The **parametric** **analysis** and economic estimate for a 1,000 bbl of algal oil per day facility shows that microalgae production costs can be reduced, if certain improvements can be made to the system process and configuration. Improving the productivity rate and lipid content of microalgae strains through research can improve the economics, given that the productivity rate and lipid content have shown to have the biggest impact on the production cost, since they also influence the costs relative to the other parameters.

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Finite element **analysis** (FEA) has been widely used in recent years for solving various engineering problems. Numerical solutions to even very complicated stress problems can now be obtained routinely using FEA. There are various software available in market which performs FEA **analysis**. The FEA simulation and **analysis** ease the complication of problem and reflect the true nature of material behavior especially in case of stress problem. Any problem can be solved in three basic steps as pre-processing, **analysis** and post-processing. This article gives a FEA simulation in ANSYS software to predict the thickness distribution, effective stress throughout the cross section and cross section distortion of the tube obtained from cross section of tested tube during the bending process. The results obtained from the FEA simulation is used to conclude discussion about **parametric** **analysis** of tube. This **analysis** is based on some assumption such as, cross-section of tube after bending is oval (elliptical or semi-elliptical) and tube bends are symmetric about vertical axis through the centre of bend and considered the axisymmetric structure of cross-section of tube for **analysis**. The tube material used for **analysis** is aluminium alloy 6061which having mechanical properties are given in Table 4[14].

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In this study, simulation of magnetic system using FEMM was conducted. After preliminary simulation for regular shape (Simplified case), the geometry of magnetic system was optimized in accordance with the distribution of magnetic field line. After simulations and comparisons, geometric changes in both Up_L and Lo_R cases led to obvious changes in the magnetic distribution and B curve. Furthermore, a new design based on **parametric** **analysis** was presented. This new design not only keeps the position of maximum magnetic force and B curve of the Simplified case, but also brings about material cost reductions of around 31 % for the magnetic system.

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Abstract: Bearing technology represents one of the age old challenges for mechanical engineers. Plain bearings and rolling bearings have been pushed to their limits in applications like electric motors and high resolution scanning respectively. Hence air bearings represent the next logical step in bearing design. Unlike contact bearings, air bearings utilize a thin film of pressurized air to provide ‘zero friction’ load bearing interface between surfaces. Air bearings have many technical advantages like high precision, high stiffness, no lubrication and negligible wear and tear. This seminar focuses on **parametric** **analysis** of these air bearings, their types, properties, performance parameters. From the previously obtained results and trends it is observed that load carrying capacity increases with increase in orifice diameter i.e. higher mass flow rate and also it increases with increase in supply pressure. This paper deals with giving an introduction of the air bearings to the world, telling their advantages and encouraging their use.

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The present research applied non-**parametric** and **parametric** models to a sample of panel data of sugarcane production for the period of 1981–2010. The productivity growth was estimated using the Malmquist index obtained through both **parametric** and non-**parametric** approaches. The productivity measures are decomposed into two sources of growth namely efficiency change and technical change. The results show evidence of phenomenal growth in the TFP after introduction of Co86032. In both periods, productivity is sustained through technological progress. Several inferences may now be drawn from the comparative **analysis** of DEA and SFA efficiency and productivity models examined. First, the non-**parametric** results tend to fluctuate widely. This is clearly the consequence of the assumption on the stochastic component, something which may be intensified for agricultural data. The second is that inefficiency and productivity growth exists over the decadal period. The magnitude of inefficiency and the extent of productivity growth that has taken place vary between the approaches applied. Third, examining the components relating to the shift in the frontier (TC) and efficiency change (EC), technical change turned out to be a more important source of growth in both **parametric** and non-**parametric** models.

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In this previous volume [1], we have discussed the objectives, design parameters and factors affecting the performance of heat transfer. We have also discussed the manufacturing process, instrumentation and working of experimental setup. Design parameters such as material selection, fin shapes, air flow directions and flow cross section area are discussed. This volume mainly consists of problem definition and the methodology. Methodology is further divided into two parts- thermal **analysis** and Experimentation. In first part, thermal **analysis** of pin-fin is carried out and enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient is done. Thermal **analysis** is carried out on different fin shapes and different materials. Later to validate thermal **analysis** results experimentation is carried out.

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overview of the Fins and description of recent improvement of fin geometries that increase the heat transfer rate. The objective or main purpose of this project is to improve the performance of the fins using different geometry and material. In recent years, advance devices generate and dissipate tremendous amount of heat and power. For many cooling applications these devices has become a major challenge. Older style heat sinks were often insufficient for cooling newer, hotter running components. So for determining optimum fin geometry, we have considered different shapes (rectangular, circular, tapered, conical, parabolic etc.) and different materials (copper, aluminum, mild steel, brass, stainless steel). Through **analysis** of different pin-fin geometries (combination of one of the shapes with different material), we have calculated heat transfer rate and optimized with all aspects to get higher heat transfer rate. In the present work, Experiments have been conducted to find the temperature distribution within the pin fin made of different material and geometries and steady state heat transfer **analysis** has been carried using a finite element software ANSYS to test and validate results. The temperature distribution at different regions of pin fin are evaluated by FEM and compared with the results obtained by experimental and analytical work. The principle implemented in this project is to increase the heat dissipation rate by using the invisible working fluid, nothing but air. We know that, by increasing the surface area we can increase the heat dissipation rate. The main aim of the project is to optimize the thermal properties by varying geometry, material and thickness of fins.

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Results for a na¨ıve OLS model employing the data set excluding the various categorical are presented in Table 3. This **analysis** allows us to to see what inferences we might draw from this data regarding the various tax changes we are examining. Given the sample size it is of little surprise to find that all the variables are statistically significant. The variables in general tend to confirm a priori expectations regarding sign and magnitude. For example, the income elasticity (1.43) is elastic and similar to that found in Abelson et al. (2005) (1.41). As expected, interest rates are found to be negatively related to price (interest elasticity of -0.003, compared to -0.04 in Abelson et al.). The parameter estimates on the time variables reflect the property market cycle over the sample period. Time is initially negatively related to price, but positively related to price after 1996. The parameter estimates on the distance variables show that distance is negatively related to price up to a distance from the center of at least 60 kms, beyond which prices rise with distance. This result is consistent with the Melbourne housing market as there is a boundary beyond which sub-division of land for dense new housing developments is no longer allowed. At this point you frequently observe larger houses with land, or hobby farms and lifestyle properties.

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The history of the Etna volcano (Sicily) is marked by the alternation of brief intervals of eruptive activity and long periods of apparent inactivity. Usually during the periods of pseudo-inactivity, there are evident symptoms that the volcano is still active, e.g. fumaroles, hot springs and gas- eous emissions. The variation of previous phe- nomena may be used to forecast seismic and volcanic-events. The aim of this research has been to evaluate and analyze the variation in emissions of ultra fine dusts and in soil Radon concentration, during the period of pseudo–in- activity, to obtain indexes able to forecast the possible events. Investigations have been car- ried out near two active faults on the slopes of Mt. Etna. The present paper presents the results of the monitoring survey, the **analysis** method- ology and the development of the index to for- ecast possible seismic events. Research is cur- rently in progress to refine the index which could be utilized not only to forecast possible seismic volcanic events, but also as a key to give early warning to the Civil Protection Agency so that they may be ready in time as soon as an eruptive event will occur.

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By using digital image processing, **analysis** of various images is more accurate as well as this method is efficient in terms of cost and time consuming compared to existing techniques, MATLAB software use for this **analysis**. Most of the techniques in image enhancement are useful for changing the gray level values of individual pixels and hence the overall contrast of the whole image. But they generally enhance the whole image in a uniform manner which in many cases produces unwanted results. There are various techniques available which create highly balanced and visually appealing results for a variety of images with different qualities of contrast and edge information and it will produce acceptable result. The snr and psnr of transformed images determines the quality of the image and can be use for better results, here we can see that image after enhancing have the highest snr value.

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component. Some have good strength, properties and cost. But material should available easily and have required properties in reliable cost, this only reduce economic factor of the project. Lifting given block load is of gray cast iron which is universal and given to us. Other parts like grippers of liver, end of balancing arms are made up of hard plastic material. We analyzed for maximum stresses developed in the tackle for different materials still materials has its own advantages along with **analysis** like 1. They are easily availables 2. It is a low-cost material that is easy to shape. 3. While not as hard as higher-carbon steels 4. Carburizing can increase its surface hardness.

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The paper employs the non-**parametric** approach of Färe et al. (1994) which utilises the observed inputs and outputs to construct the best practice reference units as a convex hull in input output space without estimating parameters. This permits us to measure the efficiency of input usage in producing a given level of outputs. A number of reasons can be put forward for the adoption of the non-**parametric** approach. First, it provides multi-input, multi-output efficiency measures that relate to best practice as opposed to average practice. Although on this count it must be noted that best practice is relative to the empirical sample of hospitals. Second, it does not require the use of a pre-specified functional form for technology nor distributional assumptions about error terms. This neces- sarily implies that inefficiency measurement and misspecification errors are not confounded. However it should be emphasised that being nonstochastic it makes no attempt to distinguish the effects of noise from those of inefficiency, so that inefficiency may incorporate some degree of noise. Third, the approach does not require the imposition of a particular behavioural assumption, such as cost minimisation, yet the results have a straightforward cost interpretation.

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Within the field measurements performed, the following parameters and features were studied and measured of the MFW under evaluation: – Uniformity of the feed distribution into the troug[r]

In addition, having the PDF of the EIU index scores we can obtain other useful information such as the probability of a given country being one of the categories of Democracy [5] named f[r]

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Reducing weight while increasing or maintaining strength of products is getting to be highly important research issue in this modern world. Composite materials are one of the material families which are attracting researchers and being solutions of such issue. The Automobile Industry has shown increase interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance properties. The report describes static **analysis** of steel leaf spring and composite leaf spring. The objective is to compare the load carrying capacity, stiffness and weight savings of composite leaf spring with that of steel leaf spring. The dimensions of an existing conventional steel leaf spring of a Light design calculations. Static **Analysis** of model of leaf spring is performed using ANSYS 11.0 The result of FEA is also experimentally verified. The stress induced in the C-glass/Epoxy composite leaf spring is 64% less than that of the steel spring nearly and the deformation induced in the C-glass/Epoxy composite leaf spring is 57% less than that of the steel spring nearly. This study leaves wide scope for future investigations. It can be extended to newer composites using other reinforcing phases and the resulting experimental findings can be similarly analyzed.

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In this paper, the low-enthalpy heat source Kalina-flash cycle is examined. By establishing mathematical relations for the system, simulation is executed for **parametric** **analysis**. Four key parameters influence on temperature change is tested. Which are included expander inlet pressure, the concentration of an ammonia-water basic solution and flash pressure ratio. are chosen to investigate their influence on the thermodynamic behaviour of Kalina-flash cycle. Concurring to the **parametric** investigation, an optimization is conducted by the Genetic Algorithm to look for multi-objective optimum energy and Exergy efficiencies.

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A persistent preoccupation of generative linguistics has been the tension, border- ing on paradox, between two questions: “Why are there so many languages?” and “Why are they all so similar?”. The tension is sufficiently great that many writers, dazzled by the obviousness of the first, are tempted to deny the truth of the second: Evans & Levinson’s (2009) ‘The myth of language universals’ is a recent example. A resolution of the tension can be found in the framework of ‘Principles–and–Parameters’ (Chomsky 1981a, 1981b; for overviews and history, see Roberts 1997, Baker 2001, and especially Biberauer 2008a), but making this claim plausible to the skeptics necessitates elaboration and refinement of the theory, in particular of the nature and scope of ‘**parametric**’ variation. It is this issue we try to address in the current contribution, suggesting identity criteria for **parametric** as opposed to non-**parametric** differences among languages. The situation is reminiscent of the debate about human types: The apparent obvious diversity of different ‘races’ disguises profound underlying unity, and specifying the nature of the variation is fraught with difficulty. In what follows we spell out our theoretical presuppositions, we present the elements of the Principles–and– Parameters framework and their motivation, and we suggest and defend our identity criteria.

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Hereditary is one of the key risk factors of the Parkinson’s disease (PD) and children of individuals with the Parkinson’s carry a two-fold risk for the dis- ease. In this article, chance of developing the Parkinson’s disease is estimated for an individual in five types of families. That is, families with negative his- tory of the PD (I), families with positive history where neither one of the parents (II), one of the parents (III-IV), or both parents (V) are diagnosed with the disease. After a sophisticated modeling, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Approach are used to estimate the chance of developing the Parkin- son’s in the five mentioned family types. It is extremely important knowing such probabilities as the individual can take precautionary measures to defy the odds. While many physicians have provided medical opinions on chance of developing the PD, our study is one of the first to provide statistical mod- eling and **analysis** with real data to support the conclusions.

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Several examples can be found in the literature for the application of the Mann – Kendall trend test, for example, Patle and Libang (2014) argued on trend **analysis** of annual and seasonal rainfall in the northeast region of India, and Salmi et al. (2002) analyzed the trends of atmospheric pollutants in Finland. Meteorological applications can be read in Rahman and Begum (2013) who determined trends of rainfall of the largest island in Bangladesh. Ganguly et al. (2015) investigated the tendencies of rainfall in Himachal Pradesh (northern India) between 1950 and 2005. Gavrilov et al. (2015, 2016, 2018) examined trends of air temperature by Mann – Kendall test in Vojvodina, Serbia. Salami et al. (2014) applied this non-**parametric** trend test for the **analysis** of hydrometeorological variables in Nigeria. Mapurisa and Chikodzi (2014) made an assessment of trends of monthly and seasonal rainfall sums in southeastern Zimbabwe. Karmeshu (2012) investigated the temperature and precipitation changes in the northeastern United States. Hydrological utilization is provided by Hamed (2008). Burn and Hag Elnur (2002) estimated the trends and variability of 18 hydrological variables by Mann – Kendall trend test. Hirsch et al. (1991) used the method for the investigation of stream water quality. Chaudhuri and Dutta (2014) analyzed the trends of pollutants, temperature, and humidity in India. Zarei et al. (2016) examined drought indexes in Iran applying the Mann – Kendall trend test. Goci´c and Trajkovi´c (2013a) analyzed precipitation and drought data sets in Serbia using the non-**parametric** trend test. Several other applications of the Mann – Kendall trend test related to climate change can be found in the literature, for example, Jaagus (2006), Mohsin and Gough (2010), Chattopadhyay et al. (2012), Lacombe et al. (2013), Zhang et al. (2013), and Dogan (2016).

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