Peat swamps are known to be important habitats for fish fauna that have narrow niches and restricted range. As peatland is being utilised for agriculture, biodiversity conservation plays an essential role as one of the criteria for defining sustainable agriculture. In an oil palm production landscape which is located at Tinbarap Estate in Miri, Sarawak, a total of 210.63 ha of peatswampforest have been set aside as the Tinbarap Conservation Area (TCA) for conservation efforts. This study documents the fish fauna of Sungai Kulak which flows through the conservation area. Sampling was conducted in April 2016 and November 2016, from which a total of 106 fishes representing 13 species and seven families were recorded. In terms of the number of individuals caught, 78.30% were from the family Cyprinidae, 8.49% from Siluridae, 4.72% from Channidae, 3.77% from Osphronemidae, 1.89% from Anabantidae, 1.89% from Bagridae and 0.94% from the family Helostomatidae. The dominant species was Desmopuntius johorensis which accounted for 47.17% of the total fishes recorded. The dominance of Cyprinidae in TCA was similar to that in other peatswamp habitats. The results of our present study provide useful information on the diversity of fishes in Sungai Kulak which in the future could be valuable in conservation planning of the aquatic environment in TCA of Tinbarap Estate.
Contamination presents a major challenge in tissue culture work of G. bancanus (Chieng et al. 2014a) and other peatswampforest timber species such as S. albida (Ishii, Mohsin 1994) as a higher contamination rate was reported. According to Lei- fert and Cassells (2001), contaminants in tissue cultures vary in a wide range of microorganisms in- cluding filamentous fungi, yeasts, bacteria, viruses, viroids, mites and even thrips. While the fungus may arrive from the explant or airborne, contami- nation by bacteria was believed to originate from endogenous bacteria that escape initial disinfection or by microorganisms introduced during tissue cul- ture manipulations such as subculture to fresh me- dia. Both types of contaminants may survive in the plant material for several subculture cycles for over- extended periods of time without expressing symp- toms in the tissue or visible signs in the medium. Generally, the sterilization technique involved pre- treatment using ethanol (concentration between 70 and 95%) followed by washing with various con- centrations of sodium hypochlorite (commercial Clorox) for a certain period of time and has been employed with various levels of success to some tropical species. On the other hand, Badoni and
This study applies data fusion and machine learning techniques to map peatswampforest loss, and as such continues the work towards automated regional level mapping in Southeast Asia (Miettinen et al. 2017). The main barrier to scaling up the methods described in this paper is the technique used to create the composite optical scene, as the cloud probability raster in the Sentinel-2 Level 2A products was not good enough to be used as a cloud mask. Multi-temporal approaches to cloud detection are being developed to mask cloud (Hagolle et al. 2010; Mateo-García et al. 2018) and more work needs to be done to test their functionality in areas with very high cloud cover, adapt them for use with Sentinel-2 data and make the algorithms more accessible to a wider community of users. Traditionally, low computational power has limited those working in smaller institutions and NGOs, making it hard to map large areas and work with methods that rely on time-series analysis. However, this has changed thanks to the availability of services such as the cloud-based platform Google Earth Engine (Gorelick et al. 2017) and the free virtual machines provided by the European Space Agency’s Research and User Support Service (RUS 2018). There is currently a growing interest in the potential of big data (Liu et al 2018), which in a remote sensing context refers to the recent increase in the volume and variety of remote sensing data available, as well as the increase in processing velocity (Chi et al 2015). These developments in online platforms and virtual machines should help those working in conservation to capitalise on the potential of big data to monitor large areas.
incentives payments to land owners or stewards for investing in new land use practice that lead to conservation or production of specific environmental service (Engel et al., 2008).Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the economic benefit of forest watershed services and Households' Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Watershed Services Attributes. This research was conducted at the North Selangor PeatSwampForest (NSPSF) comprises of Sungai Karang Forest and Raja Musa Forest Reserves. This is largest remaining peatswampforest on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, and is critical for biodiversity conservation, water resource management and carbon storage (Parlan, 2001).
This study applies data fusion and machine learning techniques to map peatswampforest loss, and as such continues the work towards automated regional level mapping in Southeast Asia (Miettinen et al. 2017). The main barrier to scaling up the methods described in this paper is the technique used to create the composite opti- cal scene, as the cloud probability raster in the Sentinel-2 Level 2A products was not good enough to be used as a cloud mask. Multi-temporal approaches to cloud detec- tion are being developed to mask cloud (Hagolle et al. 2010; Mateo-Garc ıa et al. 2018) and more work needs to be done to test their functionality in areas with very high cloud cover, adapt them for use with Sentinel-2 data and make the algorithms more accessible to a wider commu- nity of users. Traditionally, low computational power has limited those working in smaller institutions and NGOs, making it hard to map large areas and work with meth- ods that rely on time-series analysis. However, this has changed thanks to the availability of services such as the cloud-based platform Google Earth Engine (Gorelick et al. 2017) and the free virtual machines provided by the European Space Agency’s Research and User Support Ser- vice (RUS 2018). There is currently a growing interest in the potential of big data (Liu et al. 2018), which in a remote sensing context refers to the recent increase in the volume and variety of remote sensing data available, as well as the increase in processing velocity (Chi et al.
by each other. If the economic function more important, the conservation function will be ig- nored, and vice versa. In this case, it will become a dilemma, especially for the local communities who live at forest periphery, in which the needs of people and conservation function is equally important. How does the forest development can conform to both? Then, especially within local communities, the alternatives to timber extrac- tion and used of NTFP as the fruit, leaves, bark and sap or latex from all of species in the forest must be found. Among these tree species in the peatswampforest, there are an indigenous spe- cies i.e. Jelutong. This tree has a high economic value, because of wood and latex as well as leaves which can be used as medicine material (Wong, et al. 2011). The Jelutong latex provides mate- rial for the production of rubber, cover of cable, craft, cosmetics, etc. (William, 1963; Najiyati et al. 2005). The Jelutong wood has various uses, including guitar pars and biola component (Yahya et al., 2010), in addition to the material for meu- bel, plywood, canoe, pencils, etc. Therefore, to improve the usage of Jelutong and maintaining its existence, it is necessary to plan management and development. The management and development of Jelutong can be supported by investigating its potential, distribution and increment.
Habitat evolution of a peatswampforest and belowground carbon storage was examined in a coastal lowland along the eastern coast of Central Sumatra, Indonesia. Boring surveys using a hand-operated peat sampler for 32 sites and radiocarbon dating for 29 samples revealed that the peatswampforest had begun formation by 6500 cal BP and expanded rapidly between 6500 and 5000 cal BP and between 4000 and 2000 cal BP to nearly the present distribution area. The thickness of the peat layer formed under the peatswampforest reached approximately 4 m, even in the margin of the peat dome, and more than 9 m in the center. Stored carbon per unit volume of the peat layer was estimated to be between 30 and 44 kg C m − 3 in the margin of the peat dome and approximately 26 kg C m − 3 in the center, which was less than the general carbon values of the mangrove peat. The relatively higher amount of stored carbon per unit volume in the margin was possibly caused by an inflow of allochthonous carbon from flood deposits. Belowground carbon burial rate of the peat layer was calculated as between 31 and 105 g C m − 2 years − 1 in the peat dome margin and between 27 and 76 g C m − 2 years − 1 in the center, which were identical to mangrove peat. These data suggest that peatswamp forests have played a significant role as places for carbon sequestration belowground as well as mangrove forest with mangrove peat.
Peatswampforest is a very special type of the evergreen forests that occurs in fresh-water marshy land (Posa et al., 2011) and was an interested source for soil sampling because it was different from the normal soil. Nowadays, Micromonospora strains from tropical peatswamp forests are still limited in isolation and the research on taxonomy and antibiotic production of them have so far received little attention. Thus, the attempt to sampling the soil samples in the unique sources is focused. In this study, Micromonospora strains isolated from peatswampforest soils in the southern areas of Thailand were characterized and identified by both classical and molecular techniques, and the investigation of antimicrobial activity is also performed.
Regeneration capability of plants with sprouting and seeding are two important characters in forest recovery after burning. Characteristics of stomata and chlorophyill contents of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq and Mallotus leucodermis Hook regenerating with sprout and seeds after burning at peatswampforest in Batang Alin were studied and compared with the same unburned plant species. The two plant species studied with different regeneration mechanisms, sprouting and seeding, showed different response on environmental changes after burning. In Anthocephalus cadamba Miq., characteristics of stomata and chlorophyll content were not factors determining adaptation capability of seeding regeneration in burned location, while adaptation capability of sprouting regeneration was determined by characteristics of stomata. In Mallotus leucodermis Hook f., characteristics of stomata and chlorophyll content determined adaptation capability on seeding regeneration, meanwhile on sprouting regeneration it was determined by characteristics of stomata only.
Abstract. Peatswamp forests are the second rarest forest type found in South Africa while dune forests have been un- der severe threat through mining and agriculture. Both forest types exist in the conservation area, and World Heritage site, known as the iSimangaliso Wetland Park on the East coast of South Africa. The area is prone to severe droughts (Taylor et al., 2006) and recent attempts to understand the local wa- ter balance revealed that there was insufficient information on the water use of the indigenous forests of the area. The peatswampforest and dune forest sites studied in this re- search were located within close proximity to each other, yet, are characterised by different landscape positions in terms of water availability. The coastal dune forest soil profile was generally dry and sandy and the tree roots did not have ac- cess to the water table. In contrast the peatswampforest is located in an interdunal wetland where the trees have perma- nent access to water. The climate at both sites is subtropical with a mean annual precipitation of 1200 mm yr −1 . However, over 20 months of measurement, the first summer (October 2009 to March 2010) was drier (424 versus 735 mm) than the second summer (October 2010 to March 2011) emphasising the variability of the rainfall in the area and providing a wide range of conditions measured.
Soil heat flux was measured using two soil heat flux plates (HFT-3, REBS, Seattle, WA, USA) and a system of parallel thermocouples (Type E). The plates were placed at a depth of 0.08 m below the peat surface. The thermocouples were buried at 0.02 and 0.06 m and were used together with volu- metric water content (CS615, Campbell Scientific Inc., Lo- gan, UT, USA) in the upper 0.06 m to estimate the heat stored above the soil heat flux plates. The measurements were stored every 10 s on a data logger (CR23X, Campbell Scientific Inc., Logan, UT, USA) and 30 min averages were computed. During the measurements at the Nkazana SwampForest, the groundwater level was deeper than 0.1 m below the surface and therefore, the total G was determined using the calorimetric methodology described by Tanner (1960).
Despite seasonal variation in ant capture rates and in individual responses of a number of indicator taxa, disturbance categories differed significantly in ant community composition regardless of sea- son. Overall ant communities did not differ sig- nificantly between seasons. Although sampling in either season seems appropriate for monitoring forest disturbance, sampling appears more effec- tive in the dry season, which exhibited higher ant capture rates and more indicator taxa. The higher capture rates may have resulted in the identifi- cation of more indicator taxa in the dry season, meaning that the same taxa may still be charac- teristic of a disturbance category in the wet sea- son, but because of lower abundance the indicator value is low and not significant. Seasonal differ- ences may also be caused by temporal variation in bait attraction, caused by fluctuations in food availability or changing food preferences related to brood production cycles (Stein et al. 1990). However, since the forest floor in Sabangau is an- nually flooded during the wet season (Wösten et al. 2008), the observed patterns likely represent real seasonal variation in forager density and ac- tivity on the forest floor and in the lower forest strata. A possible mechanism underlying the re- lation between wet-season flooding and low ant abundance could be that forest inundation during the wet season may reduce nesting site availabil- ity for leaf-litter ants (Mertl et al. 2009), while at the same time arboreal ants avoid foraging on the inundated forest floor (Adis & Schubart 1984). Despite the plausibility of such a mechanism, the seasonal differences in our study only cover one year, and ant communities can be in a long-term equilibrium but vary from year to year (Donoso 2017). Since the bat gaps had been abandoned only 5 years prior to our survey and forest regen- eration is still in process, it is likely that local ant communities have not reached such a long-term equilibrium yet.
Abstract Gemor is one of the forest products of high economic value. The bark can be used for the manufacture of mosquito coils; so many people collect them for sale. The selling price of wet-bark reaches 231-385 USD per ton. High prices of Gemor lead to increased exploitation. Conservation efforts are not done yet, so this species will be endangered. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of Gemor habitat and phytochemical confounds of leave, twig, and bark. From this research which part can produce insecticide besides stem bark can be known.It can be used for an alternative for utilization of Gemor besides bark. It was revealed that the Gemor tended to live well on habitats which have on peatlands, sometimes flooded, pH of 3.52-3.58, and pyrite of 0.17-0.21%. It needed N of 1.21-1.43%, P of 9.00-9.10mg/100g, C of 3.78-9.29%. This species was living generally in secondary forests with a light intensity of 3-5% and humidity of 88-99%. Phytochemical analysis indicated the other anatomy of Gemor besides the bark, namely leaves and twigs also contain secondary metabolites, such as; alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, and phenolic. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were potentially as natural insecticides. Flavonoids and phenolic in leaves were higher than the bark, so it can be said that the leave of Gemor was potentially as natural insecticides.
porosity; and (d) bulk density (dry weight basis) between secondary peatswamp forests, drained peatswamp forests, cleared peatswamp forests, and mature oil palm plantations at three different depths within the peat profiles: surface peat (black bar); below the water table (dark grey bar); and deep peat (light grey bar). Average values for land conversion classes and standard error bars are shown.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Abstract-Calculation of forest biomass is an ongoing requirement. It is in view of monitoring the changes that occur as one of the particular assessment in the forest especially in PSF Pekan. The study was conducted in Compartment 75. The results estimated the total biomass is 415.18 t ha-1, the value of which is almost the same compared to the Compartment 100 in another study which is 414.57 t ha -1 . This situation may change in the next 10 to 30 years, because in Compartment 75
Microorganisms catalyze biogeochemical shifts through changes in enzyme production . In terms of enzyme activity, the activities in soils of peatswampforest and those converted to agricultural land were found to vary considerably (0.13 - 4.96 µmol p-NP g −1 ·h −1 ) (Figure 1). Comparing the data from the current study with other reported soil enzyme activities in other environments, the values reported here were lower in terms of β-gluco- sidase, but higher for acid phosphatase . Generally, for mineral soil, enzyme activities in arable soil are higher than enzyme activities of forest soils; however, Kanokratana et al.  reported that metagenomicanaly- sis showed that for peatswampforest soils, the number of genes encoding polysaccharide degrading enzymes was significantly higher than that found in sludge and farm soil. This study shows that apart from chitinase ac- tivities, conversion of peatland for agricultural use resulted in a reduction of β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and acid phosphatase activities. The relatively high chitinase activity suggests a high metabolic demand for N released during chitin turnover . Although not significantly different, the slightly higher acid phosphatase activity in NF and RP soils may have be driven by microbial C demand, considering the relatively large P-availability . Currently there is comparatively limited information available on enzyme activities in peat- lands and the impact of conversion to agricultural use. Bowles, Acosta-Martínez  stated that variation in en- zyme activities could not be explained simply by soil type due to the narrow range of soil textures in peatland soil. The nutrient requirements of soil microbiota are dependent not only on the microbial community but also on the physical and chemical environment surrounding their habitats. Studies such as this are therefore impor- tant in generating baseline information on enzyme activities in converted tropical peatlands in addition to as- sessing the effects of peatland conversion.
Our methods are summarized as follows. First, to delimit the study area, a map of original peatswampforest extent was made based on soil and vegetation maps. Second, 268 Landsat images and 24 tiles for the GeoCover products covering the study area in Sundaland were classified for four time stamps circa 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Third, contemporaneous classified images were composited to yield regional peatswampforest cover maps for each time stamp. Fourth, an independent reference dataset was compiled, and the accuracy and coverage of the regional composite mosaic maps were assessed against it. To study the effect of compositing on the reduction of missing-data areas due to cloud/shadow and the SLC-Off issue separately, the percent decline in missing-data area was measured for three scenes of the 2010 mosaic. These scenes were selected based on similar proportion of study area per scene and to be from the same general region of the study area. To compare the minimum patch size observed using our Landsat mosaics and a comparable MODIS mosaic, we extracted patches of primary peatswamp cover from our 2000 Landsat mosaic and the 2000 MODIS mosaic of Miettinen et al.  and compare their patch-size frequency distributions.
Larger material such as isolated roots, large fibre and stones were removed from peat soil. The moisture content of peat was reduced till the formation process can be conducted easily. In this study, repetition process has been performed to obtain the suitable method and moisture content that can be used to mix peat with the polymer. The reduction of 10% of its original moisture content were considered as the minimum amount of moisture that able to form the soil sample. The sample was dried in the oven (105°C) and also at the room temperature (29 °C). The time taken to reduce the moisture content until the suitable value was recorded. It is important to know the length of time taken to reduce the moisture content since this is a part of method of sample formation that needs to be repeated. All samples were prepared in a good condition without any peat was peeled off on surface or remained on the mould.
content of the green waste compost. The highest humus stability (Q) and humus stability coefficient (K) values (Q = 4.4–7.1, K = 0.099–0.161) were found for compost (Table 1). According to Hargitai (1989) the high Q value indicates that the examined medium is humificated and its humus compounds have a stable structure. Among peats, the low-moor peat was more humificated than the mixture of low- moor and high-moor peat; the higher Q (0.9–1.1) and K (0.015–0.016) values were determined in this medium (Table 1). The more humificated a medium
b. Subsurface erosion must have aggravated the subsidence of the peat and occupation layers within farmsteads surviving above the erosive zone. After retraction of the waler these layers slowly sank down and tilted as coherent levels in some places. However the tilting can Only bc partially the result of this process, as witnessed by MD site 16.10 and site Q for example. In othcr parts within a building the floors lost their coherence and were broken up into chunks and pieces. Moreover the washing down of ash and dung to the deepest levels, which was noted often, is probably also a post-depositional feature. Clearly the postdepositional processes alone cannot explain why the subsurface erosion always resulted in 'faults' along longitudinal axis, always more or less the same way and the same place. This must be duc to already existing conditions, that is to previously formed differences in subsidence and density of the occupation layers within the farmstcad. These conditions detennined the specific influence of post depositional processes on the occupational remains.