The contradictions between gatekeeping behaviour and the co-ordinator role also apply to the negotiation role of the ambassador and gatekeeper (Section 2.5.3 refers). Recent evidence from Ryan and Cosliger (2011) on multiculturalteams points to gatekeepers who become (horizontal) representatives instead of ambassadors. Associated with multiculturalteams are hence more complex overlaps between ambassador and gatekeeper roles. Past boundary spanning studies have not fully addressed this. Furthermore, in multiculturalteams boundary role adopters are challenged with negotiating between multiple affiliations, and it is again unclear whether it is ambassadors, gatekeepers, or both, who negotiate between multiple affiliates. While it is clear that the ambassador role represents negotiates externally, there is now a pattern of unspecified internal agents that, according to Levina and Vaast (2005) may be un-nominated gatekeepers who navigate boundaries in a field. When considering new gatekeeping behaviours (as set out in Section 2.5.1) and in field literature (See Section 2.7.2), bridging positions have been important. The emergence of specific bridging positions will be a key focus of this research, and may involve un-nominated agent roles. The processes by which un-nominated roles emerge are still relatively unclear in multicultural contexts (Di Marco and Taylor, 2011), and this study seeks clarity on the emergence of bridging positions through the capital conversions that potential bridging roles deploy.
(2004:105) depict that: “Mobilizing the energy and synergy of managers from various cultures to work as a team can lead to multiple perspectives and more creative approaches to problems and challenges.” Also Maznevksi (1994:534) emphasized the advantage of multiple perspectives for teamwork: “Research has shown that multicultural groups develop more and better alternatives to a problem and criteria for evaluating those alternatives than do culturally homogeneous groups.” Besides creating this variety of perspectives, this also means that “[…] effective teams need to perceive, interpret, and evaluate situations in numerous ways and then agree on the best options and directions” (Adler, 2002:145). This statement implies that “members of multiculturalteams [disagree] more frequently […] on expectations, the appropriateness of relevant information, and the need for particular decisions, they generally increase the ambiguity, complexity, and inherent confusion in team processes” (Ibid:142). Apparently, next to exceptional chances that cultural diversity offers, “diversity makes team functioning more challenging because team members find it more difficult to see, understand, and act on situations in similar ways” (Ibid:141).
Although cultural brokerage often emerged without formal appointment, there were some instances when the interviewees said they benefited from being formally appointed as a broker, or when they said they asked to be publicly appointed to play such a role. For example, an Italian interviewee, who was a cultural outsider in a multicultural team, asked his manager to announce to the rest of the team that he was appointed to facilitate between cultures. He claimed that this public appointment helped him engage in cultural brokerage, especially since he was a cultural outsider and thus not an obvious candidate as a broker. The literature on biculturals and multiculturalteams (e.g., Hong, 2010) and anecdotal evidence also suggest that outsiders are less obvious candidates as potential brokers, and less likely to engage in brokerage. Meanwhile, given their
Even though the resulting model has been analyzed using the latest methodology, including state of the art findings from the cultural field of research and being theoretically sound, the findings still have to be qualified. From a methodological perspective, collectivistic-based knowl- edge schemes related to cultural diversity are being inte- grated through a qualitative description of the Chinese national culture only. Furthermore, the overall construct of cultural diversity shows low values of validity, along with eliminated scales of time orientation and human- nature-orientation. To be able to conduct the survey, the original questionnaire has been reduced by 37 items, which means there is a deviation to existing papers using the CPQ. A more basic restriction was given through the taken research model from Stahl et al. . While our research model included four intervening variables only, in reality further variables such as creativity or group thinking might exist that could influence the performance of multiculturalteams in the PR China. Finally, for some cases more members belonged to a team than partici- pated in the survey. This means the data collection par- tially formed rather a limited picture of the overall team opinion and therefore might be slightly biased in com- parison to the existing team.
stressing the diversity of factors that affect satisfaction. This article focus particularly on two of such factors: commitment and emotions.
Emotions in general, either positive (e.g., happiness, pride) and negative (e.g., shame, guilt) have been shown to affect team performance ( Peslak & Stanton, 2007 ). In students’ narratives shared by Ku, Tseng, and Akarasriworn (2013) after participating in an online collaborative learning project, several emotions were asso- ciated with satisfaction, including enjoyment, surprise, and not feeling lonely. Moreover, Ayoko, Konrad, and Boyle (2012) found humor as the most common emotion shared in the virtual teams they studied. As such, pos- itive emotions seem more associated to satisfaction. Still, negative emotions such as frustration, are common in the initial stages of team assignments ( Ayoko, Konrad, & Boyle, 2012 ), and expected to be overcome during the project. Indeed, in another study Peslak (2005) found that even at the start of the project dominant emo- tions are positive, noting that initial emotions did not have much effect on the project outcomes. The importance of emotions in online team success is therefore stressed by several authors. One point made clear by extant literature is that there are insufficient studies considering students’ emotions during team assignments ( Ayoko, Konrad, & Boyle, 2012 ; Peslak, 2005 ), particularly in the case of virtual teams.
Several studies have indicated that leadership indeed plays an important role to enhance safety in multiculturalteams (Saee, 2005; EU-OSHA, 2013; Kearney & Gebert, 2009). In order to be effective in managing cultural diversity, a leader has to be actively engaged to use the potential inherent in multiculturalteams, while being sensitive to cultural issues (Saee, 2005: p. 44). According to the European Agency of Occupational Health and Safety (2013), transformational leadership SSTL is an effective management approach to cultural diversity be- cause it supports an “inclusive organization”, one that exploits the potential of diversity and creates a shared vi- sion within the diverse team (EU-OSHA, 2013: p. 7). Interestingly, the same leadership aspects exploiting the positive potential in workforce diversity are also positively related to better occupational health and safety (EU-OSHA, 2013). As a conclusion, transformational leadership is supposed to be a management style that is effective in enhancing occupational safety in general but especially effective in multiculturalteams, as it creates a shared vision through letting employees think actively about issues and taking into account their different ideas (EU-OSHA, 2013). Kearney & Gebert (2009) studied 62 R&D teams and examined SSTL as a moderator for differences in workforce in nationality, education, age and team outcomes (Kearney & Gebert, 2009). They found that SSTL can help to use the positive potential inherent in multiculturalteams for their safety perfor- mance. When SSTL was high, nationality was positively related to team performance (Kearney & Gebert, 2009). Again, a reason for that might be that SSTL enhances knowledge exchange and the group’s identification with a collective vision (Kearney & Gebert, 2009). Kearney and Gebert did not fully examine if and how SSTL can help using the positive potential of a culturally diverse workforce while balancing out the negative aspects but they hypothesize that SSTL has this “dual effect” (Kearney & Gebert, 2009: p. 80).
showing a steady trend away from groups which were historically predominantly racially white, to teams of a mixed culture, matching the university graduation rate of people in their early twenties from tertiary institutions (Addison, 2005). Although societal transformation is taking place in South Africa (boosted largely by broad-based black economic empowerment initiatives) management of multiculturalteams in organisations still consists of somewhat older predominantly white, staff members. Organizations in South Africa that developed prior to the advent of democracy in 1994, modelled their businesses on those in the United Kingdom and in the United States of America, and the style of management was usually of a ‘Western’ nature. This still prevails to some extent in several medium-sized and larger organisations in South Africa. Nowadays there is growing diversity in organizations’ workforces in South Africa.
For collaboratively working multiculturalteams, the communication medium itself is a problem. The way that media are used by different cultures may differ. According to Straub et al. (1997), there is reason to believe that connections do exist between cul- tures and the use of certain ICTs. Ho and others argue (cited in Straub et al., 1997) that low individualism (collectivistic culture) possibly predisposes a culture against CMCs, because these media mute the group effect. Kumar and Bjorn-Andersen (1990) state that information systems “ have built-in value biases reflecting the value priorities of the culture in which they are developed ” (p. 535). Therefore, there may be slow acceptance rates or different usage preferences for certain kinds of technology among different cul- tures and the consequence could be as fatal as the failure of the project. For example, some cultures may process information differently (e.g. verbal/analytic or visual/holistic, linear or concurrent), give higher or lower priority to different kinds of information, and have different degrees of satisfaction with various information systems (Wilson, 2001). On the other hand, Rice et al. (1998) found that, although there was evidence for some cultural differences in perceptions of media, it was not strong or consistent, which is in line with Greenfield and Subrahmanyam ’ (2003) study, where they showed that communicators could invent ways to work out such problems such as using a dis- tinctive writing style.
It has also been ascertained that communication in mul- ticultural teams stimulates the formation of an emergent team culture. Unlike homogenous or monoculture teams, multiculturalteams cannot refer to a pre-existing identity because of their short lived individual project-based life cycle Earley and Mosakowski (2000) . They develop and depend on a team culture of straightforward rules, perfor- mance expectations and individual perceptions. Earley and Mosakowski (2000) further conﬁrmed that an eﬀective multicultural team has a strong emergent culture as shared individual prospects facilitate communication and team performance. This suggests that the positive eﬀect and trust generated by the perceived shared understanding can fuel performance improvement and boost team eﬀectiveness. Most importantly, eﬀective interaction among project team members can facilitate the formation of a strong emergent team culture Pearson and Nelson (2003) . Nonetheless, mul- ticultural teams are particularly susceptible to communica- tions problems that can aﬀect team cohesion. Individuals in multicultural project teams have diﬀerent perceptions of the environment, motives and behaviour intentions. Shaw (1981) argued that the eﬀects of such diﬀerences could be visible in lower team performance due to impeded social cohesion. Further research by Evans and Dion (1991) , on team cohesion and team performance showed a positive correlation between these two variables. Elron (1997)
The Integrated church model is based on a theological vision of multicultural mission. It has the potential to strongly reflect diversity and inclusivity because it is not only inclusive of people of other cultural backgrounds but indeed its diversity influences and changes the community, in stark contrast to the Monocultural church model. Healthy Integrated congregations show a leadership team with representation that reflects that diversity. Life in such communities involves constantly interacting and working towards equality in the light of justice. The sharing of stories is central at services, hospitality and celebrations. A high level of awareness is needed around differences in power perceptions and communication styles, which can lead to strategies for the genuine inclusion of NESB voices. One key challenge in this model is that churches need to be aware of issues of power balance between the English-speaking and NESB people. If these are not intentionally addressed it’s probably true that the church has reverted to functioning in a Monocultural way.
experiences and establishing relationships with a wide array of people throughout their college career (Akens, 2002).
This brief review of the literature strongly suggests that LLCs can play an important role in the promotion of multicultural awareness. LLCs offer opportunities for participants to engage in experiential activities and intergroup dialogue, two important elements that have been identified by contact theory as influences on the development of multicultural awareness. Furthermore, LLCs provide a space for students to engage with one another across multiple contexts and through extended interactions that create a sense of community among peers. These environments support the creation of friendships, which, according to intergroup contact theory, can be highly effective in promoting multicultural awareness. Relevant to this study, and what is not as evident in the literature, is an understanding of students’ perceptions of how multicultural-themed LLCs support multicultural awareness. Understanding student perspectives is essential in designing experiences that encourage multicultural awareness and understanding.
To examine and confirm the MSS factor structure, we used the SPSS Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) software version 22.0 for conducting confirmatory factor analysis. We conducted a series of confirmatory factor analyses to test the model fit of the three dimensions of multicultural supervision competencies. The confirmatory factor analysis in this study involved two major steps, which included (a) inputting all items to derive an initial model and (b) implementing the model fit summary and modification index to identify variables that appeared to be a poor fit in order to improve the initial model. Then model fit results of the structural equation modeling were compared to the model fit index suggested by Kelloway (1998) and Hatcher (1994). Maximum likelihood estimation was applied and all the analyses were performed on the correlation coefficient matrix. The criteria to determine a good model fit were set as: RMSEA (root mean square error of approximation) .10 or lower, RMR (root mean square residual) .05 or lower, GFI (goodness of fit index) above 0.9, AGFI (adjusted goodness of fit index) above .80, CFI (comparative fix index) above .90, CMIN Chi-square 5.0 or greater, and p value larger than .0001 (Hatcher, 1994; Kelloway, 1998). Standard measurement error and raw residual ranking were referenced to modify the model along with factor loading results for each subscale.
researcher developed the initial pool of 36 items utilizing the ASCA ethical guidelines (2010), a position paper from ASCA (2009) that advocated for school counselors to be competent with diverse stakeholders, and a multicultural competence checklist (Holcomb-McCoy, 2004). Content area experts in the field of school counseling reviewed the initial pool of 36 items. Specifically five counselor educators and counselor education doctoral students reviewed the items and provided feedback on content, wording, and potential responses. From the initial review, some of the items were reworded, combined, or dropped, resulting in 31 items. The survey items were presented with answer choices in a Likert-type format. There were six possible responses (i.e. Never, Infrequently [less than once a school year], Yearly, Several times a school year, Monthly, and Weekly). An even number of answer responses was used for statistical purposes (Crocker & Angina, 2006) and based on feedback from reviewers. The answer choices were also modified based on reviewer feedback. More specifics about the MSCBS are in chapter 3 and the full survey is in the Appendices.
Counselors must be prepared to work effectively with diverse clients because the composition of the population of the United States continues to change (Sue & Sue, 1999). Previous research has reflected reluctance by training programs to include course work on mental health and socio-cultural issues relative to minority groups (Bernal & Padilla, 1982). Although multicultural education is generally believed to be effective, there continue to be questions about the extent of its efficacy (Vontress & Jackson, 2004), but a “troubling” number of respondents reported seeing clients despite reporting low levels of competence with that client group (Allison, Echemendia, Crawford & Robinson, 1996). Counselors who hold a worldview different from their clients’ (and are unaware of the basis for this
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humanistic because it is tailored to the learning style and characteristics of the child. In another view, multicultural education is a concept or idea as a set of beliefs and explanations that recognize and value the importance of cultural and ethnic diversity in building lifestyles, social experiences, personal identities, and educational opportunities from individuals, groups or countries (Suryana & Rusdiana, 2015:253). In this case will be highlighted some things, how the concept of multilangural education can be implemented well in early childhood education. Namely the identity, cultural diversity and educational opportunities of each individual. Identity, if we listen to someone's identity, the first thing we get is identity as a human being. Other identities are gender, sex, nation, ethnicity, religion, occupation, background, status (Suryana & Rusdiana, 2015:53-57) and physical characteristics. In early childhood education, such things can be implemented on the theme of learning "self" or other themes that are integrated, namely through activities, "introduce my self". Culture is all the results of the mind, the will and the human work individually or in groups to improve the life and human life or way of life developed by the community. Furthermore, culture is a social category, which culture is seen as a whole way of life that belongs to a group of people. This is a more pluralist and democratic sense in a more local sense (Jenks , 2013:11). Indonesia with diverse cultures is a wealth of knowledge. In education,have begun to be explored and conserved again, for example with the discourse of curriculum based on local culture. Through the local culture is expected to build the character of the students and able to preserve the culture itself. Because essentially, culture has educational values for children for a better life. Based on the essence of multicultural education, of course, local culture that was introduced early on is a game culture like, dolanan boy, dolanan song, regional songs, dance area and others. Local culture is actually close to the child or the educational environment itself. Therefore, in early childhood education, the curriculum is the environment itself. In addition to local culture, the natural environment is important to note because, in early childhood is in the exploration. So it needs a natural environment to stimulate aspects of child development.
The overwhelming constant globalisation of today’s business operations has directed firms’ management to an increased concentration on the successful relations and collaboration of employees from various cultural backgrounds in multi-cultural project teams (Davison, 1994). Makilouko (2004) distinguishes three types of multicultural project teams. The first one is a project team consisting of members with different national cultures, but working together in the same country. The second type is a project team in which the members are partly or completely dispersed but meet in face-to-face interactions. The last type is a project team, in which members communicate only via electronic channels and encounter no face-to-face interaction. These are known as ‘virtual project teams’ (Jarvenpaa & Leidner, 1999). As described by Adler (2002), a multinational project team is made up of people coming from a minimum of three different national cultures. Govindarajan and Gupta (2001) introduce the name of a ‘cross- border team’ and characterise it as a ‘team of individuals of different nationalities, working in different cultures, businesses and functions, who come together to coordinate some aspects of the multinational operation on a global basis’. Hofstede (1983) gives one definition of national culture as a part of ‘collective mental programming’ that we share with other members of our country and that differs from people from another country. Stewart (1972) adds that different cultures are characterised by a set of values, opinions, ideologies and norms. These values that vary from one another can influence variables such as the approach towards organisational operations, motivational methods, approaches to leadership (Erez, 1994; Erez & Earley, 1987; Hui, 1990) and most importantly, can greatly affect the project team’s unity. The majority of the research that is available on interactions between different cultures shows