Adediran et al. 2004  has stated the actual significance of agro-industrial waste that is the surplus, unused, remaining material generated from an agricultural material that is handled in agricultural linked industry which can be used as an amendment to the soil and plants. He also believed that it is mainly an excellent choice to discontinue commercial, chemically synthesized fertilizer for the green leaf. Another author has stated that tobacco solid waste is classified as agro- industrial waste. It can be used as organic amendment for soil and plants. This implementation will leads to fertility of the soil as well as the adoption of the green farming strategy with sustainable agriculture . Tobacco Dust
major species causing 75-80 per cent damping-off in tomato and chilli. Manoranjitham et al. (2001) also reported 60 % mortality of chilli seedlings both in nursery and main field. Pythium spp. is probably the most abundant and widespread plant pathogenic fungal species in soil (Pieczarka and Abawai, 1978). P. aphanidermatum and P. ultimum, a main causal agent of pre and post-emergence damping-off in tomatoes (Gravel et al., 2005). Continuous use of fungicides detoriate the soil health environmentl. Hence use of bioagent like Trichoderma spp. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus spp. and organic amendment like caster cake FYM help in protecting soil environment and prevent diseases. Hence in present study fungal and bacterial bioagents and organic amendments are used in vitro against Pythium aphanidermatum.
The low level of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C, N and P) in the garden soil samples might have been caused by leaching/ erosion. Researchers noted that the addition of these limiting nutrients is a key factor in achieving effective biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The amendement increased the pH range of the experimental samples from 5.58 to 6.31. This range is within the favorable range for biodegradation of crude oil in polluted soil. Similar observations have been reported by Adesua (2014)  and Akoachere et al. (2008) . The pH range of the organic amendment (6.64) is also in line with the recommended optimal environmental conditions necessary for microbial degradation of crude oil contaminated soil (Table 1). The BSG was also characterized with high level of the total organic carbon (10.7%), phosphorus (0.75%) and nitrogen (10.1mg/kg). Similar results have been reported by Kim et al., (2005)  and Okoh, (2006) . Tang et al., (2009)  and Senthilkumar, et al (2010)  have reported that BSG contained appreciable percentage of crude protein (17.8%), cellulose (24.6%) and lignocelluloses (30.2%). It shows that Brewers’ spent grains are of high nutritive value. Essien and Udotong (2008)  also reported detection of amino acids in BSG. Cellulose content of 25% detected in BSG as one of the highest cellulose value recorded for organic amendments (Yao et al., 2012) . There is also an appreciable amount of a nutritive salt of potassium as 2.9mg/ Addition of organic amendment (BSG) also improves soil structure and water- holding capacity by binding sand particles and increasing silt contents (Adesua, 2014) .
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The effect of different organic amendment on the con- tent of oxidable carbon and humus substances was eval- uated in the experiment. The results are presented by Procházka (1986) and Procházková et al. (2001). Nine to 11 years after the experiment establishment, the content of organic carbon was almost identical in all variants. The evaluations performed after 26 to 28 years showed a slight increase in both the content of oxidable carbon and humus substances in variants with green manuring, straw incorporation into soil and farmyard manuring. However, the differences between the variants were small. It is in accordance with the finding that the dynamic balance of soil organic matter needs a couple of decades to constitute (Kubát 1999).
Author Chaturvedi (2008) has confirmed that in prior researches the application of the tobacco dust as organic amendment provide the nutrients such as high quantity of the nitrogen (N) that is required for the plant growth and carbon content that improves the soil’s micro biomass and soil porosity that leads to the high grain yield of wheat. Another author confirmed the above fact with statistics that upon the application of the tobacco dust on the wheat crops, wheat straw increases its nitrogen content from 0.4% to 0.7% (Brohi and Karaman 1998). The yield of tomato and its nutritional values are also enhanced by the application of the organic fertilizers as the practical done on tomato nutritional content, its yield, its average time growth by Karaman et al., 2004 as compared with the control one. Author Melchias et al., 2013 has researched that the survival of the tomato was significant due to the effect of tobacco dust amendment over control treatment. The average survival was 96.32 %. It also gives fresher biomass of tomato.
Lignite type LRC is a coal that is typically characterized as soft and friable, with a dull, earthy appearance and high humidity (30–45 %) and ash. Low fixed carbon and low energy contents due to the low degree of coalifica- tion of these materials are typically referenced with high content Humic Substances (HS) [7, 8] due to the organic nature and the content of elements for microbial nutri- tion [9, 10] that can be processed by various mechanisms that generate useful products, such as HS in the macro- structure ; for this reason, these coals can be exploited as raw material for organic amendments for the agricul- ture and management of impaired soils [11, 12].
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Composting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is now gaining worldwide a higher popularity between farmers, landscapers and gardeners as a suitable soil strategy of diverting organic waste materials from landfills while creating a product, at relatively low-cost, that is considered of high quality for application to the soils as an organic amendment. Compost properties (physical, chemical and biological) have showed to influence on soil nutrients mineralization process and subsequently on plant growth status (Wolkowski, 2003). This increasingly interest in the use of MSW compost for agricultural purposes has been observed in the last few decades worldwide because of a more conscious environmental policy by citizens in order to maintain the sustainability of agro- ecosystems by decreasing the utilization of commercial fertilizers, increasing the capacity for household waste recycling to recover the nutrients contained in it and enabling the closing of biogeochemical cycles (Hansen et al., 2006). The non-stop growth rate at which urban waste is produced in countries as Spain (23,682,531 t of MSW have been generated in 2005), which already exceeds 1.4 kilogram per inhabitant per day (OSE, 2007) is a clear sign of the non sustainability of the present consumption model. Reducing the amount of MSW being generated is now a priority in the EU’s environmental policy, for which at the all state level Spain has just drawn up a National Integral Plan 2008-2015 (BOE, 2009) that includes the National Spanish Urban Waste Plan.
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In the screen house study, 1 litre(1000c.c) of theri soil thoroughly mixed with different percentage of farm yard and keep this mixture in a clay pot (2 mm sieve powder). Ten different combinations, namely theri soil (Th) +10% of FYM( Farmyard manure); Th + 20% of FYM ; Th+ 30% of FYM; Th +40% of FYM; Th+ 50% of FYM; Th+60% of FYM; Th+ 70% of FYM; Th + 80% of FYM; Th+ 90% of FYM; Th +100% of FYM. These different combinations were thoroughly ameliorated mechanically before use. For example Th+10%of FYM means 100 cc of Farm yard manure was mixed with 1000 cc of theri soil. The volume of the soil is fixed. It was found that 100cc of FYM is equal to 35g.It was also found that 100cc of theri soil is equal to 165g. These mixtures were allowed to settle for a period of 90 days by wetting with water regularly and without allowing them to get dried. After 90 days measurements were made on the physical and physico-chemical properties, such as pH, EC, NPK, particle density, bulk density, porosity, water holding capacity, volume expansion, organic carbon content and hydraulic conductivity.
Aqueous and organic extracts of many plants have been reported to contain nematicidal compounds, e.g. Akhtar and Alam (1989), Pandey et al. (2001) and Ahmad et al. (2013) reported that flower extracts of Bauhinia variegata, Ixora parviflora, Moringa oleifera, Tagetes eracta, Argemone maxicana & others were highly toxic against J2's of M. incognita (Jang et al., 2016). Amongst various nematodes viz. Tylenchorynchus sp., Tylenchus sp., Heterodera sp., Meloidogyne sp., root knot nematodes (M. incognita) are found to parasitize spinach roots (exhibiting heavy gall formation and loss to this crop. Spinacea oleracea (spinach) is unique among vegetable crops, thanks to its extremely high yield in a relatively short period of time. A good source of minerals, Vitamin K, Vitamin B complex, ascorbic acid, and carotene, it is being attacked by various other agents viz. bacteria, fungi, etc. besides nematodes' causing necrosis, curling, and patches on its leaves.
on seed germination and plant size. In the present study different growth factors of tomato plant were observed, the plant showed significant (p<0.05) greater root and shoot length 12.47cm and 14cm respectively at the rate of 1%MC+5%CCw/w. Thus, amendment of soil with Cotton and Mustard cake was effective and enhanced the growth of tomato plant and also suppressed the pathogens compared to control.
DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2018.83008 101 Open Journal of Soil Science and is a primary agricultural production area. Vertisols (specifically aquic Ver- tisols) are among the main soil types distributed in this important wheat-and maize-growing area. Vertisols in this area has a low SOM content (<0.6% in the topsoil), a high clay content (>35%), and swelling and shrinking properties, which are conducive to self-mulching . Agricultural sustainability is impor- tant in this region, and it is necessary to understand the characterization of SOM fractions and their dynamics. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the continuous application of mineral fertilizers and/or organic amendment alone and in combination at different rates on the OC and N concentrations in soils and in different fractions. The specific objectives were as follows: 1) to investi- gate the soil OC and N concentration changes in different SOM fractions under various long-term fertilizer regimes and 2) to determine the major organic C fractions that contribute to the increased TOC concentration.
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The current study showed that simultaneous biochar and anaerobic digestate additions to soil resulted in different processes occurring depending on the nature of the organic amendment. The soil amended with digestates formed from cattle manure (ADF 1) and cattle manure plus maize silage (ADF 2) generally did not respond to biochar as intensely as soil treated with the maize-derived digestate (ADF 3). Nitrous oxide emissions generated by ADF treatment were reduced by biochar amendment in all cases, but particularly in the case of ADF 3. The reason for the reduction is not known, but several mechanisms are likely to be responsible. One suggestion that has not been considered to date, is biochar-mediated re- ductions in pore size which may limit gas diffusion through the soil profile and preventing N 2 O release to the atmosphere.
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The droppings of goats contain higher nutrients than farmyard manure and compost. Goat manure is easy to transport and store as dried pellets and has less odour than other animal manures like farmyard manure. Use of animal manure is even more cost effective for farmers. The application of the manures significantly raised the soil pH, organic matter content, total N, available P and exchangeable K, Ca and Mg status of the soil. Goat manure had superior responses for all other chemical properties than Poultry manure. The 15 t/ha rate of both manures maximized sweet maize growth attributes, total dry matter (TDM) and grain yields (Uwah et al., 2014).
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Soil amendments are added to the soil to increase the organic contents and improve the structure to enable the soil to have a high capacity of holding nutrients . Adding a soil amendment, also known as soil conditioning; helps improve plant growth and health . The type of amendment depends on the prevailing soil composition/condition, the climate, and the type of plant. Amendments provide energy and nutrients to soil, drastically changing the environment for the growth and survival of crops and microorganisms . Some organic amendments suppress certain soil-borne plant pathogens and/or the diseases they cause, and several have been effectively used for control of plant parasitic nematodes. Organic amendments, however, can also increase diseases for instance, animal manures have been reported to increase the incidence of common scab disease of potato and most recommendations suggest avoiding the use of fresh animal manures on soils prepared for potato production . This implies the need to exercise caution when using organic amendments in soils since not all sources have beneficial attributes to the soil structure and fertility. Also, the organic matter affects different physicochemical characteristics of the soil . Therefore, to avoid losses of the organic matter that is quite beneficial to agricultural productivity, organic amendments act as positive remedies to carbon content, nitrogen content and soil structure stability among others . The inorganic soil amendments are used to supplement the organic matter that is already present in the soil . Due to scarcity of organic amendments, the inorganic materials have become increasingly popular in adjusting the soils physicochemical characteristics, enhancing growth and consequently promoting yields of crop . Polymers are widely used for many applications in agriculture: to combat viruses and other crop pathogens, and functionalized polymers are employed to increase the efficiency of pesticides and herbicides, allowing the application of lower doses and thus indirectly
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RD4: Organisational learning during Amendment-Implementation - Activities involved in amendments have been documented in the literature (Ng and Gable 2010). It may be interesting to find out whether amendments actually demonstrate an organisation’s learning approach. For instance, an organisation could choose a particular learning style for one amendment and adopt another learning style for another amendment. Hence, a variation in learning styles across several amendment instances may be observed. In a similar fashion, a variation in learning styles for similar amendments could be investigated across several organisations. In a case, where organisation A and organisation B undertake a similar kind of amendment, do both organisations adopt the same or different learning approaches? The influence of organisational learning is important because different organisational learning approaches are found to produce different outcomes (Hunter, 2003). In particular, Kraemmerand, Møller, and Boer (2003) suggest that post-implementation; activities reflect different learning approaches and in turn influence firm performance differently. Further arguments follow that the use and maintenance of existing capabilities suggest exploitation, whereas the search for alternate capability suggests exploration (Kraemmerand et al., 2003; Tomblin, 2010). Based on the different features that characterise each learning type, it can be argued that post-implementation amendments to ERP systems can be classified using these learning concepts. Such a classification is significant because amendments can be indicative of learning and at the same time hamper learning. For example, given the inherent tension between exploitation and exploration, the tendency to explore versus exploit is affected by several factors such as resources, organisational culture, and structure and as such a focus on exploitation can inhibit exploration (Otieno, 2010). Organisations’ behaviours may also be a relevant lens for studying amendments and may facilitate a better and complete framework in the future.
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Introduced by Alice Paul and the National Woman’s Party (NWP) following the ratifica- tion of the suffrage amendment in 1920, the ERA represented a significant shift in feminist thought. The NWP, one of the most radical suffrage organizations, rejected movements for pro- tective women’s legislation in support of legislation that would ensure women’s legal equality. As Nancy Cott argues, early feminists emphasized gender equality in a way that earlier woman’s rights activists had not. Suffragists and Progressives utilized narratives of gender equality and emphasized gender difference in rhetorically conflicting ways. “A tension stretched between em- phasis on the rights that women (like men) deserved and emphasis on the particular duties or ser- vices that women (unlike men) could offer society,” Cott writes. 7 Rhetorical appeals to women’s roles as social reformers were essential to the debate. In discussions of suffrage and protective legislation for women, female activists argued that they deserved special consideration under the law because they could provide a unique perspective as wives, mothers, and women. According to this argument, women deserved a voice in the political process not because they were equal to men, but because they provided a different perspective than men.
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to police scanners to gather intelligence about police activity in the community. 20 They would then show up—armed with loaded rifles and their criminal codebooks—at places where police officials were conducting arrests and other investigations. 21 The Panthers were essentially policing the police. 22 This practice prompted California legislator, Don Mulford, to introduce a bill calling for the repeal of the Act that allowed California citizens to openly carry arms in public. 23 The bill was passed and signed into law by then-governor Ronald Reagan. 24 The passage of the bill took the heart out of the Panthers’ police patrols and thus effectively ended them. 25 One of the questions presented by the Panthers’ police patrols is whether there is a Second Amendment right to defend strangers from unlawful government force. If there is such a right, then what is the origin, nature, and scope of the right? Under what circumstances would a third-party’s use of deadly force against a police official provide a valid defense to a charge of assault with a deadly weapon or murder?
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vermicomposting of urban green waste processed by three earthworm species—Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus. The slight increasing trend of EC, however, was recorded by Natarajan and Gajendran (2014) during vermicomposting of Paper Mill sludge with water hyacinth amendment which might be due to mineralization and consequent formation of ions from waste mixtures in presence of earthworms. Umamaheswari et al. (2009) and Prakash and Hemlatha (2013) also observed slight increase in EC during vermistabilization of Paper Mill sludge.
A preliminary survey was conducted in the Palakkad Eastern plains to identify the areas where RHA amendment was in vogue. Following which three locations viz; Muthalamada (L1), Vadavannur (L2) and Thathamangalam (L3) could be identified where RHA application was practiced by farmers for 30 years. For getting a comparison on the advantages of an RHA addition, three locations in the near vicinity of the location were also identified, with no application of RHA.
Humic acids and their salts, derived from coal and other natural sources, which have modes of action similar to syn- thetic conditioners, have been evaluated as potential soil con- ditioners. The advantage of humic substances is the refrac- tory nature of their chemical structures that makes them more resistant to microbial attacks. Piccolo et al. (1997) re- ported that humic substances have a potential as soil con- ditioners in conversation practices aimed at increasing the structural stability of soils. Ersoy and ¸Seker (2004) reported that urban waste compost, cattle manure, chicken manure and leonardite improved soil aggregate stability values. ¸Seker (2003) reported that adding Portland cement and wheat straw to a soil having a crusting problem increased its aggregate stability; in turn seedling emergence of wheat was improved by decreased modulus of rupture and penetration resistance. Imbufe et al. (2005) suggested that potassium humate is po- tentially effective as a soil conditioner in improving aggre- gate stability of acidic and sodic soils against adverse ef- fects of cyclic seasonal wetting and drying conditions. Bal et al. (2011) determined crusting problems of the Konya- Sarıcalar research station soils and offered some recommen- dations for a solution. As a result, an increase in the organic matter content and a reduction in agricultural practices to the minimum tillage were required in order to prevent crusting problems in the research soils.