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Benchmarking Cost of Milk Production in 46 Countries

Benchmarking Cost of Milk Production in 46 Countries

Abstract: The global dairy industry is facing challenges due to the extremely volatile milk price and a substantial increase of feed prices. The goal of this study, therefore, was to compare and benchmark the cost of milk production in 46 countries representing 87% of the world's total milk production, using a standard method developed by the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN). Two typical farms were selected per country; one average-sized and one larger farm. The cost of milk production in 2010 ranged from 16.91US-$/100kg Energy Corrected Milk (ECM) in Armenia to 97.27 US-$/100kg ECM in Switzerland, with cost differences mainly driven by the diversity in farming and feeding systems. Based on costs, world regions were categorized into four levels: 40-50 US-$ in the EU, Middle East and China; 30-40 US-$ in the USA, Brazil, CEEC and Oceania; <30 US-$ in Africa, Asia, South America; >60 US-$ in Austria, Norway, Switzerland and Canada. The major drivers for this variation were ranked as; purchased feed cost (the highest) followed by labor, land and machinery costs. Regression analyzes showed that costs were highly correlated milk yield and milk price but not to herd size.
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Influence of Electrical Conductivity, Days in Milk and Parity on Milk Production and Chemical Composition

Influence of Electrical Conductivity, Days in Milk and Parity on Milk Production and Chemical Composition

Milk production decreases with advancing into lactation. Results showed an average value of 19.62±0.52 kg milk for first 30 DIM, which was significantly higher compared to values obtained in 31-60 DIM (17.62±0.5 kg milk, p≤0.008) and 61-100 DIM (16.22±0.56 kg milk, p≤0.001). Milk production recorded for the first 30 DIM had the highest value compared to others two intervals of lactation. Associated with a high EC value, the milk production recorded a decreasing trend in lactation interval sequences. A similar trend was also recorded for EC Production losses were fast and pronounced due to increased value of milk EC in the early stage of lactation, results also obtained by Hammer et al. (2012) and Tancin et al (2006) [14, 15]. Increased value of milk EC recorded in the first 30 DIM was maintained throughout the entire study period, confirming the results obtained by Lukas et al (2009) [6]. The decreasing trend of milk production for the entire period of 100 DIM had a rate of 0.037 kg milk/day. In comparison, Kocak (2006) recorded a higher loss rate in Holstein cows (0.76-4.56 kg milk/day) particularly in confirmed clinical mastitis [29]. Even if milk EC decreased during the study period by 0.017 units/day, the high value recorded since the early stages of lactation makes its remanence on the productive level to be extended, confirming the results also obtained by Rajala et al. (1999) [30]. Increased levels of milk EC soon after calving, has induced a production loss rate by 16% in primiparous and a significantly reduced loss rate (5.4%) in multiparous cows. Values were higher compared with cases when a high milk EC had been installed in other phases of lactation, as demonstrated by Hagnestam et al. (2009) which recorded a loss rate between 3 and 9% for
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Economics of Milk Production in Mandya District of Karnataka

Economics of Milk Production in Mandya District of Karnataka

The cost of milk production presented in this section has been summed up under maintenance costs, which include variable and fixed costs as delineated in the methodology chapter. Among variable cost the feed and fodder cost is important. The returns from milk production were computed taking weighted average of milk for different species of bovines into consideration. The gross returns were worked out taking the milk price and quantity of milk as well as deducting the imputed value of dung from cost together. Hence, analysis of cost of milk production across the milch species forms an important aspect in bovine husbandry.
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The development of organic milk production systems

The development of organic milk production systems

No differences were recorded between the systems in the longevity of cows within the two herds, with an average of 2.7 lactations recorded in both systems, both at the start and finish of the study. The culling rate of cows from the two systems increased sharply during the study and was primarily a result of the failure of a number of cows to become pregnant despite the use of both artificial insemination and natural service by a bull. Other reasons for culling included problems associated with lameness and high somatic cell counts. Higher culling rates increased the costs of milk production in both systems as the calculation of the cost of replacing animals within the two systems shows that a first-lactation heifer entering the herd costs £670 to rear from birth to 2-years old, with a loss of milk income of £250 during the first lactation and the costs only partly offset by the c.£300 received for each cow culled from the systems. The magnitude of the loss is similar in both systems as the yield differences between a first-lactation heifer and a multi- lactation cow are similar despite the markedly higher milk yields per cow recorded in the PC system. The objective in both systems was to aim to calve the cows in the Feb-April period to ensure optimal milk production from grazed herbage when forage quality was high and also to efficiently use the cheapest feed available to the cows during the year. However, following the occurrence of liver fluke that reduced the reproductive efficiency of the herds, there was an increase in the number of days from calving to conception with some cows in the herd, leading to a year-round calving pattern. Only in the final year, when the health problems were overcome, was a predominantly spring-calving pattern established.
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POTENTIAL OF HERBAL GALACTOGOGUE IN AUGMENTING MILK PRODUCTION

POTENTIAL OF HERBAL GALACTOGOGUE IN AUGMENTING MILK PRODUCTION

Milk production is the prime objective behind rearing and management of cows. Optimal milk yield leads to increased profitability and thereby brings about economic prosperity to the farmers. India has highest livestock and bovine population in world, but due to use to inferior breeds and lack of availability of balance feed to animal; there is quite low per animal production on milk. [1] There’s a plethora of adverse factors that finally culminate in decreased milk yield. Milk composition and component yields can be affected by genetics and
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Risk analysis in Turkey milk production

Risk analysis in Turkey milk production

The present study has been done in order to determine the risks inherent in the milk production in Turkey. For that objective, factors such as the milk yield, the gross revenues realised, and the price levels as reflected to the producer’s benefits, have been taken into account. Upon the calculation of the measures for variables, fluctuations were found in the milk yield, prices, and gross revenues. Based on the hypothesis that the information possessed by the producer on the economic and technological developments is scarce and restrained, the variable coefficient has been calcula- ted as 10.81% for yield, 23.26% for prices, and 30.01% for gross revenues, respectively. With the hypothesis that the producers are aware of and informed on the economic and technological developments, these ratios, that is to say, the fortuitous variable coefficients would be, respectively, 2.07%, 15.96%, and 16.07%. According to the conclusions reached, an environment in which the producers can take rational decisions concerning the milk production can be said not to exist. For this reason, the government intervention through efficient measures for the dairy production will be necessary. Furthermore, the producers should be given informational support through the published studies in the agricultural extension.
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Assessing Participation in the Milk Income Loss Contract Program and its Impact on Milk Production

Assessing Participation in the Milk Income Loss Contract Program and its Impact on Milk Production

In addition to herd size, M_Freq was found positively correlated with milk production. The marginal effect (10,042.07) was highly significant and indicates that more frequent daily milking results in greater production levels. Technologies like computerized data collection and internet access were, surprisingly, found negatively correlated with milk production. Perhaps the time and resources diverted to these technologies come at the expense of time dedicated to milk production. There may also be some interaction effect between adopters of these technologies and organic farming thereby leading to use by smaller farmers. The linear and squared cost measures for both labor and feed were both found positive and significantly correlated with milk production. This indicates that costs are increasing at an increasing rate with higher levels of milk production.
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Milk Production and Processing in Romania – Characteristics and Tendencies

Milk Production and Processing in Romania – Characteristics and Tendencies

The transition period is characterized by two different tendencies of the milk production evolution, an increase tendency and a decrease one, the last one was registered on short periods of time and with low intensity. The period 1989 – 1996, excepting the years 1990 and 1992, the production presents an increasing trend, the average increase rate is 22.9%. This increase is due mostly to the increase of the average production which during this period increased with 37.3%. In the period 1997 – 2000 we can notice a decrease of the milk production with 7.7%. The decrease of the total production was caused by the average productivity per animal. This decrease of the total and average production
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Effect of forage legumes on feed intake, milk production and milk quality – a review

Effect of forage legumes on feed intake, milk production and milk quality – a review

Literature data from experiments with lactating dairy cows offered silage-based diets was reviewed to evaluate the effects of the grassland legume species Trifolium repens (WC, white clover), Trifolium pratense (RC, red clover) and Medicago sativa (M, lucerne) on feed intake, milk production and milk quality. Seven data sets were created to compare grass silage (G) with grassland legumes in general (L), G with RC, G with WC, G with M, RC with WC, RC with M and different silage proportions of RC. Daily dry matter intake and milk yield were on average 1.6 and 1.6 kg, respectively, higher and milk fat content 1.2 g/kg milk lower on L than on G based diets. Similar differences were found when G was compared with RC or WC diets. Cows offered WC yielded 1.1 kg/d more milk than RC, and milk produced on WC and M contained 0.7 g more protein per kg than milk from RC diets. Increasing the silage diet RC proportion from 0.5 to 1.0 also decreased the milk protein content by 0.8 g/kg milk. RC increased the level of poly-unsaturated fatty acids, particularly C18:3n-3, and isoflavones, particularly equol, in milk. Effects are discussed in relation to plant cell wall characteristics, plant chemical constituents and changes in rumen digestion to explain the origin of the differences in intake, milk yield and milk composition.
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Corpus luteal angiogenesis in a high milk production dairy breed differs from that of cattle with lower milk production levels

Corpus luteal angiogenesis in a high milk production dairy breed differs from that of cattle with lower milk production levels

In recent years, there has been a significant in- crease in milk production in all milk-producing countries worldwide due to the increased milk yields of high producing dairy cows (HPC), particularly of the dominant milk-producing breed Holstein Friesian (Boichard and Brochard 2012). Concurrent with this there has been a high frequency of complex health issues occurring in young Holstein Friesian cows. This is a major problem especially when one considers that the average lifespan of HPC is fewer than three lactations (Martens 2015).

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The adoption of technologies, management practices, and production systems in U.S. milk production

The adoption of technologies, management practices, and production systems in U.S. milk production

Of the three breeding and/or biological technologies, only artificial insemination held steady during the 2005–2010 period: 80-82% of farms used it and 89-91% of gross value of milk production was covered by the technology. Its aggregate adoption increased relative to 2000. This technology is likely approaching a “ ceiling ” or equilibrium value, a result that should not be surprising given the rapid early adoption of this technology in the 1940s and its relatively high current usage. Newer technologies, such as embryo transfer / sexed semen and rbST have experienced significant diffusion, with the former increasing both in usage and percentage of production coverage by about 70% during 2005 – 2010. This is likely attributed primarily to sexed semen, a relatively new technol- ogy that has been expected to experience significant diffusion (DeVries et al., 2008). On the other hand, after initially modest diffusion following its commercial release in 1994, rbST usage decreased from 2005 to 2010, with a 49% reduction in farms using it. This rather dramatic decrease is likely explained by negative consumer reactions to milk produced using the technology, premiums in some cases being paid for milk not pro- duced using rbST, and small or nonexistent impacts of rbST use on farm profitability (Tauer 2009; Gillespie et al., 2010). For each of the breeding and/or biological technolo- gies, usage was concentrated among larger-scale operations, as indicated by the higher percentages of milk production covered by the technologies relative to percentages of farms using them, and significant Cows or Acres coefficients in the logit models. Certified organic farms were less likely to use any of these technologies (they are barred from using rbST), and more highly educated producers were more extensive users of the breeding technologies.
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MILK PRODUCTION POTENTIAL IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA

MILK PRODUCTION POTENTIAL IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA

The data shows that the present milk production of Khyber Pakhtun- khwa can be increased upto 5.82 mt by genetic improvement and proper management. It is recommended that the new genetically improved breeds of dairy animals, be cost effective and suitable to the climatic conditions of the area should be introduced to in- crease the productivity. Furthermore, more research needed at farm level in the context of breed adaptability and management in respect of Livestock herds and cost of production in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

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Analysis of the yield milk effect on the economics of milk production

Analysis of the yield milk effect on the economics of milk production

The milk yield per one cow and year was a criterion for the research of the milk yield effect on the milk produc- tion economics. An agricultural enterprise was a statisti- cal unit. The subtraction method was used in calcu- lations. By-products were evaluated by fixed prices. One kilogram of a new-born calf was estimated for 50 Czech crowns (further only CZK), one tone of stable manure by 50 CZK and one litre of milk suckled by calves by 4 CZK. Expenses were differentiated for the produced and sold milk. The estimated calves and stable manure were de- tracted from the costs per one feeding day of a dairy cow when calculating the costs of the produced milk. Besides the estimated calves and stable manure, there was de- tracted also the value of milk fed to calves in the costs calcualtions for the sold milk. The sold (market) milk rep- resents a final production product. That is why the bulk of the production of market milk for a dairy cow per year is decisive in the evaluation of the level of milk produc- tion. So it is necessary to consider the profit from the sale of market milk of an average stabled dairy cow per year to be a decisive indicator of milk production.
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Improved utilisation of grass silage in milk production

Improved utilisation of grass silage in milk production

Preserving forage as silage or hay for the long indoor feeding period are the main strategy in the Nordic countries. However, in recent decades hay production has become less popular because of the requirement for weather and facilities during processing. Studies have confirmed that the protein value of well-fermented grass silages can be as good as that of grass hay (Jaakkola & Huhtanen, 1993; Shingfield et al., 2002; Vaga, 2017), and that differences in milk production responses are mainly due to the limited energy supply in silage compared with hay diets (Broderick, 1995; Vagnoni & Broderick, 1997). The basic idea of ensiling is to preserve grass in acidic conditions caused by microbial fermentation of sugars under anaerobic conditions. However, the ensiling process is usually accompanied by energy (ATP) losses through volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and lactic acid production (Chamberlain, 1987), and degradation of available feed nitrogen for rumen microbes to ammonia (Van Soest, 1994). The VFAs and lactic acid provide almost no energy for rumen microbes, which results in a lower efficiency of MPS when cows are fed extensively fermented silages.
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Barriers to organic milk production

Barriers to organic milk production

This paper describes barriers to production of the organic milk. There was conducted a survey among conventional producers of cow’s milk. Based on the identifi ed barriers to organic milk production and farmers’ opinions on them there were identifi ed the most important barriers. The most important barrier to the production of organic milk in Vysočina region is considered to be the lack of price premiums for organic milk produced. The price premium is currently around 0.40 CZK per litre of organic milk. Farmers require a minimum price premium 1 CZK per litre, respectively 30 % increase of the price of milk. The higher price premium may serve as a motivation, which could eliminate the second major barrier - satisfaction with the current production. Problematic contact with suppliers has been identifi ed as the third most important barrier by surveyed fi rms. Buyers do not respect the agreed purchase price (premium price). Partial barrier to organic milk production, according to surveyed farmers is the lack of the necessary amount of concentrated feed in the quality of organic milk.
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Adoption of Technology, Management Practices, and Production Systems in U.S. Milk Production

Adoption of Technology, Management Practices, and Production Systems in U.S. Milk Production

We report findings in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 reports comparisons of adoption rates for each of the 11 technologies in 2000 and 2005. Because dairy production is skewed toward the largest farms, we report adoption rates in two ways, as the proportion of farms adopting a technology and as the proportion of production covered by farms using a technology (i.e., the latter weighted by production). In Table 2, we compare adopters and non-adopters of each technology, management practice, or system in each of the two years. In each table, we consider (1) farm size (number of milk cows); (2) clustering of technologies—the extent to which adopters and non-adopters use each of the other 10 technological innovations, management practices, or production systems; and (3) dairy enterprise performance measures milk yield and net return over total costs.
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Influence of changes in level of feeding on milk production

Influence of changes in level of feeding on milk production

Decrease per month in daily yield in lb. 724, the only one in which the yields month by month were reported. Grazing periods had to be included, but from examination of the data they do [r]

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Crop and Milk Production Structure of Smallholders in Ethiopia

Crop and Milk Production Structure of Smallholders in Ethiopia

Ada is characterized by mild weather and represents the country's large middle-altitude cropping zone (1500 to 2000 metres above sea level). The major crops grown include teff, wheat, barley, horse beans, chickpeas and field peas. The average farm size is 2.6 hectares. There is virtually no fallow land. The average livestock holding is 1.28 cows, 1.98 oxen, 0.50 bulls, 0.53 young animals and 0.84 calves (Gryseels and Anderson, 1983). Compared with the Selale region, Ada farmers specialize more in crop production in which they have extensive experience.

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THE INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF BREAST FEEDINGS ON MILK PRODUCTION

THE INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF BREAST FEEDINGS ON MILK PRODUCTION

average amounts of milk obtained during the limited sucking period or during the first 2 days after sucking was increased.. again.[r]

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Improving the sustainability of global meat and milk production

Improving the sustainability of global meat and milk production

certainly level of global livestock production and consumption of animal products has considerable.. potential to alleviate malnutrition and deliver economic advantages to a given popula[r]

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