The gradual introduction of Youthpass into the Youth in Action Programme is a huge sea change in European youth work. Why to make such a huge claim? What we have come to call ‘the Youthpass process’ now obliges all organisers of activities under the Programme to consider the learning potential of those activities from the start. Certainly, many practitioners in the past would be doing so – now everyone should! Each participant has to be informed about the possibility of getting a Youthpass Cer- tificate and has to choose if they want to go through a Youthpass process, or not… And then they need to get into all this stuff about ‘Key Competences’ and that includes ‘learning to learn’…
Learning-to-learn competencies are comprised of three subcomponents: context related beliefs, self related beliefs and learning competencies. Context related beliefs consist of perceived societal norms and values of schooling itself. These beliefs are formed through perceived support for learning and studying that is implied in parents, teachers, schoolmates or significant others’ attitudes. Self- related beliefs include learning motivation, action-control beliefs, academic and social self-concept, and anticipation of own future. Learning competences incorporate learning and reasoning domains as well as management of learning (study skills).
We raise here the central question as to how to establish dialogue within the context of action research projects on learning to learn perspectives for ITT. Dialogue has been seen as a central factor in enabling reflection on learning (Brockbank and McGill, 1998), but also through social constructivist theories in enabling learning itself. This was also seen clearly as a central feature in a recent review of the use of reflective practice in programmes of initial professional development for new members of academic staff (Kahn et al, 2006), a review which also covered a significant number of papers directly relevant to ITT. The series of prompts that follows draws on the framework developed within this review, specifically adapted for the purpose of establishing dialogue within the given context. This dialogue is seen as primarily based within practice, and one to which other elements such as theoretical considerations play a secondary role.
Before drawing conclusions towards an enabling framework for the ITT provider, it is appropriate to pause for thought and to reflect on the project itself as an act of ‘research’ in its own right – the important point being that the initial impetus for the research and the process of carrying out the research itself gives insights into how an enabling framework might best be promoted. As discussed earlier in Chapter 2, the situation with ITT provided a challenging environment within which to conduct a project advocating the Learning to Learn agenda – the purpose of which being to contribute to a body of knowledge that shapes and guides the pedagogy of ITT. The project, particularly at its start, was bitty and fractured; emphasis was effectively placed on the project leader as enthusiastic ‘outsider’ passing on information to a small group of interested individuals. Furthermore, communication of L2L ideas was more akin to one-off events rather than it being holistic, coherent and integrated as part of whole school staff development. Whilst evidence of thinking on tutor practice was captured in an initial questionnaire and during the staff development days themselves, the data was drawn on, primarily, to act as an impetus for vision and experimentation with one’s own practice only. Such levels of investigation, whilst important, are not necessarily viewed as ‘research’, the purpose of which is to inform public knowledge. Here, evidence gathering methods and conclusions are verified by those outside of context and appropriate critical use is made of the relevant literature [CS1] .
Snow (1994) relates the notion of ability tests to the notion of aca- demic tasks, that reflect the way pupils’ cognitive skills and abilities, or their competencies, are generally assessed by means of various ability tests. The aim of learning-to-learn assessment, however, is not only to try to assess or model pupils’ skills and abilities, but also to try to assess or model how they perceive academic tasks, and how they use their skills and abili- ties to solve them. The academic task, in a form not directly tied to the curriculum, is seen to serve well as a tool for assessment, as it requires the acceptance of the task and the use of knowledge and skills learnt at school. Snow shows in his later model (1994) that, before being accepted as a task, the task activates the orientation to task type, subject-matter charac- teristics (relevance and novelty to the learner, dominant symbol system), treatment dimensions (ambiguity, risk and form of evaluation, stress and importance of outcome, novelty, meaningfulness, complexity of informa- tion processing required, structuredness and completeness, adaptiveness to the learner), and instructional-social contexts.
Metacognition belongs to higher-order mental processes and enables us to control, plan and accordingly regulate our own learning and problem solving process. In the present study we researched developmental changes in different reasoning domains and in metacognitive accuracy, which is considered as part of successful metacognitive monitoring/ regulation, and as an essential element of self-regulated learning and learning to learn competence.
intellectual developments move our lives forward and research shows that there are many ways for individuals to learn. Varying conclusions direct us to which way is best, which methods are most impactful or most effective. As options pile up, so do choices. Is there an ideal teaching method, or is it possible that each of us learns and perceives things differently? Learning and understanding have become the largest struggles in my life. The pressure of concealing my unique learning differences has been more important than learning itself. And this is the part of myself I was least willing to confront, until recently. I still don’t understand everything about my learning process but my focus has shifted away from concealment of my challenges and towards examination of them. This body of work, “Re-Learning to Learn,” conceptually and artistically examines my internal
At the end of the programme you are expected to put together a ‘capstone report’ reflecting on your project, your journey. I found this a deeply personal and moving experience. I also found I was more than happy to share my reflections with my action learning set, which showed just what a journey we had taken together. Compiling the report also helped me to pull out themes. It made the elements of the programme click together: at last I really saw how the textbook readings were linked to observations from the leader I interviewed and how this related to my project and myself. For example, concepts like ‘defining moments’ (sometimes leaders don’t have to choose between ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ but between ‘right’ and ‘right’) ii or ‘tough empathy’ (telling people what they need to
In this section, we describe our meta-learning framework for learning and predicting multi-label classification in detail. In multi-label classifica- tion, the conventional methods usually learn clas- sifiers with the standard cross-entropy loss func- tion. After training, a single prediction policy (usually, a threshold of 0.5) is applied to all labels to generate the prediction. However, as mentioned in Figure 1, these methods ignore the explicit and implicit label dependencies among the labels. To improve the performance of multi-label classifica- tion, our main idea is to learn high-quality training policies and prediction policies by meta-learning, which can also model the label dependencies.
Differently from the previous work, in this paper, we study the sales of seven smartphones in China’s market such as Samsung, Gionee, Huawei, Oppo, Vivo, Meizu, and iPhone. We show the importance of sentiment features by incorporat- ing sentiment information – extracted from the biggest Chi- nese social media platform Weibo – for improving sales pre- diction. To extract reliable sentiment index from Weibo, we build an accurate sentiment analyzer by applying the state-of- the-art pre-trained model BERT: Bidirectional Encoder Rep- resentation from Transformer [Devlin et al., 2018]. More- over, we report the sales prediction results of several statis- tical models and show the usefulness of sentiment features. Most importantly, we propose a viable way to alleviate the scarceness of sales data by using meta-learning. This tech- nique allows a non-parametric model such as neural networks to leverage historical sales of other brands, and use them as the prior knowledge. The intuition of applying meta-learning is that it optimizes the model for fast adaptability, allowing it to adapt to new prediction tasks.
This programme of undergraduate study is a time when you will gain new knowledge and learn new skills. What you do with your new-found knowledge will be up to you of course. Making sense of it so that you begin to understand will be high on your list but whilst understanding is essential it is not all there is to learning. There are many beliefs about learning that you can read up on but mostly these are based on our own cultural heritage. There is no one way to learn, in fact, we are learning all of the time. Learning is not something we just decide to do sometimes it is part of our being. Guy Claxton, whose work this booklet introduces, says that ‘to be alive is to be learning’ (2005, p.6). This programme of study leads to a degree in Early Childhood Studies and during this period of study you will develop a greater understanding of child development so when Claxton describes the new born baby as ‘arriving unfinished’ he offers a particular image of the child in relation to the power of learning.
Developing such a social relational element is important, as a consequence of depending to heavily on solitary reflection within a firm, Such a bounded state of solitary decision-making is not unusual for owner/managers. Pett et al, (1998) found that, when asked about their experiences, owner/managers were overly optimistic in comparison with their employees, for example when assessing their environmental performance. Pett et al, (1998) noted that there was a perceived gap between what a manager believed about their respective firm’s environmental performance, and the reality experienced by others. This illustrates the limitation of reflection divorced from other actors, knowledge and context, as well as demonstrating the weakness of knowledge when conceptualised separately from action or activity. This limitation was recognised by Floren (1996) whose study of entrepreneurial learning found the two most restricting influences to be the lack of peers with whom to converse and the presumed omniscience of the solitary owner/manager. Understanding how owner/managers learning from others has been examined through research which has explored the cognitive framing of knowledge structure, by which opportunities are recognised, created and pursued, (Keh et al, 2002; Karunka et al,, 2003; Mitchell et al,, 2002). A similar cognitive view was adopted by Minniti and Bygrave (2001) in which rather than assume owner/managers always learn, they provide a more complicated model and highlight the tendency amongst owner/managers to become locked into previously successful patterns of activity, creating path dependencies. Minniti and Bygrave (2001) show that learning is informed by direct knowledge of existing market conditions and by the background knowledge of what the firm does and how they do it. For Ward (2004) and Minniti and Bygrave (2001) the owner/managers ability is not so much cognitively rooted but rather cognitively configured. In reality it is an aptitude for working within and at the edge of habitual patterns of activity rather than thought.
Policy-based AL. Recent research has formal- ized the AL process as a sequential decision pro- cess, and applied reinforcement/imitation learning to learn the AL query strategy (Woodward and Finn, 2017; Bachman et al., 2017; Fang et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2018a,b; Contardo et al., 2017). The AL policy learned via simulations on a source task for which enough labeled data exists. It is then transferred to related target tasks, e.g. in other languages or domains. However, the success of this approach heavily depends on the relatedness of the source and target tasks. Pang et al. (2018) has tried to address this problem by meta-learning a dataset-agnostic AL policy parmaterised by the dataset embedding. Konyushkova et al. (2018) has introduced a transferable AL strategy across unre- lated datasets. In contrast, we learn a policy di- rectly on the target task without requiring addi- tional annotation budget.
All new students are provided with a unique student number. This student number should not be shared with anyone else. In order to gain entry into the online learning management system and access study materials, students need to enter their student number and a unique password that restricts anyone else from accessing their student record. Sharing student numbers or passwords with any other individual is in violation of the honor code and can lead to disciplinary action. Students will also need to provide a government issued photo ID during the proctored exam process to verify their identity.
• To our surprise we received a great deal of qualitative statements from participants emphasizing their own motivation, stamina and responsibility for the learning process, while the quantitative part of our study indicates that the participants’ own initiative and expectations of self-efficacy do not make a difference to learning effects. It may well be that this stems from a rationalization that has little to do with reality, an ‘espoused theory’ that has no anchoring in the participants’ ‘theory in use’ (in the words of Argyris & Schön, 1978). Various types of self-managed and autonomous learning have enjoyed increasing popularity over the past decade, and are praised by professionals and
Although we have some knowledge about what constitutes successful formal training programmes for school leaders (e.g., The Wallace Foundation 2012b), research on what constitutes and supports incidental and non-formal workplace learning of school leaders is scarce. This is even more striking given the amount of research into workplace learning of other workers, such as teachers (e.g., Evers et al. 2015), academic librarians (Engeström et al. 2013), and physicians (Van de Wiel and Van den Bossche 2013). Therefore, in this article we present a study that applies existing theoretical concepts and allows for finding new concepts and relationships inductively. Our study adds to existing literature in at least two ways. First of all, our study adds to one of the main recent research lines in workplace learning of studies that describe the nature of workplace learning (Tynjälä 2013). Since school leaders’ workplace learning is largely unexplored, this study provides an im- portant first glance, which can also form the basis for future (quantitative) research in this area. Secondly, we present a practice-based research method to study workplace learning of school leaders. This research method can be adjusted to study workplace learning of leaders in similar professions.
The second new area of development in regard to motivational design and e 3 -learning pertains to the design of reusable motivational objects (RMOs). For years there has been a focus on the concept of reusable learning objects (RLOs) that integrate database, Internet, and other digital technologies to store learning content as discrete small ‘chunks’ that can be used alone or assembled with others to form a lesson or course (Masie, 2002). Typically, RLOs consist, at a minimum, of an objective, content, practice, and assessment. But, a limi- tation of RLO-based design is that there has been no provision for incorporating motivational tactics into the learning objects or into programs of instruction that are constructed from learning objects. However, Oh (2006) developed and tested a prototype of the concept of RMOs. Graduate students in mathematics education who were subject matter experts and had training in lesson planning were provided with stimulus materials that enabled them to build lessons incorporating both RLOs and RMOs. They were compared to groups that had RLOs only and RLOs plus RMOs and a motivational design job aid. Performance was an efficiency score based on the ratio of time spent on task to a product’s score as determined by evaluators using a checklist. Attitudes toward the RMOs and motivational design job aid were measured with an instructional material motivation survey. Oh (2006) found that the RMO significantly affected motivational design performance but the motivational design job aid did not add to the effect. There were no differences in attitudes toward the design process, but this may have been due in part to the fact that the performance time of approximately one hour was relatively short and participants did not have experience with instructional design methods other than the one used in their assigned groups. However, based on their positive effect on the quality of the finished products, it can be concluded that the concept of RMOs is feasible with regard to developing meaningful motivational objects, that RMOs can be used effectively even by teachers with minimal instructional design skills, and that they provide a means of representing the motivational first principles in this type of learning environment.
associations to see where the potential for leverage over learning is greatest. In the case of retailing, for example, it is commonplace to accuse supermarkets of abusing their market power by forcing local shops out of business, squeezing suppliers’ margins unfairly, and insisting on unreasonable delivery and service arrangements. However, it is less widely appreciated that the market power of large supermarkets is central not only to how retail stores operate at the point of sale but also to how, why and through what means they are able to shape the labour process of the many suppliers who produce the products they sell. Most notably, this includes the nature of workplace learning experienced by suppliers that are often dependent on one supermarket for most (or even all) of their business. Such suppliers typically specialise in a very narrow range of products – such as high volume, low cost, easy-to-produce sandwiches. The relevant regulatory authority – the Competition Commission – has a narrow remit which allows it to examine the detrimental effects that market power has on customers alone. This is assessed in terms of customers being offered a higher priced, lower quality and narrower range of products to purchase (Competition Commission, 2003: 6). Its remit does not extend to the effects on workers positioned in different parts of the productive system and the associated implications for workplace learning. In order to effect significant change in workplace learning throughout the retail chain, WALF suggests that the relevant sector bodies – such as Sector Skills Councils and trade unions – need to highlight the detrimental effect that market power may have on other stakeholders and their learning opportunities. Working with competition authorities in this way could help sector bodies, employer networks and group training associations identify, and try to address, instances where the productive system is minimising opportunities for workplace learning.