We have described the security secret- keymanagement architecture that can prevent physical attacks. A Spread PUF (Physical unclonable function) is used as the core of the processing architecture to reliably create, protect, and share secrets. The new proposed PUF provides more security and a few areas overhead. The integration of this PUF can run at a high speed and create precise secret-keys. The combination of the physical structure and cryptography is a new contribution which allows using mathematical model to describe the security of physical structure. Our design has been implemented on FPGAs, and we have shown that adoption BCH with low correction ability for verification of PUF output is reasonable.
To recap: avoid local management; application stack managers are fine when they meet your needs; step projects up to external key managers when it makes sense for the project; expand coverage over time; and stick with one platform for cleaner management when feasible. Keymanagement and how you structure your crypto system both matter more than the encryption engine itself. We haven’t discussed key manager selection criteria (fodder for a future report); but it should be obvious that deployment is easier when products support standards, include good APIs and plugins, and play well out of the box with common platforms and software.
Credentials. Many existing functionalities, e. g., , bind the roles of the parties, e. g., signer and verifier, to a machine IDencoded in the session parameters. In implementations, however, the privilege to perform an operation is linked to the knowledge of a key rather than a machine ID. While for most applications this is not really a restriction, it is for key-management. The privilege to perform an operation of a KU functionality must be transferable as some piece of information, which however cannot be the actual key: a signing functionality, for example, that exposes its keys to the environment is not realizable, since the environment could then generate dishonest signatures itself. Our solution is to generate a key, but only send out a credential, which is a hard-to-guess pointer that refers to this key. We actually use the key generation algorithm to generate credentials.
69 Yee et al.  proposed a keymanagement for a wide area measurement system in a smart grid. The scheme targeted a concrete set of security objectives derived from NIST's security impact-level ratings. For multicasting, they identified multicast authentication as the primary challenge. In the scheme, they used TV-HORS for the multicasting authentication. A lightweight and distributed group authentication scheme for ad-hoc network devices is presented in ; however, performance analysis of the proposed scheme is not discussed in this work. In particular, they propose  a secure and reliable innetwork collaborative communication scheme to provide a secure and reliable AMI in a Smart Grid with smart meters interconnected through a multi-hop wireless network. Here, the AMI system approach can provide trusted services, data privacy and reliability by mutual authentications whenever a new smart meter starts and connects to the Smart Grid AMI network. Data integrity and confidentiality are accomplished through message authentication and encryption services respectively using the corresponding keys established in the mutual authentications. A transmission method is proposed to ease the data collection and management message delivery between smart meters and a local collector for AMI communications. The performance of the proposed security scheme is verified through simulations, and results show that the proposed method has a better end-to-end delay and packet losses compared with a basic security method, and the proposed method can provide secure and reliable communications for AMIs in Smart Grid systems.
In order to use a key in an ECU’s microcontroller, it needs to be loaded from storage into working memory to execute operations on it. This offers an attacker various opportunities to extract the key. The protection of keys during operation is a challenge on secure microcontrollers and smart-cards, and attacks become known regularly. In the vehicle environment, the challenge is even larger due to the low cost restrictions. Standard automotive controller are not protected against advanced attacks that read out side-channels, such as power consumption and time behavior, to derive information about the secret key. However, even basic attacks can often be successfully mounted to an ECU’s microcontroller. For instance, the JTAG debug interface might be used to read out secret key data. Furthermore, the attacker might compromise the application that has access to the cryptographic key to use the cryptographic key, without actually knowing or extracting that key. If a standard microcontroller is used, it is essential to use a robust keymanagement design without the use of any global keys. Protecting cryptographic keys during execution is at a high security level only possibly by using security microcontrollers. Automotive grade security controllers were specified in the EVITA project  and by HIS (Hersteller Initiative Software) known as the Secure Hardware Extension (SHE). SHE is a low-cost automotive grade security controller that provides secure key storage and a secure execution environment such that secure keys never leave the controller in unencrypted format. Note that SHE is available today on the market.
Data encryption can be a tricky problem, especially at scale. Actually all cryptographic operations can be tricky; but we will limit ourselves to encrypting data rather than digital signing, certificate management, or other uses of cryptography. The more diverse your keys, the better your security and granularity, but the greater the complexity. While rudimentary keymanagement is built into a variety of products – including full disk encryption, backup tools, and databases – at some point many security professionals find they need a little more power than what’s embedded in the application stack. Drivers include:
the network to another). A primary challenge is to decide which routing information can be trusted. A number of schemes relying on cryptographically signed routing messages have been designed most without detailing keymanagement further. Nevertheless, the possession of cryptographic keys serves as proof of trustworthiness. Consequently, a proper key- management service is required. This is to ensure that nodes which are legitimate members of the network and only those are equipped with the necessary keys whenever needed. Whereas key-management services are needed for application layer security as well as for protection of the network layer, this article focuses on the more challenging of the two, namely, providing keys for the network layer. Keymanagement schemes for the application layer can assume an already running network service. Schemes for the network layer routing information cannot. Keys are a prerequisite to bootstrap a protected network service.
Cryptographic algorithms are security primitives that are widely used for the purposes of authentication, confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation. Most cryptographic systems require an underlying secure, robust, and efficient keymanagement system. Keymanagement is a central part of any secure communication and is the weakest point of system security and the protocol design. A key is a piece of input information for cryptographic algorithms. If the key was released, the encrypted information would be disclosed. The secrecy of the symmetric key and private key must always be assured locally. The Key Encryption Key (KEK) approach could be used at local hosts to protect the secrecy of keys. To break the cycle (use key to encrypt the data, and use key to encrypt key) some non-cryptographic approaches need to be used, e.g. smart card, or biometric identity, such as fingerprint, etc. Key distribution and key agreement over an insecure channel are at high risk and suffer from potential attacks. In the traditional digital envelop approach, a session key is generated at one side and is encrypted by the public-key algorithm. Then it is delivered and recovered at the other end. In the Diffie-Hellman (DH) scheme, the communication parties at both sides exchange some public information and generate a session key on both ends. Several enhanced DH schemes have been invented to counter man-in the- middle attacks. In addition, a multi-way challenge response protocol, such as Needham-Schroeder, can also be used. Kerberos, which is based on a variant of Needham-Schroeder, is an authentication protocol used in many real systems, including Microsoft Windows. However, in MANETs, the lack of a central control facility, the limited computing resources, dynamic network topology, and the difficulty of network synchronization all contribute
Second difficulty rises from key distribution which is second step of keymanagement. Key distribution is process of spreading generated key among all nodes going to use the key to make secure session for safe data transferring. First-time key distribution is second issue of keymanagement process. Some methods today exist for secure first time key distribution over insecure communication facilities and the most common way is establishing secure channel between key generator and node by means of Diffie-Hellman scheme. Diffie-Hellman establishes the required secure channel after performing some computations between sender and recipient, but the process is highly resource consumer because there are up to 300 digit numbers in computations. Making secure channel is required for distributing first required key but afterward in many cases we want to utilize fresh keys or in fact enhance security by employing a new key per session. Key distribution resource consumer process is second issue keymanagement is faced with.
Like it was hinted in section 7.2 Sun is looking for a chance to push it’s keymanagement imple- mentation in the standardisation efforts at the moment. Hopefully it will not negatively influence the standards that would come forth from that relationship. In the past there were standardisation efforts that were negatively influenced by the industry, we hope that this will not be one of them. On the other hand P1619.3 is looking at the possibility for co¨ operation with KMIP. This can have the effect that all these three organisations will work together. If this happens it can positively influence the course of keymanagement standardisation.
Baojiang Cui et al. (2015) , in this study, a basic keymanagement protocol is described for WSNs based on four kinds of keys, which can be derived from an initial master key, and an enhanced protocol is proposed based on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. The proposed scheme restricts the adverse security impact of a captured node to the rest of WSNs and meets the requirement of energy efficiency by supporting in-network processing. The master key protection, key revocation mechanism, and the authentication mechanism based on one-way hash function are, respectively, discussed. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed from the aspects of computational efficiency, storage requirement and communication cost, and its anti-attack capability in protecting WSNs is discussed under various attack models. In this paper, promising research directions are also discussed.
Symmetric algorithms, sometimes called conventionalalgorithms, are algorithms where the encr yption key can be calculated from the decryption key and vice versa. In most symmetric algorithms, the encryption key and thedecryption key are the same. These algorithms, also called secret-key algorithms, single-key algorithms, or one- key algorithms, require that the sender and receiver agree on akey before they can communicate securely The security of a symmetric algorithm rests in the key,divulging the key means that anyone could encrypt and decrypt messages. As long as the communication needs to remain secret, the key must remain secret. Usually Public Key or any other keymanagement algorithms are used to exchange the keys before the communication takes place.Encryption and decryption with a symmetric algorithm
There is no proper keymanagement in WEP algorithm. The proposed schemes suggest a new dynamic keymanagement system where a temporary key is always generated based on the previous one which is used for encryption and decryption purpose. For example if we consider K1 is the dynamic key then after few seconds it will be replaced by another temporary key K2 and go on. So every time the previous dynamic key is replaced by a new one. So it is obvious that such a mechanism will be a harder task for attackers to break. In proposed scheme key sequence is the function of IV and dynamic key. So if IV is repeated after 2 24 times but dynamic key will be repeated only after 2 128 times. As a result it is said that key sequence will not be repeated even IV is repeated. Besides of that every frame carries the IV which is used for next encryption and decryption purpose. So, i number of IVs can decrypt i+1 number of frames. So, this encryption method enhances the resistance of the WEP frame against the attackers to obtain the plain text.
Abstract: Explosive growth in the number of passwords for web based applications and encryption keys for outsourced data storage well exceeds the management limit of users. Therefore outsourcing keys to professional password managers (honest-but- curious service providers) is attracting the attention of many users. However, existing solutions in traditional data outsourcing scenario are unable to simultaneously meet the following three security requirements for keys outsourcing: 1)Confidentiality and privacy of keys; 2)Search privacy on identity attributes tied to keys; 3)Owner controllable authorization over his/her shared keys. In this paper, we propose CloudKeyBank, the first unified keymanagement framework that addresses all the three goals above. Under our framework, the key owner can perform privacy and controllable authorization enforced encryption with minimum information leakage. To implement CloudKeyBank efficiently, we propose a new cryptographic primitive named Searchable Conditional Proxy Re-Encryption (SC-PRE) which combines the techniques of Hidden Vector Encryption (HVE) and Proxy Re-Encryption (PRE) seamlessly, and propose a concrete SCPRE scheme based on existing HVE and PRE schemes.
ABSTRACT: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) consists of set of independent mobile nodes communicate via radio waves. The nodes in the MANET are constantly moving and have no fixed topology. Due to these features the intermediate nodes take part in communication must trust each other. The proposed system calculates the global trust value of each node in the network using direct and indirect method. The malicious nodes in the network can be identified and eliminated. The communication between the nodes must take place only through the most trusted path in the network. It then monitor single node failure in the trusted path during data communication and finds most trusted next node of the failed node in the route through an alternate path. When a new node enters into the network the key server verifies the validity of the requesting node by checking for its trust value with the neighbors. If it is valid then authenticate it by the key server otherwise discard it from the network.
Abstract : Authenticated key exchange (AKE) is one of the most important applications in applied cryptography, where a user interacts with a server to set up a session key where pre-registered information (aka. authentication factor), such as a password or biometrics, of the user is stored. While single-factor AKE is widely used in practice, higher security concerns call for multi-factor AKE schemes, e.g. combining both passwords and biometrics and device simultaneously. However, in some schemes, security is even weakened in the sense that leakage of one authentication factor will defeat the whole authentication process. Furthermore, an inevitable by-product arises that the usability of the protocol often drops greatly. To summarize, the existing multi-factor protocols did not provide enough security and efficiency simultaneously. Here, we make one step ahead by proposing a very efficient authentication method. We define the security model and give the according security analysis. To overcome the security issues proposed method implements textual, graphical, and biometric and device password to access the user accounts and an efficient AES algorithm for data transaction which is more secured algorithm is used.
At the time of systems are connected through the network, attacks are possible during transmission time Network security is a process that is designed to detect, prevent and recover from a security attacks User authentication is a very important part for many information systems. The authentication service is concerned with assuring that a communication is authentic. It helps to prove that the source entity only has involved the transaction. Key exchange protocols allow two or more parties communication over a public network to establish a common secret key called a session key. Due to their significance in building a secure communication channel, a number of key exchange protocols have suggested over the years for a variety settings. In order to avoid mistakes and impersonations during the process we can use various authentication means. It is often done via the following methods:
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