, standardized 305-d milk yield, age at the first calving, region and the number of calving cows in the herd. The risk of culling in- creased (P< 0.001) with parity and twinning. The odds ratio (OR) of a cow leaving the herd were 1.32, 1.55, 1.62, 1.67 and 1.88 for parities 2 to 6, respectively, and 1.09 for twinning. The OR in- creased with increasing in calving difficulty score except for the farmer- assisted cows. The OR were 1.12, 1.36 and 1.23 for herds with 26 to 53, 54 to 125 and ≥126 calving cows, and the risk of culling was increased with increases in the number of calving cows in the herd. Calving in hot season in- creased the risk of culling and cows calved in cool seasons had lower risk of culling. The OR were 0.87, 0.79 and .077 for summer, fall and winter respectively. Cows in the warm and dry and warm and semi-arid regions had a higher (P< 0.001) risk of culling compared with the cows in temperate or cold and wet regions. Risk of culling (P< 0.001) decreased with increases in the standardized 305- d milk yield. Cows that calved first at about 24 months of age had a lower risk of culling; higher ages at first calving increased the risk of culling. The findings showed that the studied risk factors signif- icantly affected the culling rate in Iranian Holsteincows, and can be used as management tools by dairy farmers.
Abstract This study was carried out in a commercial herd from 2008 to 2012 in order to determine the most prevalent reasons for culling Holsteincows and to assess the effects of risk factors. Overall, 519 (28.2%) cows were culled for involuntary (98.8%) and voluntary (1.2%) reasons. The involun- tary causes of culling were diseases (38.7%), reproduction problems (36.0%), udder disorders (7.7%), lameness (3.7%) and death (12.7%). Mean age of cows at culling was 70.5±15.6 months and the time interval from last calving to culling averaged 263±196 days. Logistic binary regression was used to model the hazard of culling. The analysis of risk factors showed that parity, calving season, and age at first calving had significant effects on the hazard of culling (P < 0.05 to P <0.001). Thus, cows at parity 3 and 4 or greater had a 116.5% and 253.8% risk of culling, respectively than cows at parity 1 (reference class) (P < 0.001). Cows that calved from May to August and from September to December had a 19.7% and 45.5% risk of culling, respectively, higher than those that calved from January to April. The risk of culling increased with increasing age at first calving. Thus, cows having an age at first calving of 25-30 and 31-38 months had a 130.8% and 90.4% risk of culling, respec- tively, higher than cows having an age at first calving less or equal than 24 months. It was concluded that identifying reasons for culling can be helpful in determining management problems in dairy herds.
cattle enterprises due to its robust and quicker result and easy applicability . Some previous publications have studied the effects of BCS during the calving, dry period and different periods of lactation on milk yield [9– 11], and milk components ; however, others reported that BCS had no effect on the yield and health performances [3, 13, 14]. Certain complications such as decreased milk yield, high incidence of metabolic diseases, delayed postpartum estrus of emaciated cows, may take place due to lack of usable reserves in the early period of lactation. Furthermore, difficult birth, high incidence of metabolic diseases and reduction in milk yield of over- conditioned cows could occur due to a reluctance to consume dry food [15–17]. To avoid such complications of emaciation or obesity, the cows should have a BCS of at least 3.5 out of 5 at calving period . Our concurrent work investigated the impact of BCS changes during prefresh and fresh stages on Holsteincows performance to detect how many BCS unites could be lost during early fresh period without any effect upon their dairy performance?
The analysis of individual SCC of two breeds in 26 herds enabled to scrutinize the impact of coinciden- tally acting seasonal, management and genetic fac- tors on this important udder health indicator. The seasonal variation in SCC revealed lower in compar- ison to the diﬀ erences between the farms or between the breeds. At genetic level, higher milk production is associated with a higher risk of mastitis (Van Dorp et al., 1998; Ingvartsen et al., 2003), although the in- teraction with the environment modi ﬁ es this rela- tionship (Windig et al., 2005). In the separate analysis on seven herds executed in this study, the Holsteincows with an average milk produc tion 6,626 kg had signiﬁ cantly higher SCC than the Czech Fleckvieh cows with only 5,790 kg milk production, which supports the above mentioned relation between the milk performance and the risk of mastitis. The breed diﬀ erences in the susceptibility to udder infection disease were reported also by other authors (Busato et al., 2000; Washburn et al., 2002; Doherr et al., 2007). Higher milk SCC were found in the winter than in the summer season in both the feeding systems. The insigniﬁ cant interaction between the season and the feeding system indicated that the feeding system it- self was not a major factor determining this seasonal trend. Other factors than the pasture related, feeding or movement circumstances were thus implicated in the seasonal variation. The photoperiod can be one of the important factors. The prolonged lenght of the daylight increases the milk production in cows (Dahl et al., 2000). Higher feed intake and a better milk performance generally indicate a better health and immune status of cows (Bareille et al., 2003). In precedent studies dealing with the same herds as in this study, higher milk yields and signiﬁ cant changes of the milk fat composition were observed during the summer season in comparison to the winter season (Frelich et al., 2009a,b). The change of a herd environment and the increased physical strain by grazing cows may, however, act as the stress fac- tors suspected of a higher subclinical mastitis inci-
Dataset contained information from 654 Holsteincows bred in selected commercial farm. This farm is located in potato‑growing region with altitude 435 m.a.m. The average milk production was 10,705 kg, 3.5 % of fat (F) content, and 3,3, % of protein (P) content in evaluated herd. Animal were housed in free cubical stall for 420 cows. Straw box stable was divided into 6 sections, each of them for 70 animals. Ventilation of stable was provided by two lines ventilators and evaporation‑fogging installed above the feed corridor, when the TEM exceeding 20 °C. The feeding alley with double sided feeding table was located in the middle of stable. Cows’ feed ration in different phases of lactation is specified in Tab. I. in detail. Feed ration composition during calving interval differed especially in quantity of concentrated feed, which corresponded with phase of lactation and cow’s reproduction cycle. The frequency of feeding was 3× per day with ongoing gathering 9× per day. Cows in each section had access to drinking haul. Milking was carried out in herringbone (fishbone) parlour 2 × 14 unit, three times a day (4:00 a.m., 12:00 p.m., 8:00 p.m.).
Durán Aguilar et al.  discovered recently that there is a CNV region on BTA29 with a length of 86,267 which stretches from 44.4 to 44.5 Mbp. CNVs are less frequent than SNP, but involve larger genomic regions that may affect gene structure and regulation . As CNVs are heritable it is possible that they may be associated with animal health and production traits under recent selection . When deletions occur there is only one, or occasionally no, copies of the gene present in the genome, which can result in dosage imbalance . The par- ticular CNVR in BTA29 reported by Durán Aguilar et al.  was associated with eight genes SSSCA1, FAM89B, EHBP1L1, KCNK7, MAP3K11, PCNXL3, SIPA1 and RELA . This study compared Mexican Holsteincows with estimated breeding values for somatic cell score (SCS) which were ± 2 SD from the average SCS score, and included 140 high and 140 low phenotype samples. Of these 14 cows (5.8%) had this particular CNV loss. If the same CNV is also present in other Holstein populations, then it would clearly affect SNP genotyping results.
Oestrus refers to the period when a female cow is sexually receptive and is also called heat (Perry, 2004). In cattle, oestrus usually lasts about 15h with arange of 4 and 24 h (Perry, 2004) when the cow or heifer stands to be mounted it is known as standing oestrus or true oestrus (Hurnik et al., 1975). During oestrus, cows show behavioural signs as a result of the influence of E2, and such behavioural signs include restlessness, standing to be mounted, sniffing the ano-genital tract of other cows, presence of clear mucus from the vulva, swelling and reddening of the vulva (Sveberg et al., 2011), bellowing, chin resting and head mounting (Gordon, 2011). In high yielding dairy cows, as milk production increases from 33.5 to 46.4 kg milk, this leads to a decrease in the duration of oestrus from 10.9 to 6.2 h, respectively (Lopez et al., 2004). It appears that the duration of oestrus in heifers (12.4 h) is longer than cows (8.9 h; Roelofs et al., 2005a). The duration of oestrus measured by continuous monitoring of Holsteincows by video recording were 7.5, 7.8 and 10.1 h, when one, two or three cows were in oestrus at the same time, respectively (Hurnik et al., 1975). However, Kerbrat and Disenhaus (2004) found that the duration of oestrus in Holsteincows, housed in loose housing system with a concrete floor, monitored by continuous video recording was 14.1 ± 4.5 h. Sveberg et al. (2011) reported that the duration of standing oestrus was 7.1 ± 1.4 h,and mounting oestrus was 12.9 ± 1.8 h inlactating Holstein-Friesian cows monitored by camera recording. The frequency of the secondary signs of oestrus, which are initiated and received, significantly decreased 3 h after standing oestrous (Sveberg et al., 2011). Kerbrat and Disenhaus (2004) reported that the number of mounts (6.6 vs 0.0 and 0.0), chin-resting (34.5 vs 0.6 and 0.3) and sniffs of the ano-genital region (18.6 vs 0.5 and 0.3) were significantly higher on the day of oestrus compare to the day before and the day after, respectively.