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The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

ble foam using a mechanical air-entraining admixture. The product is a cementitious paste of cement and fine sand with micro discrete air cells uniformly distributed throughout the mixture to create a lightweight concrete. The density of the foamed concrete is controlled by the amount of tiny air pockets added into the mixture via foaming process. Lightweight foamed concrete has been used in construction for non-structural building wall panels or as partitions. It is considered as an attractive material because of its lightweight, better thermal properties and ease of construction.
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Experimental Investigation on Lightweight Foamed Concrete with Silica Fume and Polypropylene Fibers

Experimental Investigation on Lightweight Foamed Concrete with Silica Fume and Polypropylene Fibers

Reducing the self-weight of a structure is undoubtedly considered an advantage in construction if not a necessity in some cases. In order to that using lightweight concrete is one way of the best way of achieving such reduction. Foamed concrete is one type of light weight concrete which created a uniform distribution of air bubbles throughout the mass of concrete. It is mainly produced by combination of preformed foam into cement paste or mortar. The main advantage of this material is the ease of production that makes it possible to produce this concrete at any location with relatively simple and inexpensive materials and equipment. It is commonly made by two different methods. Method 1 consists of mixing a preformed foam (surfactant) or mix- foaming agents into the cement and water slurry. As the concrete hardens, the bubbles disintegrate, leaving air voids of similar sizes. Method 2, known as autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), consists of a mix of lime, sand (or fly ash), cement, water, and an expansion agent (aluminum powder) that is poured into a mold. The reaction between the aluminum powder and cement causes microscopic hydrogen bubbles to form, increasing the concrete to about five times its original volume. The applications of foamed concrete have previously been non-structural and made use of the aesthetic, thermal, fire-resistant and void filling properties. Its properties make lightweight foamed concrete an ideal building material for residential building construction, thus the material is now being developed into a building material for structural applications.
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Splitting Tensile Strength of Lightweight Foamed Concrete with Polypropylene Fiber

Splitting Tensile Strength of Lightweight Foamed Concrete with Polypropylene Fiber

Lightweight foamed concrete (LFC) is cement-based slurry which stable and homogenous foam. It is mechanically blended, either by mixing or by injecting. It has been used around the world since 1920 but with the limited application [2]. Foamed concrete is high flowability, low self-weight, minimal consumption of aggregate and excellent thermal insulation properties [3]. The development of lightweight foamed concrete started when a full –scale trial of foamed concrete usage for reinstatement undertaken in the UK in 1987. This success led to the other applications of lightweight foamed concrete [4]. Kearsley [5] stated that the compressive strength of the concrete decreases exponentially with the reduction of its density. According to Valore [6] the compressive strength influenced by the size and shape of the specimen, method of pore formation, direction load applied, age, water content, ingredients used and the method of curing applied. The mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete especially in compressive strength is depend on many factors such as cement to sand ratios (c/s), curing duration and water to cement ratios (w/c). In foamed concrete, according to Mindness [7], small changes in the water-cement ratio do not influence the strength as much as in normal concrete. This because foamed concrete is characterized by its plastic density and the voids is an important determinant of the strength.
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Effects of Incorporating Banana Skin Powder (BSP) and Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) on mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete

Effects of Incorporating Banana Skin Powder (BSP) and Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) on mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete

The materials involved in this study are ordinary Portland cement, sand, water and foam to cast the lightweight foamed concrete, BSP and POFA. The OPC used throughout this research is complied with BS EN197:Part 1:2000 [16] and sieved under 150 μm sieve. For this research, the banana skin were produced into a powder form where the banana skin were dried in the oven at temperature 105 5 C for 24 hours. The dried banana skins were then grinded and sieved under 150 μm sieve. POFA was obtained from Ban Dung Palm Oil Industries Sdn. Bhd. at Parit Sulong, Batu Pahat, Johor. Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 show the BSP and POFA, both in powder form.
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Potential Of Stalk And Spikelets Of Empty Fruit Bunch Fibres On Mechanical Properties Of Lightweight Foamed Concrete

Potential Of Stalk And Spikelets Of Empty Fruit Bunch Fibres On Mechanical Properties Of Lightweight Foamed Concrete

1 INTRODUCTION The used of lightweight foamed concrete (LFC) has received high attention in the construction industry along last decades [1]. Germany, UK, Philippines, Turkey, and Thailand are the countries that commonly used LFC in the construction applications. It is because the used of LFC will allow high flow ability, low self-weight, controlled low strength and excellent thermal properties [2]. However, LFC has limited applications due to its brittleness especially in the fields that require high impact, vibration and fracture strength. Therefore, attentions have been given in order to improve the effectiveness of LFC and one of the ways is by adding fibres [3]. Synthetic (carbon, polypropylene, polyester, and nylon), steel, natural (such as wood based) and glass are the four main types of fibre materials that regularly used. The used of different types of fibre materials have been shown to have multiple advantages. For example, synthetic fibres has high strength, high modulus, light weight and easy to install [10]. Then, steel fibres are the most typically used fibres for structural applications. Meanwhile, natural fibres is ecofriendly, low energy consumption during processing, has renewable and biodegradable nature and also cheaper than synthetic fibres [4]. Furthermore, the current concern for ecology has sparked tendency towards the use of environmentally friendly materials all over the world [5]. Hence, oil palm fibres can be used to improve the properties of concrete as it is 100% natural, non- hazardous and biodegradable material [8]. Besides, the agro- based industries play a major role in the economy of Malaysia but they generate a huge of wastes [3]. For instance, the wastes that produce in the plantation of oil palm consists of a large amount of lignocellulosic materials in the form of pressed fruit fibres (PFF), empty fruit bunch (EFB), oil palm shell (OPS), palm oil mill effluent (POME), oil palm trunks (OPT)
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The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

ble foam using a mechanical air-entraining admixture. The product is a cementitious paste of cement and fine sand with micro discrete air cells uniformly distributed throughout the mixture to create a lightweight concrete. The density of the foamed concrete is controlled by the amount of tiny air pockets added into the mixture via foaming process. Lightweight foamed concrete has been used in construction for non-structural building wall panels or as partitions. It is considered as an attractive material because of its lightweight, better thermal properties and ease of construction.
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Effectiveness of Cocos Nucifera Linn 
		fibre reinforcement on the drying shrinkage of lightweight foamed 
		concrete

Effectiveness of Cocos Nucifera Linn fibre reinforcement on the drying shrinkage of lightweight foamed concrete

Drying shrinkage is considered as one of the shortcomings of foamed concrete which most of the time occurs amid the early time of casting time. According to past examination, it was found that higher foam content in foamed concrete will prompt the decrement of drying shrinkage. Notwithstanding, this exploration program has discovered that CNF enhances the quality and properties of lightweight foamed concrete. In view of the examination results, the outcome showed that drying shrinkage for all samples is significantly high in early age until 30 days and gradually increases. Meanwhile, the drying shrinkage of foamed concrete samples is significantly enhanced through the incorporation of CNF. In particular, 1450kg/m³ density of 0.5% CNF demonstrate the best outcome. Overall, it tends to be presumed that the incorporation of CNF in foamed concrete adds to better shrinkage resistance and have great embodiment that help to upgrade the strength of foamed concrete and enhance ductility.
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel under axial load: an overview

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel under axial load: an overview

From the previous research, it is noticed that most of the panels developed are made of conventional concrete which made up the outer skins. This does not contribute to strength over weight ratio reduction. Therefore, further research on this type of panel with lightweight materials is very much in need. The author will investigate the structural behavior of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel, PLFP, with double shear truss connectors under axial Load. The aim of this research is to achieve the intended strength for use in low to medium rise building. Considering its lightweight and precast construction method, it is feasible to be developed further as a competitive IBS building system. The result from this research could be used as a guideline for future research to develop PLFP panel as a walling unit in the industry and the future development of PLFP as a structural material.
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with double shear truss connectors under eccentric load: preliminary result

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with double shear truss connectors under eccentric load: preliminary result

Abstract. Recent years in Malaysia, precast concrete sandwich panel gained its popularity in building industries due to its economic advantages, superior thermal and structural efficiency. This paper studied the structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with double shear truss connectors under eccentric load. Preliminary results were analysed and studied to obtain the ultimate load carrying capacity, load-deflection profiles and strain distribution across the panel thickness at mid depth. The achieved ultimate load carrying capacity of PLFP due to eccentric load from the experimental work was compared with values calculated from classical formulas (if it is more than 1 comparison) developed by previous researchers. Preliminary results showed that, the use of double shear truss connectors in PLFP was able to improve its ultimate load carrying capacity to sustain eccentric load and achieve certain compositeness reaction in between the wythes.
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The structural performance of precast lightweight foamed concrete panel (PLFP) with double shear connectors

The structural performance of precast lightweight foamed concrete panel (PLFP) with double shear connectors

From the previous research, it is noticed that most of the panels developed were made of conventional concrete. Any structural element made from conventional concrete are normally strong but has lower strength over weight ratio. Therefore, further research on this type of panel with lightweight materials is very much in need. The research investigates the structural behavior of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel, PLFP, with double shear truss connectors under axial Load and two Connected PLFP panels under four point bending load. The aim of this research is to achieve the intended strength for use in low to medium rise building. Considering its lightweight and precast construction method, it is feasible to be developed further as a competitive IBS building system. The result from this research could be used as a guideline for future research to develop PLFP panel as a walling unit in the industry and the future development of PLFP as a structural material.
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Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel under Axial Load: An Overview

Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel under Axial Load: An Overview

A series of six precast concrete sandwich panels were cast by Adbelfattah [14] with 140 mm thick, 2.4 m long and 1.2 m wide with different reinforced concrete ribs shear connector layouts (2 identical specimens for each connectors layout). The vertical and inclined ribs were at 45 0 and 67.5 0 , respectively. Each specimen was subjected to three types of lateral loading within elastic range, axial loading within elastic range and combined axial and lateral loading till failure. They were then theoretically evaluated by using STAAD III finite element software to simulate the physical tests to the elastic phase. In theoretical investigations, it was found that the contribution of the shear connectors in carrying the axial load was very small. The layout of the concrete rib shear connectors was also found to have a negligible effect on the axial capacity of the panel, within the elastic
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with shear truss connectors

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with shear truss connectors

The conventional construction and industrialize building system (IBS) mostly use normal reinforced concrete. This panel system is generally strong but has larger self-weight, not environmental friendly and longer construction period. As such, precast sandwich panel system with more benefits compared to the normal reinforced concrete panel has been studied such as profiled steel sheet dry board wall panel by Wan Badaruzzaman et al. (2004), precast reinforced concrete panel by Benayoune (2003) and ferrocement sandwich panel by Sumadi and Ramli (2008). More research is in need to study on sandwich panel in order to invent lighter, environmental friendly and easy to construct wall panel.
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Rice husk is an agro-waste product of agricultural industry constituting one-fifth (20 %) by weight when the rice is milled and this is a significant amount considering the over 100 million tonnes of rice husk produced every year worldwide out of which about 90 % of this amount is from developing countries [5]. When rice husk is combusted, it produces ash known as rice husk ash, which is very rich in silica. This silica combines with the liberated lime during the hydration of cement in a reaction known as pozzolanic reaction, to form a gel-like compound, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), which is responsible for the further strength development of the lightweight foamed concrete. There are several steps involved in the pozzolanic reaction in concrete. As Portland cement reacts with water, the tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) and dicalcium
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Materials, Production, Properties and Application of Aerated Lightweight Concrete: Review

Materials, Production, Properties and Application of Aerated Lightweight Concrete: Review

becomes possible with the substitution of the volume of hydraulic cements reduces carbon dioxide emission. (Awang and Noordin, 2002) [22] conducted a research to study the effect of alkaline-resistant glass fiber on compressive strength of lightweight foamed concrete. Alkali-Resistant glass fiber was added to foamed concrete mix using three different percentages (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%). The experimental findings indicate that the increase of fiber content can produce stronger foamed concrete. The results of tests for compressive, splitting and flexural strength of glass fiber reinforced foamed concrete show significant increases when the percentages of glass fibers increase. (Na Ayudhya, 2011) [23] studied the compressive and splitting tensile strength of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) containing perlite aggregate and polypropylene fiber subjected to high temperatures. The polypropylene (PP) fiber content of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% by volume was added to the mixture. The results showed that the unheated compressive and splitting tensile strength of AAC containing PP fiber was not significantly higher than those containing no PP fiber. Furthermore, the presence of PP fiber was not more effective for residual compressive strength than splitting tensile strength. (Salman and Hassan, 2010) [9] say the density and compressive strength of gas concrete decreases with the increase of percentage of aluminum powder (Al). The addition of Al also increases the volume of gas concrete. It was between (13.3-50.8)% and (18.7-61.3)% for air and steam curing respectively when Al was between (0.1- 0.4)%. The test results showed that the best percentage of Al was 0.2% by weight of cement which gives density 1389kg/m3 and compressive strength 0.26MPa for air curing and 1431kg/m 3 and 0.55MPa for steam curing.
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Reduction of Indoor Air Temperature by Using POFA Foamed Concrete Block

Reduction of Indoor Air Temperature by Using POFA Foamed Concrete Block

Abstract: People use air conditioning (AC) systems to enhance the indoor thermal comfort of buildings, especially those that are located in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Despite reducing the indoor air temperature, AC systems consume a high amount of energy and produce negative effects on the urban thermal environment. The carbon dioxide released by AC systems also trigger a greenhouse effect, which in turn can thicken the thermal blanket of the earth. Lightweight foamed concrete blocks have been recently highlighted for their potential use in addressing the harmful effects of AC systems. Therefore, this study examines how POFA foamed concrete blocks can reduce the indoor air temperature of buildings and other structures. The results show that these blocks reduce the indoor air temperature to levels that are lower than the outdoor temperature for approximately 10 hours a day. The reduction in temperature can reach as high as 5.69 ºC during peak periods. Given their ability to reduce the indoor air temperature, POFA foamed concrete blocks can also reduce the energy consumption of AC systems with their long-term use.
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Study on precast lighweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) connection under flexural load

Study on precast lighweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) connection under flexural load

In Malaysia, industrialized building system (IBS) had started many decades ago but until now it is still experimenting with various prefabricated method. The governments of Malaysia also encourage the use of IBS and insist that the office building projects shall have at least 70% IBS component. To encounter demands from the growing population and migration of people to urban areas in this country, alternative construction method is required to provide fast and affordable quality housing and environmental efficient. One of the alternatives that already been studied is Precast Lightweight Sandwich Panel. Before we can introduce new innovative construction method, the construction details are an important factor in building design. There has not been any study on Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel (PLFP) connection.Connection is important to transfer loads and also for stability. With regard to the structural behaviour, the ability of the connection to transfer forces is the most essential property. Every aspect of the panel behavior must be analysied. This study will only focus on analyzing the performance of two small scale PLFP walls with U-bent bars connection under bending in term of load-displacement relationship, modes of failure and its ultimate load capacity when connected.
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The Effect of FRCA and WPSA on the Strength Properties of Foamed Concrete

The Effect of FRCA and WPSA on the Strength Properties of Foamed Concrete

In view of the escalating environmental problems faced in this millennium with consideration to the rapid depletion of natural resources, the use of by-products or waste materials from different industries are highly desirable. One such alternative is waste paper sludge ash (WPSA), a local by-product produced abundantly by the paper newsprint industry. It has been observed through previous studies that WPSA possesses pozzolanic characteristics in enhancing concrete properties. On the other hand, progressive development in the construction sector recently has contributed as the main producer of construction wastes, particularly concrete wastes. Therefore, the present paper investigates the strength development of lightweight foamed concrete produced with various replacements level of WPSA and ultrafine recycled concrete aggregate (FRCA) to the cement and sand content respectively. The cube specimens were casted in size 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm and water cured. The compressive strengths were evaluated at 3, 7, 28 and 60 days. The results of this study showed that the inclusion of WPSA and FRCA have significant influence on the development of strength properties of foamed concrete.
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Structural performance of FCS wall subjected to axial load

Structural performance of FCS wall subjected to axial load

This paper discusses the effects of H/t and DSC on the structural behavior of lightweight FCS walls subjected to axial load by means of FEA. FCS wall consists of lightweight foamed concrete wythes which enclose a polystyrene layer. It is strengthened by steel bar reinforcement, which is embedded in the wythe. The different lay- ers in the wall are hold together by using DSC, which are inserted through the layers diagonally. Full-scale model of FCS walls (FCS-F) with DSC was first validated by full-scale model of PLFP walls with SSC from previous study by Mohamad [30] to confirm the material models and assemblage of various model parts in the wall. To con- firm the steel material model in the FCS-F wall, it was further val- idated by experimental results conducted on half-scale FCS walls (FCS-H) strengthened with DSC. Since the experimental work was conducted on half-scale FCS walls due to limitation in the labora- tory, this second validation is also to confirm that the results from half-scale FCS is able to predict the results of full-scale FCS accord- ing to scaling law from previous research [29–32].
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Light Weight Concrete

Light Weight Concrete

The lightweight aggregate concrete is densely vibrated similar to that of the normal reinforced concrete of dense aggregate. It can be used with steel reinforcement as to have a good bond between the steel and the concrete. The concrete should provide adequate protection against the corrosion of the steel. The shape and the texture of the aggregate particles and the coarse nature of the fine aggregate tend to produce harsh concrete mixes. Only the denser varieties of lightweight aggregate are suitable for use in structural concrete.
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Density and Strength of Foamed Concrete: The Influence on Dynamic Characteristics of Lightweight Profiled Composite Slabs

Density and Strength of Foamed Concrete: The Influence on Dynamic Characteristics of Lightweight Profiled Composite Slabs

In general, the characteristic strength of foamed concrete is always governed by its density and hence lead to the complex properties. Although the relationship between the characteristic strength and density of foamed concrete is well established, such as by Ramamurthy & Narayanan [10], Abbas & Suhad [11] and Marcin & Marta [12], the condition as structural component seem still uncertainty. The investigation on structural performance such as conducted by Hulimka et al. [13] and Afifuddin et al. [14] only limited under static action. Therefore, this paper presents the experimental study on the dynamic characteristics of foamed concrete composite slab subjected to vibration. The emphasis is given to the influence of density and strength of foamed concrete to the natural frequency, damping ratio and mode shape. Through out of this investigation, it is hoped to promote and boost the application of foamed concrete as structural component in the construction industry.
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