flooding (Johnson, 2003). However due to poverty, it would be difficult for people in Ngargoyoso sub-district to implement these proposed interventions. Adding iodine to the environment i.e. via drinking water directly to preschool and school children was effectively reduce the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Ngargoyoso sub-district (Dewi, 2016). However, as a public health measure, the sustainability of this iodine supplementation is questionable (Dugassa & Negassa, 2012). Biological environments found in Ngargoyoso sub-district (Figure 1) is modifiable. Escherichia coli in the drinking water are easily treated by boiling. Using kendi as drinking water container is one alternative that has been on trial successfully (Dewi, 2012), because the water should be boiled before placing in kendi..Our result showed that the prevalence of soil helminthes among school children was 46%. Goitrogen in local food is difficult to eliminate, because it is linked with subsistence farming and climate. Cabbage, for instance, is easily grown in mountainousarea with cool climate. Cabbage is containing progoitrin, and E.coli has ability to change progoitrin into goitrin with its goitrogenic effect..
As acknowledged that the exploration is the first step before reaching the discovery of profitable economic raw materials. However, it is also representing a high risk financially because it is possible that the areas discovered is not economically worthwhile, at that time the stakeholder will confront difficult return their exploration expenses. Therefore, the exploration process ex- ecuted in multiple stages before increasing expenses for the detection. The business of mineral exploration, one of high cost investment especially if it was in rugged mountain areas, which is difficult to reach and has a very high cost of access, consequentially increased the exploration costs. The reasons for doing this research in rough mountainousarea using geospatial technology, can be justified to be valuable, time-saving and cost-reducing. Therefore, we can see that one of the solid factors that helped the study is using of GIS technology in the rough terrain area, which strongly and effec- tively contributes to the display of spatial information and linking the study, and analysis of the information collected by using GIS programs. Subsequently, its benefits minimizing exploration costs, and selecting tar- gets with confidence and effective field work. Most of the data related to the operations of mineral exploration have a spatial nature. So, GIS has the ca- pability for storage, updating, revising, displaying, retrieving, processing, manipulating and integrating of different geo-spatial data. By ending of this study, we will be able to save time and money and increase profitability and efficacy.
Second, there is a change and broadening for functions from the Himalayan rangelands. Transhumance systems in mountains of Nepal evolved to utilise high elevation rangelands for subsistence livelihood. Due to variable and seasonal production of grasses across large areas, other means of land use by local people were impractical and there was no or little influence from the outside world due to inaccessibility and remoteness (Banskota 2000). Government policies, initially, were also to support livestock production in those areas; for instance, by establishing cheese factories where herders could sell milk and generate cash (Yonzon & Hunter 1991). However, other potential uses of landscapes gradually became apparent and government policies tried to accommodate multi-functionality. Some of them are tourism promotion and initiation of biodiversity conservation in the mountainousarea. Chapter 13 of Agenda 21 (the ‘Mountain Agenda’) of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992) highlighted that the mountains can be one of the most popular tourist destinations due to its spectacular landscapes, majestic beauty, and high ecological and cultural diversity and tourism can improve the livelihood of mountain people (UNCED 1992). Following this, tourism was assumed to be a central means for sustainable economic development in some mountainous areas of Nepal (Nepal & Chipeniuk 2005). The government of Nepal started to promote tourism in different ways such as through opening trekking routes and permitting climbing in several peaks which were restricted in the past (Nepal 2000). As a result, tourism increased dramatically in some areas. Some people therefore switched their traditional business of animal rearing to tourism related business. On the one hand tourism has diversified income opportunities and improved the livelihood of people in some areas but on the other, it has brought socio-cultural and environmental problems (Nyaupane et al. 2014; Sharma 2000).
I am thankful to USQ for providing the opportunity to pursue a PhD and the USQ Postgraduate Scholarship for the Doctoral Degree. I would like to express my gratitude to all the faculty members of USQ for their direct and indirect help during my research. I am thankful to the Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC), Government of Nepal, Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) and Khaptad National Park (KNP) for giving research permission to conduct this research in SNP and KNP. I am also thankful to the National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC), Lalitpur, Nepal and Gaurishanker Conservation Area (GCA) Project for providing me the research permission to conduct research in GCA.
Two distinct sectors can be identified, based on the domi- nant slope instability processes in act: (i) an upper “detach- ment sector”, followed downstream by a (ii) “dismantling sector” (Frodella et al., 2014). The detachment sector (with a mean slope of 30 ◦ ) develops downstream from the main landslide crown (Figs. 2a, b and 3) and is dominated by ex- tensional deformation causing the development of tensional fractures, resulting in alternate trenches and crests creating a very rough, stepped topographic surface. This area is af- fected by gravitational and erosional processes, as well as the rock mass detensioning and disaggregation, resulting in the accumulation of various depositional elements (colluvial fans, colluvial aprons, rockfall and rock avalanche deposits) formed by very coarse heterometric clasts, ranging from cob- bles to boulders with scattered blocks (decimetric to deca- metric in size) in a coarse sandy matrix (Figs. 3 and 4).
Abstract—Sustainable development of semi-mountainous regions supports an increase in economic investments in order to profit the residents of region, without however having drastic negative influences on the natural environment. Green Infrastructure (GI) can be broadly defined as a strategically planned network of high quality natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features, which is designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services and protect biodiversity. The objective of this study is the specification of strategic directions for an integrated development of semi-mountainous areas through global measures in relation to zoning policies and also proposals regarding specialized production activities, according to a proper typology that characterizes the differentiation of regional problems, needs, and perspectives. The sustainable development of the semi-mountainous areas of Greece targets regional and social cohesion in the framework of especial strategic targets.
There are several implications that arise from our study. In Vietnam, there is overall increased need for education about the importance of sexual health even if an individ- ual, who had history of unsafe drug injection, is having sex with a primary spouse/partner. Educational efforts would focus on influencing health behaviors at the individual, interpersonal, and group or community levels. Because rural patients were more likely to report having multiple sex partners compared to urban patients, this suggests that there may be need for additional behavioral health education about sexual health and behaviors in rural parts of mountainous regions in northern Vietnam. Health edu- cation that considers the patient’s attitudes (behavioral be- liefs), subjective norms (normative beliefs) would likely influence sexual risk behaviors. Previous work in other countries has highlighted the impact that behavioral health education can have in combination with MMT to reduce HIV risk taking behaviors . In addition, there must be increased efforts to reduce drug use and continue MMT adherence among the patients. Furthermore, pro- viding comprehensive care to ensure the good HRQOL of MMT patients plays an important role in decreasing one’s sexual risk-taking behaviors.
The distribution of snow cover under highly variable conditions was estimated by spectral mixture analysis of Landsat images, which has proved to be a powerful tool for providing time map series to be used in snow modelling. The spectral mixture analysis allows an adequate estimation of the coverage of snow in each pixel of the area, which resulted in a global reduction of the snow cover area of close to 40% in the mixed identified cells when compared to a simple covered/non-covered classification analysis, this being especially important in these semi-arid mountainous regions where the particular snow dynamics favour the appearance of a great number of mixed pixels.
ABSTRACT: This research deals with productivity and cost of rock disintegration and side casting of materials with the use of a hydraulic hammer mounted on a PC 220 Komatsu crawler excavator, which is used on rocky slopes of Hyrcanian forests of Iran. A continuing time study was applied during the road construction. To estimate the volume of rock disintegration, the average end area equation was used. The increasing cut-slope height decreased productiv- ity. The productivity of hydraulic hammer averaged at 5.5 m 3 ·h –1 for the mean work volume of 5.07 m 3 ·m –1 . The unit
Abstract: Characterizing the biophysical features at a watershed level is a significant input for analyzing natural resources, for solving potential water resource management problems, for integrated water utilization assessment, for water allocation policy and management. The objective of this study was to assess the biophysical characteristics of Weyb watershed, which is recognized as a potential agricultural zone in southeastern part of Ethiopia, was considered as a case study. Relevant data were used and; ArcGIS, Microsoft Excel sheet and fundamental formulae were applied for the analysis. Accordingly, six current biophysical characteristics of Weyb watershed i.e., watershed area, land use land cover and soils, geomorphology, climate, agricultural practice and population have been analyzed and discussed briefly. The mean annual precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and mean temperature of the watershed are 1015 mm, 970.1 mm and 14 0 C respectively. The study results show that the watershed is highly suitable for widespread agricultural production.
In the mountainousarea at East of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) cooking woods is an acute problem. Cassava fresh stems of about 120 to 150 cm long are utilized to sustain climber’s production, an important staple food proteins provider. It was desired to assess the effect of using climbing beans as an intercrop with cassava on the yield of the two crops. Four treatments involving two varieties of climbing beans and one variety of cassava were tried: i) cassava’s stems support climbers growth one growing season, ii) two growing seasons in a row, iii) three consecutive growing seasons and iv) the control treatment or cassava sole crop non-staking climbers. Eighteen month later results were: Climbers yield appreciably in mixed crop cassava-climbers with cassava- stakes for climbers. Climbers’ Yields decrease during the second and third season. High yields of climbers on cassava- stakes generate stresses on cassava growing plants. Theses reduced cassava’s yield in terms of fresh tubers weight reduction of about 6.6 to 19.7% for climbers’ varieties Namulenga and 8.2 to 18.5% for climbers’ variety G59/1-7 from the first to the third season. Climbers also lose their yields over consecutive staking seasons on cassava-stakes. These losses ranked from 3.02 to 11.35%, and 11.57 to 35.51%, for climbers variety Namulenga and variety G59/1-7, respectively when staked two and three consecutive seasons. Yield losses are observed on both cassava variety and climbers beans varieties. So, stresses are reciprocal on cassava and climbers beans cultivars in their intercropping.
(van Westen et al. 2010) developed by Horton et al. (2013) at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. This software uses a GIS-based approach that couples an automatic detection of the source areas and a simple as- sessment of the debris flow spreading (Kappes et al. 2011). Flow-R attempts to give an insight of existing or potential new susceptibility zones without any notion of intensity or occurrence probability in a regionally scale with limited data. Horton et al. (2013) applied the model Flow-R using a digital elevation model for the Canton de Vaud territory (Switzerland), a lithological map and a land use map to identify the potential source areas. The spreading and run-out estimates were based on basic probabilistic and energy calculations that allow them to define the maximal run-out distance of a debris flow. Blahut et al. (2010a) used also Flow-R for a debris flow hazard assessment at medium scale in Valtellina di Tirano, Italy. Maximum probable run-out zones were calibrated using documented past events and aerial pho- tographs. As a result, they proposed two debris flow haz- ard maps: the first map delimits five hazard zones, while the second one incorporates the information about deb- ris flow direction probabilities, showing areas more likely to be affected by future debris flows. Kappes et al. (2011) applied the Flow-R model to the Barcelonnette Basin in France using the model for source areas identification and the empirical angle of reach concept to define a worst-case scenario in the area. They also generated sce- narios for high, medium and low frequency events, based on a varying angle of reach. The results were com- pared with the footprints of a few mapped events, show- ing a high dependency on the quality of the digital elevation model. Ma (2011) applied a method for multi- hazard mass movement susceptibility assessment with run-out, using Flow-R, in a mountainousarea with lim- ited information on past events at a regional scale in Mtsekheta-Mtianeti, Georgia. Maps with cells containing significant values of susceptibility for initiation areas were created using SMCE (Spatial Multi-Criteria Evalu- ation). These cells were used as initiation points and the run-out assessment was performed with the Flow-R model. Based on the level of susceptibility, three differ- ent triggering scenarios were produced heuristically.
Kolli Hills is a mountainousarea with a temperate climate located on the eastern border of the Namakkal District in Tamil Nadu, India. Forests occupy 44 percent of the total area of 28,293 ha, while agricultural activities take place in 52 percent of the total area, leaving 4 percent for other activities (Kumaran, 2004). More than 95 percent of the estimated 50,000 inhabitants of Kolli Hills are tribals from the Malayali community (MSSRF, 2002). Pradeep and Rajasekeran (2006) estimated that tapioca land represents about 75 percent of the total dry lands. Irrigated land comprises less than 15 percent of the cultivable area (MSSRF, 2002). The population density is 119 per km 2 .
First is the restriction problem of management and usage on ecological forest. After the reform of forest tenure system, foresters pay more attention on the mountainousarea and have great enthusiasm for afforestation for the increase of profit margin on managing commercial forest. When the forest, foresters’ means of production, is designated as ecological forest, it undoubtedly produces great impact on foresters’ economic interest, and probably results in great pressure on protecting ecological forest. Under the background of insufficiency of national and local financial compensation, setting a too high restriction on management and usage not only goes against the ecological protection, but also is easy to intensify the contradictions between government and foresters. Both the economic interest of foresters and managers who take possession of public welfare forest should be taken into account. The ecological forest is not equivalent to a nature reserve, in which strict bans and protective measures are adopted regardless of the classification. The standardized and reasonable usage mechanism should be established and orderly production activities in the protected forest should be allowed so as to increase income and alleviate the protection pressure on protecting ecological forest. In other words, as long as managers do not damage the forest resources, at the same time, without affecting the ecological and environmental services provided by ecological forest, they can exploit and make use of it. The relevant mechanisms should be constructed and improved by government and forestry management authorities, such as the classification of ecological forest in which these business activities can be carried out, the definition of type of operating activities and the reinforce of technical guidance and supervision.
In many European countries, great attention is paid to the development of tourism in rural areas. That is the highest achieved in France, Austria and Switzerland. The development of sports and recreational tourism is directed primarily to mountain settlements. One of the measures for improving this type of tourism is the granting of loans under favorable conditions, as well as reducing tax burdens. Tourist capacities were created by adaptation of rural houses, constructing small boarding houses or arranging rooms for rent in owner's residential facilities. Our research records based on similar research by Šećirović and Plojović (2011) indicates that in this sense it would be necessary to establish certain accommodation and other accompanying facilities whose dynamics, especially after initial investments, should be accompanied by an increase in activated tourist demand for staying in the mountainousarea of Trešnjevik – Lisa and environment. This primarily refers to rural settlements gravitate directly observed area: Gnjili Potok, Bare Kraljske, Vranještica, which have favorable conditions for the development of rural tourism. These are the benefits of relief, quantity of drinking water, clean water flows, wealth of pastures, the quality of the plot that enables a diverse flora and fauna and the production of healthy foods, in which has been maintained the traditional way of livestock farming, i.e. mostly grown cattle, sheep and goats. Tourists who prefer rural tourism are people oriented to nature and in whose vision of vacation dominates the image of a healthy life in rural settlements, related to: integration into the host family – observing animals and taking care of them; consuming local dishes and drinks – a specific system of rural traditional architecture – with adequate comfort, but without a hotel service – favorable prices (Gašović, 2017). Thus, rural settlements that gravitate to the mountainousarea of Trešnjevik – Lisa, have numerous curiosity tourist elements. The traditional lifestyle in these villages has remained until today. The variety of homes, economic buildings, folk costumes, food, and speech ... give a special tourist value to the population and the possibility of developing eco- tourism. Old types of houses are represented by a typical folklore architecture dominated by chalets (Bulatović, Rajović, 2018; Bulatović, Rajović, 2018).
The data in Table 3 indicate that the mountainousarea households consumed the greatest amount of straw of approximately 833.18 KgCE, and the plains area house- holds consumed the least amount of straw of only 162.48 KgCE. Semi-mountainousarea households con- sumed approximately 338.69 KgCE of straw. A peasant household consumes straw generally to provide self- sustaining energy, and the gain depends on the farmers’ planting structures and production. Large amounts of farmland are available for each farmer, and the farmers in hilly mountainous areas grow traditional agricultural crops to obtain more straw. In the plains areas, farmers plant fruit trees, vegetables, and other economic crops. Only a few farmers grow traditional crops, and fewer farmers grew straw.
Material and Methods: Aerial parts of Stachys lavandulifolia Vachl at flowering were collected from the Sabalan mountainousarea of Ardabil and its essential oil was extracted using a Clevenger-type apparatus. A GC/MS machine was used to identify the chemical constituents of this Essential oil. We used microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Essential oil against Listeria Monocytogenes ATCC19118 bacteria .
Generally, the reported signatures have the following two characteristics: (1) they concentrate on the extraction of hydrologically meaningful information contained in hydro- graphs, and (2) they focus on either an entire study period or a special continuous section of the entire period. They have occasionally considered temporal variability of runoff components and dominance of different runoff sources dur- ing different periods (e.g., the seasonal switching of runoff sources discussed in Tian et al., 2012). However, a hydro- graph could be dominated by various components or water sources at different response times (Haberlandt et al., 2001; Eder et al., 2005). With this in mind, a few studies have ex- plored the use of hydrological information in time dimension for stepwise calibration. For example, Schaefli et al. (2005) presented a stepwise calibration method for seven parameters in a high mountainousarea: snow and ice melt degree-day factors were conditioned by mass balance, slow reservoir pa- rameters were determined by base flow, reservoir coefficients were calibrated by summer runoff, and the direct runoff co- efficient was used to control discharge during precipitation events. Another notable example is Hingray et al. (2010), in which the authors estimated the value of the snowmelt degree-day factor in a mountain basin by progressively min- imizing the differences between observed and simulated val- ues of different magnitude hydrographs. There are also many other follow up studies.