lightweight foamed concrete (LFC)

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Splitting Tensile Strength of Lightweight Foamed Concrete with Polypropylene Fiber

Splitting Tensile Strength of Lightweight Foamed Concrete with Polypropylene Fiber

Abstract— This paper presents the design mix of foamed concrete and split tensile strength of lightweight foamed concrete with the addition of polypropylene fiber. The design mix of the foamed concrete was targeted to achieve a density of 1500 kg/m 3 . Six different water-cement ratios (w/c) range from 0.30 to 0.40 were taken into consideration. Three different group of LFC with 0% PP, 0.25% PP and 0.40% PP are prepared. The optimum w/c was determined by comparing the compressive test result of different percentage polypropylene fiber. By using the LFC with optimum w/c ratio and designated amount of PP of 3:1 c/s ratios, the concrete specimens were tested with splitting tensile test to determine the effects of PP to the tensile strength of the lightweight foamed concrete. From the result, it is found that by using 2:1 c/s ratio, the optimum w/c of mix with 0% PP, 0.25% PP and 0.40% PP are 0.36, 0.34 and 0.32 respectively, while for c/s equals to 3:1, the optimum w/c are 0.34, 0.32 and 0.32 respectively. From the splitting tensile result, under a controlled density of 1500 ± 50 kg/m 3 , the tensile strength range of 0.991-2.138 MPa was observed. From the result, it can be concluded that the addition of polypropylene fiber to the lightweight foamed concrete does affect the tensile strength of the foamed concrete. However the further addition of PP will not cause any positive and significant effect to the tensile strength of lightweight foamed concrete.
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Potential Of Stalk And Spikelets Of Empty Fruit Bunch Fibres On Mechanical Properties Of Lightweight Foamed Concrete

Potential Of Stalk And Spikelets Of Empty Fruit Bunch Fibres On Mechanical Properties Of Lightweight Foamed Concrete

Abstract— The used of lightweight foamed concrete (LFC) has received high attention in the construction industry along last decades. However, LFC has limited applications due to its brittleness especially in the fields that require high impact, vibration and fracture strength. Therefore, attentions have been given in order to improve the effectiveness of LFC and one of the ways is by adding fibres. The oil palm industry has been generating a large amount of biomass wastes. Thus, the utilization of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) fibres in the LFC mixtures will considerable benefits to the environment yet solid wastes of EFB have higher potential for commercial exploitation than the other types of biomass wastes. This study has been undertaken to investigate the potential of stalk and spikelets of EFB fibres at a constant volume fraction 0.45% on the mechanical properties such as compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength. Stalk and spikelets fibres were used as additives in the LFC. Detail experiments were setup to achieve the result of effect with different density of 600, 1200 and 1800 kg/m 3 at the age of 7, 28 and 60 and 180 days. The result showed, both fibres have the best performance at 1200 kg/m 3 density LFC, however LFC with spikelets inclusion has greater contributions in terms of mechanical properties in LFC over stalk.
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Experimental Investigation on Lightweight Foamed Concrete with Silica Fume and Polypropylene Fibers

Experimental Investigation on Lightweight Foamed Concrete with Silica Fume and Polypropylene Fibers

---------------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract — with the increase in demand for structures which are light in weight, the usage of foamed concrete in structural applications are steadily increasing by researcher and industrialist. Lightweight foamed concrete (LFC) is normally created from mixing stable foam to cement paste or mortar. In this work , the foamed concrete in addition with silica fume and polypropylene fibers is used and tested with different curing age of 7, 28 and 56 days. Specimens were tested for compressive strength. The addition of silica fume is made as replacement of fly ash by different ratios such as 0%, 15% and 30%.
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Effects of Incorporating Banana Skin Powder (BSP) and Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) on mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete

Effects of Incorporating Banana Skin Powder (BSP) and Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) on mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete

include as partition, slab, and wall panel [3]. Recently, the technology of LFC is enhancing even more with the addition of waste material, either as cement or sand replacement or as filler in the foam concrete mixture. Studies was conducted on durability performance of LFC strengthened with coir fiber[4, 5] It was found in both studies that coconut fiber added as filler in FC resulted with enhanced compression and tensile strength. There has been no study of BSP incorporated in LFC, but there were studies conducted on BSP in fly ash concrete [6], and as admixture in conventional concrete mixture[7]. Abstract: This paper presents the effects of agricultural wastes on the mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete, LFC. The agricultural wastes utilized in this research are banana skin powder (BSP) and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as cement and sand replacement, respectively. Physical and chemical tests were conducted to determine the chemical composition and particle size of both BSP and POFA. These chemical and physical properties of the raw materials are important in understanding the effects they have on the mechanical properties of lightweight foamed concrete incorporating BSP and POFA, which is designated as LFC-BSP-POFA. Cube, cylindrical, and prism specimens of LFC-BSP-POFA with density of 1800kg/m³ were cast and tested to determine its compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and flexural strength. Twelve (12) LFC-BSP- POFA mixtures were prepared with content of BSP as cement replacement of 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1% by weight. For each mixture, the content of POFA as sand replacement are 0% and 15%. It was found that BSP and POFA each contain 55.98% and 51.83% silicon dioxide, and 2.71% and 2.32% aluminum oxide, respectively. The particle size for these two materials as obtained from PSA test showed that both materials are considered as fine particles, which is within 0.1µm to 250 µm. These chemical composition and particle size of BSP and POFA contribute to the pozzolanic reaction in LFC. This is proven by the results obtained from the mechanical properties tests which show that the incorporation of both BSP and POFA as cement and sand replacement have some significant effects on the mechanical properties of LFC. The increase percentage of BSP and POFA incorporated in LFC had shown slight increment in its mechanical properties.
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Effectiveness of Cocos Nucifera Linn 
		fibre reinforcement on the drying shrinkage of lightweight foamed 
		concrete

Effectiveness of Cocos Nucifera Linn fibre reinforcement on the drying shrinkage of lightweight foamed concrete

On another note, lightweight foamed concrete can be used for structural elements, semi-structural, non-structural partitions, and thermal insulating materials. In addition, lightweight foamed concrete are usually developed in numerous densities ranging from 400 kg/m 3 up to density of 1800 kg/m 3 [2] More importantly, foamed concrete are ecologically clean, inflammable, and easy to produce compared to other materials despite the fact that the mixing time of foamed concrete is longer. Generally, lightweight foamed concrete is known to have a good compression but poor tension strength, thus making it fragile. Meanwhile, the access of air bubbles and the interrelation between them tend to increase significantly due to the reduction of density. As a result, the increase of water vapor will lead to the reduction in foamed concrete strength. However, the weakness in tension can be reduced by adding a sufficient volume of certain fibres. In this case, it should be understood that the use of fibres are able to arrest cracks formation and improve strength and ductility with the overall aim of improving its toughness. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
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The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

ble foam using a mechanical air-entraining admixture. The product is a cementitious paste of cement and fine sand with micro discrete air cells uniformly distributed throughout the mixture to create a lightweight concrete. The density of the foamed concrete is controlled by the amount of tiny air pockets added into the mixture via foaming process. Lightweight foamed concrete has been used in construction for non-structural building wall panels or as partitions. It is considered as an attractive material because of its lightweight, better thermal properties and ease of construction.
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with double shear truss connectors under eccentric load: preliminary result

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with double shear truss connectors under eccentric load: preliminary result

Abstract. Recent years in Malaysia, precast concrete sandwich panel gained its popularity in building industries due to its economic advantages, superior thermal and structural efficiency. This paper studied the structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with double shear truss connectors under eccentric load. Preliminary results were analysed and studied to obtain the ultimate load carrying capacity, load-deflection profiles and strain distribution across the panel thickness at mid depth. The achieved ultimate load carrying capacity of PLFP due to eccentric load from the experimental work was compared with values calculated from classical formulas (if it is more than 1 comparison) developed by previous researchers. Preliminary results showed that, the use of double shear truss connectors in PLFP was able to improve its ultimate load carrying capacity to sustain eccentric load and achieve certain compositeness reaction in between the wythes.
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The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

4. To develop a semi-empirical expression to estimate the load carrying quire this country to look for alternative construction method to provide fast and affordable quality housing to its citizens. Efforts have been taken to move from the traditional building construction technique to a more innovative construction method to meet these demands. As a part of this effort, an extensive investigation to develope a Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel or PLFP as a load bearing wall system is undertaken.

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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel under axial load: an overview

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel under axial load: an overview

From the previous research, it is noticed that most of the panels developed are made of conventional concrete which made up the outer skins. This does not contribute to strength over weight ratio reduction. Therefore, further research on this type of panel with lightweight materials is very much in need. The author will investigate the structural behavior of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel, PLFP, with double shear truss connectors under axial Load. The aim of this research is to achieve the intended strength for use in low to medium rise building. Considering its lightweight and precast construction method, it is feasible to be developed further as a competitive IBS building system. The result from this research could be used as a guideline for future research to develop PLFP panel as a walling unit in the industry and the future development of PLFP as a structural material.
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The structural performance of precast lightweight foamed concrete panel (PLFP) with double shear connectors

The structural performance of precast lightweight foamed concrete panel (PLFP) with double shear connectors

From the previous research, it is noticed that most of the panels developed were made of conventional concrete. Any structural element made from conventional concrete are normally strong but has lower strength over weight ratio. Therefore, further research on this type of panel with lightweight materials is very much in need. The research investigates the structural behavior of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel, PLFP, with double shear truss connectors under axial Load and two Connected PLFP panels under four point bending load. The aim of this research is to achieve the intended strength for use in low to medium rise building. Considering its lightweight and precast construction method, it is feasible to be developed further as a competitive IBS building system. The result from this research could be used as a guideline for future research to develop PLFP panel as a walling unit in the industry and the future development of PLFP as a structural material.
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OVERVIEW OF EMPIRICAL EQUATION PREDICTION FOR ULTIMATE AXIAL LOAD OF PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANEL (PLFP)

OVERVIEW OF EMPIRICAL EQUATION PREDICTION FOR ULTIMATE AXIAL LOAD OF PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANEL (PLFP)

(12) The latest researcher who studied the behaviour of precast lightweight foam concrete panel with single shear connector was Mohamad [16]. Based on the study, an empirical expression for the ultimate load capacity was suggested. The proposed equation was modified from the previous research equations, ACI318 [8] and BS 8110 [9] by incorporating the contribution of the steel area and by introducing the eccentricity of � − . The multiplying factor for steel is reduced to 0.6 because steel’s contribution on the strength of panel is generally very small. The eccentricity is included in the equation due to imperfection during testing. The proposed equation is as below:
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Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel under Axial Load: An Overview

Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel under Axial Load: An Overview

Tarek et al.[15], investigated three different precast concrete sandwich wall panels, reinforced with carbon- fiber-reinforced-polymer shear grid and constructed using two different types of foam; namely, expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS). The results of the analysis indicated that the proposed approach is consistent with the actual behavior of the panels because the predicted strains compared well with the measured values at all load levels for the different panels. Besides that, the approach is beneficial to determine the degree of the composite interaction at different load levels for different panels at any given curvature. A simplified design chart is provided to calculate the nominal moment capacity of EPS or XPS wall panels as a function of the maximum shear force developed at the interface. A simplified design chart is proposed to calculate the nominal moment capacity of EPS and XPS foam-core panels at different degrees of composite interaction. The chart is valid only for the panel configuration, geometry, materials, and reinforcement used in the current study. However, it can easily be produced for different panels. The chart demonstrates the effect of composite interaction on the induced curvature.
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with shear truss connectors

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with shear truss connectors

For the thermal insulation of walls, there is a difference between outside and inside wall and core insulation. For the outside wall insulation the EPS foam is put directly on the stone bearing structure. A fabric reinforced plastering or a ventilated facade protects it from the weather exposure. Using sandwich panels of EPS plasterboards, modern heat insulation standards can be achieved on the walls of older building. For core insulation, the insulation layer is in- between the bearing wall and the external weather resistant wall. Another system of insulation is the use of EPS moulded foam parts (insulated concrete forms) for a combination of outer and inner wall insulation. A wall is built with these moulded foam parts and filled with concrete.
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Materials, Production, Properties and Application of Aerated Lightweight Concrete: Review

Materials, Production, Properties and Application of Aerated Lightweight Concrete: Review

becomes possible with the substitution of the volume of hydraulic cements reduces carbon dioxide emission. (Awang and Noordin, 2002) [22] conducted a research to study the effect of alkaline-resistant glass fiber on compressive strength of lightweight foamed concrete. Alkali-Resistant glass fiber was added to foamed concrete mix using three different percentages (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%). The experimental findings indicate that the increase of fiber content can produce stronger foamed concrete. The results of tests for compressive, splitting and flexural strength of glass fiber reinforced foamed concrete show significant increases when the percentages of glass fibers increase. (Na Ayudhya, 2011) [23] studied the compressive and splitting tensile strength of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) containing perlite aggregate and polypropylene fiber subjected to high temperatures. The polypropylene (PP) fiber content of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% by volume was added to the mixture. The results showed that the unheated compressive and splitting tensile strength of AAC containing PP fiber was not significantly higher than those containing no PP fiber. Furthermore, the presence of PP fiber was not more effective for residual compressive strength than splitting tensile strength. (Salman and Hassan, 2010) [9] say the density and compressive strength of gas concrete decreases with the increase of percentage of aluminum powder (Al). The addition of Al also increases the volume of gas concrete. It was between (13.3-50.8)% and (18.7-61.3)% for air and steam curing respectively when Al was between (0.1- 0.4)%. The test results showed that the best percentage of Al was 0.2% by weight of cement which gives density 1389kg/m3 and compressive strength 0.26MPa for air curing and 1431kg/m 3 and 0.55MPa for steam curing.
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Compressive strength test was carried out on the protein-based lightweight foamed concrete produced with cement partially replaced by rice husk ash to ascertain its strength characteristics. Standard concrete cubes of 150 x 150 x 150 mm were produced using ordinary Portland cement (OPC), fine aggregate, aqueous protein-based foaming agent and rice husk ash (RHA). The RHA was used to replace cement at 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %, 35%, 40 %, 45 % and 50 % by weight of cement. Control cubes with no cement replacement (0 %), were also produced and used as reference points for comparing the compressive strength of the lightweight foamed concrete at 28 days and 56 days respectively. The mix proportion of 1:1.5 was used as binder/fine aggregate proportions with the foam occupying 20 % of the volume of the concrete and the other constituents occupying the remaining 80 %. The compressive strengths of the lightweight foamed concrete at both 28 days and 56 days, increased for cement replacement levels of 5 – 30 % and gradually decreased for cement replacement levels of 35 – 50 % respectively for the mix proportion of 1:1.5 and for the water/binder ratio of 0.4. The minimum 28 days compressive strength for the mix proportion of 1:1.5 at cement replacement level of 30 % and water/binder ratio of 0.4 was 15.52 N/mm 2 while that at 56 days was 18.51 N/mm 2 . The rice husk ash is a pozzolanic material with a capability of
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Structural performance of FCS wall subjected to axial load

Structural performance of FCS wall subjected to axial load

This paper discusses the effects of H/t and DSC on the structural behavior of lightweight FCS walls subjected to axial load by means of FEA. FCS wall consists of lightweight foamed concrete wythes which enclose a polystyrene layer. It is strengthened by steel bar reinforcement, which is embedded in the wythe. The different lay- ers in the wall are hold together by using DSC, which are inserted through the layers diagonally. Full-scale model of FCS walls (FCS-F) with DSC was first validated by full-scale model of PLFP walls with SSC from previous study by Mohamad [30] to confirm the material models and assemblage of various model parts in the wall. To con- firm the steel material model in the FCS-F wall, it was further val- idated by experimental results conducted on half-scale FCS walls (FCS-H) strengthened with DSC. Since the experimental work was conducted on half-scale FCS walls due to limitation in the labora- tory, this second validation is also to confirm that the results from half-scale FCS is able to predict the results of full-scale FCS accord- ing to scaling law from previous research [29–32].
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The Effect of FRCA and WPSA on the Strength Properties of Foamed Concrete

The Effect of FRCA and WPSA on the Strength Properties of Foamed Concrete

In view of the escalating environmental problems faced in this millennium with consideration to the rapid depletion of natural resources, the use of by-products or waste materials from different industries are highly desirable. One such alternative is waste paper sludge ash (WPSA), a local by-product produced abundantly by the paper newsprint industry. It has been observed through previous studies that WPSA possesses pozzolanic characteristics in enhancing concrete properties. On the other hand, progressive development in the construction sector recently has contributed as the main producer of construction wastes, particularly concrete wastes. Therefore, the present paper investigates the strength development of lightweight foamed concrete produced with various replacements level of WPSA and ultrafine recycled concrete aggregate (FRCA) to the cement and sand content respectively. The cube specimens were casted in size 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm and water cured. The compressive strengths were evaluated at 3, 7, 28 and 60 days. The results of this study showed that the inclusion of WPSA and FRCA have significant influence on the development of strength properties of foamed concrete.
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Reduction of Indoor Air Temperature by Using POFA Foamed Concrete Block

Reduction of Indoor Air Temperature by Using POFA Foamed Concrete Block

Abstract: People use air conditioning (AC) systems to enhance the indoor thermal comfort of buildings, especially those that are located in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Despite reducing the indoor air temperature, AC systems consume a high amount of energy and produce negative effects on the urban thermal environment. The carbon dioxide released by AC systems also trigger a greenhouse effect, which in turn can thicken the thermal blanket of the earth. Lightweight foamed concrete blocks have been recently highlighted for their potential use in addressing the harmful effects of AC systems. Therefore, this study examines how POFA foamed concrete blocks can reduce the indoor air temperature of buildings and other structures. The results show that these blocks reduce the indoor air temperature to levels that are lower than the outdoor temperature for approximately 10 hours a day. The reduction in temperature can reach as high as 5.69 ºC during peak periods. Given their ability to reduce the indoor air temperature, POFA foamed concrete blocks can also reduce the energy consumption of AC systems with their long-term use.
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Study on precast lighweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) connection under flexural load

Study on precast lighweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) connection under flexural load

In Malaysia, industrialized building system (IBS) had started many decades ago but until now it is still experimenting with various prefabricated method. The governments of Malaysia also encourage the use of IBS and insist that the office building projects shall have at least 70% IBS component. To encounter demands from the growing population and migration of people to urban areas in this country, alternative construction method is required to provide fast and affordable quality housing and environmental efficient. One of the alternatives that already been studied is Precast Lightweight Sandwich Panel. Before we can introduce new innovative construction method, the construction details are an important factor in building design. There has not been any study on Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel (PLFP) connection.Connection is important to transfer loads and also for stability. With regard to the structural behaviour, the ability of the connection to transfer forces is the most essential property. Every aspect of the panel behavior must be analysied. This study will only focus on analyzing the performance of two small scale PLFP walls with U-bent bars connection under bending in term of load-displacement relationship, modes of failure and its ultimate load capacity when connected.
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Light Weight Concrete

Light Weight Concrete

We can be defined lightweight concrete as a type of concrete which comprise an expanding agent in that it increases the volume of the mixture while giving additional qualities such as stability and lessened the dead weight. It is lighter than the conventional concrete with a dry density of 300 kg/m3 up to 1840 kg/m3; 87 to 23% lighter. Lightweight concrete contain its large voids and not forming layers or films of cement when placed on the wall. This research was based on the performance of aerated lightweight concrete. However, sufficient water cement ratio is required to produce adequate cohesion between cement and water. Insufficient water can cause lack of cohesion between particles, thus loss in strength of concrete. In the same way more water can cause cement to leach away to form laitance layers, subsequently weakens in strength.
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