Abstract As climate variability endangers water security in many parts of the world, maximizing the carbon balance of plantation forestry is of global importance. High plant water use efficiency is generally associated with lower plant productivity, so an explicit balance in resources is necessary to optimize water yield and tree growth. This balance requires predicting plant water use under different soil, climate, and planting conditions, as well as a mechanism to account for trade-offs in ecosystem services. Several strategies for reducing the water use of forests have been published but there is little research tying these to operational forestry. Using data from silvicultural and biofuel feedstock research in pine plantation ownership in the southeastern USA, proposed water management tools were evaluated against known treatment responses to estimate water yield, forest productivity, and economic outcomes. Ecosystem impacts were considered qualitatively and related to water use metrics. This work is an attempt to measure and compare important variables to make sound decisions about plantations and water use.
on average more productive than unskilled workers, as well as indirect spillover effects of the human capital in cities or regions, as measured in individuals’ wages (Moretti, 2004a) or firm productivity (Moretti, 2004b; Gennaioli et al., 2013). Feng and Valero (2018) show firms closer to universities tend to have higher management scores (Bloom and Van Reenen, 2007) and employ a higher share of graduates which appears to be due to universities increasing the supply and reducing the relative cost of graduates. 14 For university graduates to affect the local economy, at least some would need to remain in the same area post-graduation, working in local firms or starting their own businesses. Data on employment destinations of UK domiciled undergraduate students six months after graduation show that across local enterprise partnerships (LEP), nearly 40% of students on average stay in the same LEP as that in which they studied. 15 It has been established that proximity matters in terms of increasing the probability of locally born young people attending university (e.g. Card (2001a)); and indeed in the UK, on average 34.5% of students go to university in the LEP where they grew up. 16 Therefore, in this context it is reasonable to assume that universities increase local human capital in the workforce both by training students from the local area, and by pulling students into a region from elsewhere.
All these conditions call for efficient use of resources like soil, water and other production inputs to achieve sustainable production. Continuous tillage in both the season i.e kharif and rabi is found to have detrimental effect on soil health and structure. Continuous tillage also make energy requirement quite high. At the same time applying double zero tillage in both kharif and rabi season is found to be difficult about weed management. Under such situation skipping tillage for soybean in kharif season or for wheat in rabi season seem to be more beneficial in case of input use efficiency and energy saving. Similarly the detrimental effect of intensive tillage can also be reduced to some extents (Karunakaran. 2011). Crop residue modifies the hydrothermal regime of the soil surface by reducing soil temperature during summer and acting as barrier against the loss of water. Crop residues also increases the soil water storage. Residue keeps the soil surface cool, wetter and mellows for long period of time, which may enhance crop’s root and shoot growth. In addition, decomposing residues on soil surface possibly release allelo- chemicals which further have the inhibitory effects on weed seed germination and early growth. It is always beneficial to use crop residues as mulch wherever it is available. It is worth mention here that no-till is presently practiced on about 105 m ha globally (Derpsch and Friedrich, 2009) for improving crop productivity and conserving natural resources through very effective control of soil erosion, controlling soil evaporation, sequestering C in soil and reducing energy needs. According to the less information about the effect of tillage and residue management on performance of wheat in soybean-wheat cropping system, this investigation was conducted entitled “Different tillage practices and residue management on productivity and nutrient uptake of wheat grown after soybean in soybean (Glycine max)–wheat (Triticumaestivum) cropping system”.
The objective of this review is to explore the how HRM can promote productivity and quality enhancement through HRM practices in the organizations. Based on the discussions and findings of this review, it can be possible to conclude that strengthening HRM by adapting appropriate HRM systems, policies and practices any organization can ensure the quality and quantity of HRs and develop quality and productive culture in the organization. In addition, organizations must introduce and sustain productivity and quality promoting HRM systems, policies and practices through HRM with effective feedback mechanism. The effective feedback mechanism is also necessary to promote productivity and quality enhancement through HRM practices in organizations. In practice, it should work as cycle or spiral model to ensure the productivity and quality incessantly. It is obvious that HR professionals must keep their eyes on both productivity and quality management always by embedding these in all HRM systems, policies and practices. Moreover, Table 3 provides individual or set of HRM practices and how those HRM practices can promote productivity and quality in the organizations. Based on Table 3, there are many empirical studies can be conducted in the future.
The study used both primary and secondary data. The primary data were obtained using field surveys, In-depth Interview, Focus Group Discussion and Questionnaire administered to the stakeholders (Client, Contractor, Consultant, Labor, External factors) in the construction industry. The questionnaires were structured to elicit much information as possible on the prospect of human resources management in enhancing higher productivity in construction industry in Enugu State
This study will assess maintenance management policies in foreign manufacturing companies in Nigeria as a tool which either enhances competence and productivity or reduces value among manufacturing companies. The findings from the study will enable indigenous manufacturing companies executives and maintenance managers to have a better understanding of the type of maintenance management policy being implemented in the industry, the effect maintenance management policy have on productivity and to know the relationship that exists between maintenance management policy and productivity in the industry so as to be able to formulate maintenance management policies to model their operations from strategy to operational excellence. This study appraised maintenance management policies in foreign manufacturing companies in Nigeria with a view to determining their impact on the productivity of manufacturing industries. The research work is limited to foreign manufacturing companies in Lagos State since it has the highest concentration of manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Thirteen (13) foreign manufacturing companies in the Food, Beverages, Tobacco, Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals sectors were sampled for this research.
Brunow &Nijkamp (2016) found significant positive effects of cultural diversity on productivity and revenues for culturally diverse high-skilled workers. Different skills and experience, problem solution aspects, and cultural-specific knowledge of employed high-skilled workforce give firms a competitive advantage. Roberson & Park (2007) focused on predicting the relationship between diversity reputation and firm performance. The result of the study shown a significant positive relationship between diversity reputation and book-to-market equity, which suggests that being recognized as one of the top companies for diversity and diversity management may serve as an effective signal to investors about a firm‘s future earnings prospects. Herring (2009) focused on identifying the value in diversity and concluded that, diversity is good for businesses because it increases productivity and offers a direct return on investment, promising greater corporate profits and earnings. Bartz et.al.,(1990) studied on a model for managing workforce diversity and found that proper management of workforce diversity will result in better products delivered in a timelier manner because the assets of employees will be more fully utilized. Effective management of diversity will also improve morale and job satisfaction, while increasing the number of employees who reach their full performance potential. This means that the end results of a good diversity management are positive and benefits both the employees and the organization.
This study sought to examine the influence of performance appraisal management on employee productivity. The main objective of this study was to examine the ways in which performance appraisal has impacted employee’s performance, to know if Management by Objectives method of performance appraisal enhanced employee productivity in North South Power Company and to find out if feedback, as performance appraisal variable influence. From the findings, the study concluded that there a significant relationship between performance appraisal management and employee productivity. Additionally, feedback definitely has an impact positively on employee productivity. Performance appraisal management should be taken seriously by organizations because it yields good results that will take the company far.
Very few researchers have focused on developing models to understand the primary antecedents of software de- velopment productivity and software development time. Subramanian and Zarnich  proposed a theoretical model that causally predicts the software productivity. The Subramanian and Zarnich  model consists of three independent variables: ICASE tools, systems deve- lopment method and ICASE tool experience. Using real- world data on several software projects from an organi- zation, Subramanian and Zarnich  empirically vali- dated their model. Foss  proposed four essential as- pects for reducing software development time tools, me- thodology, people and effective management. Given that tools, methodology and people impact both software productivity and development time, we investigated the impact of these factors on software productivity and de- velopment time.
The interviews were carried out on a semi-structured basis (Johns and Lee-Ross, 1988). A wide range of aspects of productivitymanagement in services were raised with each senior manager only to serve as starting topics to keep the discussion on a consistent track across different interviews. These included a) possible trade-offs between productivity and quality, b) obstacles in the way of productivity improvement, c) factors that enhance productivity, and d) measurement problems. The senior managers were asked to discuss each of the above topics and were given opportunity within the time constraints to bring up any other important issues related to productivity in their respective service sector. The interviews were all carried out face to face and on average each senior manager was interviewed for about 3 hours. The interviews were recorded to make sure that no important information was missed during the interview and that, if needed, the content of the interviews could be effectively revisited.
Like other businesses and sectors  , Computer Mediated Communica- tion (CMC) is seen to be a very important parameter in the Faecal Sludge Man- agement (FSM) sector of operations and it has the potential to affect productivi- ty and efficiency. Research has indicated that, sewage and faecal sludge treat- ment plants may gradually increase in Ghana and a large demand for informa- tion on appropriate procedures and technologies has to be developed . There are several prospects in the management of faecal sludge in Ghana      and this is also evidenced with the progress observed in recent times with regard to establishment of a sanitation ministry. With the attention being given in the area of sanitation which encompasses the treatment of faecal sludge and sewage in attaining the sustainable development goals, it has become imper- ative for detail research to be conducted across all facet of its management. This study therefore, seeks to identify some important values of Computer Mediated Communication on productivity and efficiency of employees in the FSM sector. Also, assess whether Computer Mediated communication has the potential to increase a worker’s efficiency and productivity as well as identify any disadvan- tages of the use of Computer Mediated communication and interpersonal inte- ractions of individuals by the use of Computer Mediated Communication in FSM. This assessment of Computer Mediated Communication on productivity and efficiency in FSM was carried out using SSGL as a case study. This is because in Ghana, SSGL is a giant leader in the management of liquid waste. Just like the other sectors of businesses who had adopted the use of Computer Mediated Communication to enhance or gain competitive advantage over their competi- tors  , so is this work would want to figure out the consequence of the ap- plication of CMC in liquid waste management. The knowledge of this study would highlight whether Computer Mediated Communication will cause the same effect on staff in terms of efficiency and productivity as it is in the other sectors of businesses.
Management of any organisations including public libraries is the bedrock of high productivity. Profitability, employability and productivity in any organisations will be a mirage without proficient management. Machine, material, money (capital) and men have to be combined in reasonable proportion in any organisations. Machine, material, money (capital) and men left to themselves alone in any organisations including public libraries might be unproductive or less productive. Management (through human ingenuity and entrepreneurship skills) should be able to tactfully combine both human and material resources for optimum productivity in any organisations. Management mars or makes an organisation. Successful managers are those managers who are able to study their workers, the work environment and tactfully use their administrative acumen to satisfy their employees with ultimate aim of bringing out the best in them. High productivity is impossible without effective job satisfaction. Management ought to fully study, identify and provide what would give utmost job satisfaction to their employees in a given work environment. This is the only pre-cursor to high productivity and profitability in any organisations.
Ranked third are workforce issues. This is alarming, as one would have expected that workforce issues should be top of management‟s priority given the labour-intensiveness of the industry. Perhaps the rise of self-employment in the 1970s and the regular use of contract labour, together with the virtual non-existence of an appropriate training structure (and culture), could explain the respondents‟ lack of confidence in managing the workforce to achieve a higher rate of productivity. This may also be the reason as to why much research in the field of productivity tended to focus on such issues as lean construction and robotics. The lack of confidence in the training structure within the construction industry is also mirrored by the scores of the sub-group skills training and qualifications. The individual scores of the various qualifications are also rated very poorly by the respondents.
It is important to note that since productivity is concerned with minimising effort it could lead to very useful simplifications on doing the work in the form of reducing the effort, time etc. WORK- STUDY is centred around this concept. This paper is meant to provide certain useful concepts of work-study in relation to library management.
Fiber fines present in papermaking furnish can have an adverse effect on the productivity of paper machines, especially at high fines levels and in products having high basis weight. The goals of this study are to compare the effects of different types of fine, fibrous material on the ease of water removal from paper and also to compare different strategies for the addition of a drainage-promoting additive. Two contrasting types of fiber fines were prepared from a southern U.S. bleached hardwood kraft pulp. Primary fines, consisting mainly of relatively short, “blocky” parenchyma cells, were obtained by classifying the unrefined pulp with a 100-mesh screen and collecting the fraction that passed through the screen. Secondary fines, consisting mainly of thin, flexible strands, were prepared by extensively refining the fraction that had been retained by the screen; then the refined fraction was classified again, using the same 100-mesh screen.
Several theories were important in this research. One of this is the capital human capital theory. Torrington explains that human capital signifies the combined intelligence and experience of staff as a source of competitive advantage that cannot be imitated by rivals. This theory has implications thus for attracting, engaging, rewarding and developing people in organizations. The theory has cross cutting significance in HRM practices. In the context of the current study Human capital theory will be the umbrella theory to underpin this study. It is useful in the context of financial cooperatives because HRM practices to be studied in this research must ensure these organizations attract and retain employees. Investments in Human resources in financial cooperatives need to be done by the use of training practices. Additionally, this study was underpinned by the expectancy theory. Armstrong discusses this theory. In the expectancy theory, motivation is likely to be when there is a perceived and usable relationship between performance and outcome, with the outcome being seen as a means of satisfying needs. In other words a there must be a link between a certain reward and what has to be done to achieve it. This theory is very important in the context of this research. The theory is instrumental especially when financial cooperatives are designing performance based pay. Reason for this is that management of financial cooperatives needs to design performance based pay so as to ensure these organizations continue to improve their performance. In the Kenyan context, financial cooperatives are aiming to offer services that have been a preserve of banks. To compete with banks, financial cooperatives need not only to offer competitive rewards but also to go an extra mile to link some categories of rewards to performance.
Immigration to the cities has led to the increase in need for electricity and its production due to reasons such as rapid increase in city populations, the increase in electrical household appliances etc. Electricity production with lower and more reasonable costs brings about various practices every day. On the other hand, the replacement of coal- carbon based inefficient conventional plants with efficient facilities and clean energy power plants is encouraged for the purpose of decreasing the use of resources contributing to global warming. In recent years, especially in some particular European countries and in the US, encouragement and support mechanisms have been increasingly utilized in order to improve and support the widespread use of renewable energy. Power plants with higher productivity and lower emissions are gaining importance. Cost element in establishing renewable energy systems makes the transition to these systems harder and delays it in countries with lower national income, purchasing power and lower household incomes. In the transition process, hybrid systems can accompany network connected systems. At the same time, the integration of systems and smart systems highlight energy management and productivity. Concerning energy, which is an essential factor for sustainable growth and development, countries are gravitated towards energy diversification so as to decrease their energy dependence and gain energy independence.
T I . (1) where r - the distribution vector of network resources. The considered management system is provided in the form of a state graph, comprises V nodes (possible sta- tuses of system) and U channels (transitions between statuses). In everyone i node arise information flows of requests between i and j nodes with intensity λ ij . For each flow it is necessary to select network resources to provide required quality of service. In each branch it is ne- cessary to define required band pass range (C) and the ne- cessary capacity of the buffer storage device (B).
Similarly, a report produced by Land O’Lakes (2010) show that cross-bred cow have a higher level of productivity estimated at an average of 10 litres per cow per day which is almost ten times that of indigenous cows which are pegged at just above 1 litre per cow per day. A study on smallholder dairy farming in Northern Malawi conducted by Tebug (2012) identified the inconsistent and unreliable supply of improved animal genetics as a critical challenge affecting the competitiveness of smallholder dairy farming. Out of the 210 smallholder farmers interviewed in this study, 96 (46%) mentioned unreliable AI service, shortage of bulls to complement AI services, absence of a liquid nitrogen, shortage of high grade parent stock, uneconomic or low conception rates to AI and inadequate training and experience on breeding as key constraints affecting the genetic competence of smallholder dairy farming in Malawi (Tebug, 2012). A report by the Netherlands-African Business Council (NABC) in 2014 shows that inefficient, inappropriate and untimely artificial insemination (AI), as well as poor semen quality, is a pivotal hindrance to dairy breed improvement in developing countries.
Inventory management is pivotal in effective and efficient organizational management. It is also vital in the control of materials and goods that have to be held (or stored) for later use in the case of production or later exchange activities in the case of services. The principal goal of inventory management involves having to balance the conflicting economics of not wanting to hold too much stock or having to run out of stock, therefore, having to tie up capital so as to guide against the incurring of costs such as storage, spoilage, pilferage and obsolescence and, the desire to make items or goods available when required (quality and quantity wise) so as to avert the cost of not meeting such requirement. (Adeyemi and Salami 2010). Inventory problems of too much or too small quantities on hand can cause business failures. If a manufacturer experiences stock-out of a critical inventory items, production halts could result. Moreover, a shopper expects the retailer to carry the item wanted. If an item is not stocked when the customer thinks it should be, the retailer loses a customer not only on that item but also on many other items in the future. The conclusion one might draw is that effective inventory management can make a significant contribution to a company’s profit as well as increase its return on total assets. It is thus the management of this economic of stockholding that is appropriately being referred to as inventory management. The reason for greater attention to inventory management is that this figure, for many firms, is the largest item appearing on the asset side of the balance sheet. Essentially, inventory management, within the context of the foregoing features involves planning and control. The planning aspect involves looking ahead in terms of the determination in advance: what quality of items to order; and how often (periodicity) do we order for them to maintain the overall sources-store sink coordination in an economically efficient way? And how often (periodicity) do we order to maintain the overall stock coordination in an economically efficient way? The empirical evidence shows that each of the three equipment manufacturing firms maintains and keep raw materials inventories of not less than 551 or more units of different sizes, shapes, configurations and lead times. It is therefore important to develop a strategy that will be able to cope with the vast number of these inventories and dampen the uncertainties in the supply, stocking and processing so as to improve productivity in the equipment manufacturing firms. This will however help to satisfy the performance objectives of