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Diagnostic efficacy of FNAC by liquid based technique versus conventional smear in lung and mediastinal masses

Diagnostic efficacy of FNAC by liquid based technique versus conventional smear in lung and mediastinal masses

We concluded that liquid based cytology gives better results in terms of diagnostic accuracy as well as well preservation of cytomorphological parameters, in comparison to conventional smear cytology method. Also, LBC helped reduced the unsatisfactory results and increased the yield of both benign as well as malignant lesions. Although LBC has proven advantages over conventional method in cervical smear cytology, there is still lack of solid evidence of the same in thoracic lesions due to disparity in findings by the researchers. So, there is still an ongoing debate as to which method to be standardized for processing the aspirates from masses in the thoracic cavity and hence, this study will contribute to the literature when these two methods are evaluated for efficacy of FNA diagnosis in lung and mediastinal mass. Funding: No funding sources
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Comparing the effectiveness of liquid based cytology with conventional PAP smear and colposcopy in screening for cervical cancer and it’s correlation with histopathological examination: a prospective study

Comparing the effectiveness of liquid based cytology with conventional PAP smear and colposcopy in screening for cervical cancer and it’s correlation with histopathological examination: a prospective study

Conclusions: Liquid based cytology increases the sensitivity of cervical cancer detection and its ability to do molecular testing using the same sample. LBC also improves sample quality by reducing the number of unsatisfactory smears, reduces the number of false negative smears, causes reduction in interobserver bias and less time consuming. Keywords: Cervical cancer, Colposcopy, LBC, Molecular testing, PAP Smear, Unsatisfactory smears

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Liquid based cytology versus conventional bronchial wash and bronchial  brush cytology for the diagnosis of lung cancer

Liquid based cytology versus conventional bronchial wash and bronchial brush cytology for the diagnosis of lung cancer

Bronchial brushing showed better cellular preservation, nuclear characteristic compared to washing specimen. The sensitivity of conventional method was found to be 28.6% with specificity 60.0% in bronchial brush smears. PPV and NPV were 66.7% and 23.1% respectively with diagnostic accuracy of 36.8%. The sensitivity of conventional was found to be 26.1%with specificity 44.4% in bronchial wash smears. PPV and NPV were 54.5% and 19.0% respectively with accuracy of 31.3% in Bronchial Wash. The sensitivity of LBC method was found to be 61.9% with specificity 53.6% in bronchial brush smears.PPV and NPV were 78.8% and 33.3% respectively with diagnostic accuracy of 59.6%. The sensitivity of LBC was found to be 56.5% with specificity 55.6% in bronchial wash smears. PPV and NPV were 76.5% and 33.3% respectively with accuracy of 56.3% in Bronchial Wash [Table 6]. LBC method showed good sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy compared to conventional methods in our study which was statistically significant (chi-square value (χ2 test) is 30.7; p value is <0.001)[Table6]. Rawat et al reported sensitivity of brushing to be 69.15% and that of washing to be 47.66% which was similar to our study. [14] Bronchial brushing and washing in LBC method showed good sensitivity, specificity and accuracy compared to conventional methods indicating that there were more chances of bronchial brush cytological diagnosis to be correct than that of washing. Comparison of cytological characteristic of bronchial brushing and washing showed that cellularity and pleomorphism of the smear was greater in brush specimen with numerous malignant cells noted against the clear background where bronchial washing specimen showed mostly single cells with few very small cell clusters which were larger in brush specimen. Very few
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Comparison between manual liquid based cytology and conventional Pap smear for evaluation of cervical lesions and it’s histopathological correlation in cases of epithelial abnormalities

Comparison between manual liquid based cytology and conventional Pap smear for evaluation of cervical lesions and it’s histopathological correlation in cases of epithelial abnormalities

Introduction: Pap smear has been most widely used screening method for cervical cytology since last 50 years. Despite of it reducing morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer by detecting precancerous lesions, false negativity rate of Pap smear is very high. Manual liquid based cytology has been developed as an alternative to conventional Pap smear to overcome its drawbacks. Main advantages of MLBC over CPS are increased percentage of representative cells, better presentation on slide, increased detection of abnormal or dysplastic cell and overall reduced number of unsatisfactory smears.
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EVALUATION OF UNHEALTHY CERVIX IN KASHMIRI WOMEN BY COLPOSCOPY, LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY AND HISTOPATHOLOGY A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

EVALUATION OF UNHEALTHY CERVIX IN KASHMIRI WOMEN BY COLPOSCOPY, LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY AND HISTOPATHOLOGY A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

Sensitivity of LBC was found to be low i.e. 58.3% compared to its specificity which was 91.5%. Accuracy of LBC in our study was 85.6%. PPV and NPV were 60% and 90.9% respectively which was comparable to the study conducted by study conducted by Badri Lal Patidar et al (2017). [6] Correlation between LBC and histopathology was significant as p value was <0.01. LBC showed significant decrease in the rate of unsatisfactory smear.

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Cervical cytology by pap smear in reproductive population

Cervical cytology by pap smear in reproductive population

methods are available like cytology by Pap smear, visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid and/or Lugol’s iodine, HPV- DNA Test, Liquid based cytology etc. Pap smear is an effective method of cervical cancer screening. It is the laboratory method to examine the exfoliated or scraped cells to detect dysplasia. It is a simple routine outpatient procedure which is less expensive, with minimal or no side-effects, easy to do with higher specificity, done without anesthesia. It also detects various infection and inflammation with characteristic cytological appearances. Before 2012 cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS) and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancers. In 2012, all the three-organization recommended that: 6
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Original Article Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis diagnosed by conventional cytology and liquid based cytology

Original Article Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis diagnosed by conventional cytology and liquid based cytology

The aspirates were obtained using a 10 mL dis- posable syringe (21-gauge needles) with the percutaneous ultrasound guided. For each case, both conventional cytology and liquid- based cytology were performed. The air-dried smears were prepared and stained with Wright- Giemsa stains. After samples were used for conventional smear, the needle residual speci- mens were injected into fixed solution for cells. The cellular slide was prepared by a LCT by using the ThinPrep system (Cytyc Corporation, Boxborough, USA) according to the manufac- turer’s instruction.
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Conventional Cytological Smear Versus Liquid Based Preparation (E-PREP) in Non Gynaecological Samples

Conventional Cytological Smear Versus Liquid Based Preparation (E-PREP) in Non Gynaecological Samples

Fine needle cytology (FNC) has gained tremendous popularity in recent times among clinicians and pathologist. Liquid based cytology is a new technology for fine needle aspiration samples. It is used for mainly for cervical cancer screening, now also used for non gynaecolgical samples. E-PREP system is a Liquid based cytology processor with patent dual membrane filters. In this method able to collect large number of cells and make a monolayer preparation of cells with good cytological details .In LBP easier collection and transport of samples, standardized preparation, adequate cellularity, rapid fixation, even and monolayer distribution of cells , good preservation of cell morphology and increase clarity of nuclear feature, decreased obscuring background elements, decreased air drying artefacts.Disadvantages Of LBP are decreased and altered background material like necrosis, blood and inflammation, decreased and altered extracellular elements like mucin, colloid and stroma, disrupted cellular architecture like fragmentation of papillae, size of the cell smaller than conventional preparation. In this study thyroid, breast and lymphnode lesions(each 30 cases) are compared with both techniques of FNAC and Liquid based preparation (E-PREP) in non gynaecological samples.
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Clinical comparison of liquid-based and conventional cytology of oral brush biopsies: a randomized controlled trial

Clinical comparison of liquid-based and conventional cytology of oral brush biopsies: a randomized controlled trial

on different cell collectors in the literature. Previous studies compared, for example, a Cytobrush brush with a dermatological curette [38], with a wooden tongue spatula [39, 40] or with a metal spatula [41]. In a study by Reboiras-López et al. three different sampling devices (Cytobrush, dermatological curette, OralCDx Brush) were used to perform liquid-based cytology [21]. The used cell collectors (Orcellex® Brush, PapCone® Brush) differed in shape, the head of the PapCone® Brush was conical, and the head of the Orcellex® Brush was roll-shaped, resulting in a different approach to cell re- moval. Another significant difference was the texture of the cell collector heads, as the sponge was soft and pli- able but the brush was rather firm and resistant. These characteristics influenced the cells collected during smear sampling and the appearance of the preparations. While taking the smears it was important to ensure a uniform, moderate contact pressure during rotation of the cell collector [31]. In the case of disregard, this could lead, for example, to uneven removal of mucosal cells. In addition, smear sampling was always carried out by the same investigator, because there can be individual differ- ences between various practitioners, although there are guidelines for correct smear sampling. Comparing the smears of the two used cell collectors with regard to
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Cervical Cytology: A Review of 597 Cases in a Tertiary Health Centre in Nigeria

Cervical Cytology: A Review of 597 Cases in a Tertiary Health Centre in Nigeria

DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2018.74024 261 Case Reports in Clinical Medicine ulation based. Similarly, the uptake for the Pap test is low even when it is availa- ble [13]. Despite these limitations; the conventional Pap smear is still the most widely available screening method for cervical cancer especially in low resource settings. The liquid-based cytology (LBC) aims to minimize errors of omission and commission inherent in the conventional Pap smear. It is now the standard test used by the National Health System (NHS) of the United Kingdom for cer- vical screening program [11]. However it is yet to take root in many low re- source settings. Recently, HPV DNA testing has been recommended by the WHO as a standard screening method for cervical cancer. This is based on the fact that HPV DNA is found in over 95% of cervical cancers and precursor le- sions worldwide [8]. This non-cytological method of screening is not readily available in most centres in Nigeria. Despite the high prevalence of cervical can- cer in Nigeria, there is no organized national HPV vaccine immunization pro- gramme to provide for primary prevention of the disease. We present the result of a 5-year screening programme for cervical cancer by the conventional Pap smear in tertiary health institution in Nigeria.
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Evaluation of adjunctive HPV testing by Hybrid Capture II®in women with minor cytological abnormalities for the diagnosis of CIN2/3 and cost comparison with colposcopy

Evaluation of adjunctive HPV testing by Hybrid Capture II®in women with minor cytological abnormalities for the diagnosis of CIN2/3 and cost comparison with colposcopy

Oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HR HPV) genome could be found in 99.7% of 942 histologically proven cer- vix carcinoma [1]. HPV gene product E6 is thought to degrade the tumour suppressor protein p53 destabilizing the cell cycle, which leads to cervical cancer in susceptible individuals [2]. Cytological screening has reduced the annual incidence of cervical carcinoma from 17/100000 to 8.5/100000 in the last 20 years in the UK [3]. However up to 30% of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) are associated with equivocal cervical smears, which show borderline or mild dyskaryosis [3]. This requires follow up of women with minor cytological abnormalities with repeat smears, colposcopy and biopsy. Adjunctive HRHPV testing could triage women for colpos- copy. Liquid based cytology, which is presently assessed in some UK laboratories, allows adjunctive HPV testing using a commercial gene probe HPV DNA Hybrid Capture II (Digene/Abbott, Maidenhead) without the need for an additional specimen. NHS Cancer Screening Programme (NHSCSP) guidelines stipulate referral after two mild dys- karyotic smears or three borderline smear, whereas the health authority in North West London recommends referral after one mild dyskaryosis in order to improve coverage and follow-up in a population with a high mobility [4]. Despite of this different referral policy the CIN2/3 prevalence is similar to other colposcopy clinics with 20% [3].
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Original Article Surepath liquid-based cytology combined with conventional bronchial brushing smears in the diagnosis of primary and secondary pulmonary malignant tumors

Original Article Surepath liquid-based cytology combined with conventional bronchial brushing smears in the diagnosis of primary and secondary pulmonary malignant tumors

Bronchogenic carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor worldwide and it is the leading cause of cancer mortality [1-4]. The bronchial brushing cytology is a kind of very useful meth- od for detecting pulmonary malignant tumors including bronchogenic carcinomas. It also can be used to detect the secondary malignancies involved the lung. Conventional smear (CS) was the major method of cytological preparation in China for many years. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) which emerged in 1990s is a kind of rela- tively new cytological preparation method, its applications in screening and diagnosis of cer- vical cancer have been well recognized. LBC is also increasing applied for the non-gynecologi- cal cytology in China these years [5, 6]. This
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Liquid Based Cytology over Conventional Pap Staining
Method in Evaluating Cervical Smears.

Liquid Based Cytology over Conventional Pap Staining Method in Evaluating Cervical Smears.

The pap smear is a commonly used screening test for cervical cancer detection. First generation automated Liquid based cytology improves the quality of cervical smears through an improved way of slide preparation following collection of samples in a standard way. It provides more representative sample of specimen with reduced obscuring background material which allows faster and more reliable screening .The cost of this test is high, but there is increase in detection of pre invasive lesions and decrease in the number of indeterminate results such as ASC (Limaye et al 2003) 73 (Trench 2000) 74 . In addition ancillary studies such as HPV testing can be done on residual sample (Levi et al 2003) 75 .
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<p>Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit of Cervical Cancer Screening with Liquid Based Cytology Compared with Conventional Cytology in Germany</p>

<p>Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit of Cervical Cancer Screening with Liquid Based Cytology Compared with Conventional Cytology in Germany</p>

result incorporated into the decision model are shown in Table 1. The transition probabilities incorporated into the Markov model are shown in Table 2. The model assumed that those subjects with a CIN1 diagnosis would be mon- itored to see whether the lesions ameliorated on their own. The model also assumed that those subjects who were diagnosed with CIN2 or CIN3 would undergo further diagnostic tests (i.e. a colposcopy and biopsy) and be treated with standard care. Within the model, if a subject ’ s pre-cancerous lesions resolved they would return to the well health state. Accordingly, the model assumed that all subjects with diagnosed CIN1 or diag- nosed CIN2 would transition to the well state after a year. Published data were used to estimate subjects ’ transition from CIN3 to other states. The probability of subjects in an undiagnosed CIN health state having pre-cancerous lesions is obviously unknown. Hence, the model assumed they would undergo an annual smear test as if they were in the well state.
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Liquid Based Cytology and Cell Block in Malignant Pleural Effusion  a 			Comparative Study

Liquid Based Cytology and Cell Block in Malignant Pleural Effusion a Comparative Study

The sediment from centrifuged pleural fluid can be processed as CB for histology, to enhance the diagnosis. In malignant pleural effusion diagnosis, LBC has certain advantages over conventional smear(CS). Features usually associated with CS such as thick, overlapping cellular areas, obscuring inflammation and blood and air-drying artifact result in poor cellular and nuclear preservation. CS are tedious and time-consuming to screen due to no uniform slide preparation and fixation.LBC is an automated process and increase the diagnostic accuracy. 18 But discriminating malignant cells among reactive mesothelialcells and macrophages in the pleural fluid is challenging using only the morphological features detected by LBC. However, CB has certain advantages provides better cellular morphological details, such as better nuclear and cytoplasmic preservation, intact cell membrane and crisp chromatin and cellularity is high which is concentrated in one small area that can be evaluated at a glance. 19,20
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Diagnostic Efficacy of Thin Prep Preparation (Liquid Based Cytology) in Comparison to Conventional Pap Smears as a Primary Screening Tool for Cervical Lesions

Diagnostic Efficacy of Thin Prep Preparation (Liquid Based Cytology) in Comparison to Conventional Pap Smears as a Primary Screening Tool for Cervical Lesions

Polymorphonuclear leucocytes may be found in small amounts in normal vaginal smear. They are numerous in the second half of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy, Polymorphonuclear leucocytes have segmented nuclei with two or more dark blue lobes. Cytoplasm contain numerous granules. Small mononuclear macrophages are associated with menstrual flow and early stages of inflammation. When several macrophages fuse, they form giant cells. Such multinucleated cells are observed in atrophic smear and in advanced menopause. 41

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Comparative Study between Liquid Based Cytology and Conventional Smear in FNA samples of Breast Lesions

Comparative Study between Liquid Based Cytology and Conventional Smear in FNA samples of Breast Lesions

Over the past two decades, liquid based method has emerged as a newer technique in the field of cytology. Even though this technique has been in routine use at many diagnostic centers, it has not completely replaced the conventional method. The opinion regarding the best method is still controversial among the cytopathologists. The advantages offered by liquid based preparations include less number of slides to be screened, uniform cellular layer, clean bloodless background, better preservation of cell morphology.
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A comparison of cervical cancer screening methods: pap smear, liquid based cytology and VIA VILI

A comparison of cervical cancer screening methods: pap smear, liquid based cytology and VIA VILI

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on women of >35 years of age. Pap smear specimen was collected followed by Liquid Base Cytology (LBC) using cytobrush specimen after which visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol’s Iodine (VILI) procedure was carried out and followed by cervix biopsy. All methods were analyzed for accuracy.

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A study of comparison of liquid-based cytology versus conventional pap smear for evaluation of cervical cytology at a tertiary healthcare hospital

A study of comparison of liquid-based cytology versus conventional pap smear for evaluation of cervical cytology at a tertiary healthcare hospital

This is a comparative prospective study conducted at the Department of Pathology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, government medical college, Datia for the period of 11 months from April 2018 to February 2019. Data collection was done from women attending Gynaecology OPD with complaints of symptoms related to cervical lesion and unhealthy cervix at government medical college hospital, Datia were included in study after written consent. The study includes total 80 subjects. Total No. of Pap smear examined (both LBC and CPS) are 160
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Comparative study of liquid based cytology and pap smear in cancer cervix screening

Comparative study of liquid based cytology and pap smear in cancer cervix screening

This study was carried out on 100 randomly selected women of aged 21- 60 years who presented with symptoms of vaginal discharge, lower abdomen pain, post coital bleeding, irregular periods and with cervical lesion from the Gynaecology outpatient department at CMCH between June 2011 – June 2012.Specimen was collected for both conventional pap smear and liquid based cytology then colposcopic guided biopsy was performed in all 100 cases. By using biopsy proven CIN cases as the gold standard the sensitivity of both the cytology method was obtained.
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