Pedestrian Injuries

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Economic Cost of Pedestrian Injuries in Stockholm City

Economic Cost of Pedestrian Injuries in Stockholm City

The cost for the severely injured pedestrians was 9.2 million SEK during 2008 and the cost for minor injuries was 1.6 million SEK. Earlier calculations due to these types of injuries are not available, and costs from the MSB report [4] [5] on traffic accidents could affect the reliability of this study. Except for the material damage cost, data and statistics from STRADA and PAR matched the criteria for severely and minimally injured persons in the traffic accidents MSB report. Material damage costs were excluded from the cost analysis due to lack of data for pedestrians. The cost for injuries presented in this study is therefore smaller than the actual COI for pe- destrian injuries at zebra crossings. Material damage costs are generally low for pedestrian injuries; the crash between the vehicle and the pedestrian does not damage a great deal of material. Intangible costs were also ex- cluded in this study due to lack of data. Intangible costs are often the greatest burden during RTI; hence, the burden of injuries might be underestimated in this study. Reports and studies regarding the cost of pedestrian injuries in Sweden are limited; therefore, no comparison or validation of the presented cost could be performed. The cost for pedestrian injuries varies depending on what the cost analysis includes; this could limit the estima- tion of this study.

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Dynamic Modeling of Pedestrian Legform and Prediction of Pedestrian Injuries

Dynamic Modeling of Pedestrian Legform and Prediction of Pedestrian Injuries

Decreasing the death toll of pedestrians in traffic accidents is one of the most urgent tasks to be solved all over the world. This paper describes the predic- tion of pedestrian injuries for the TRL legform impactor using MATLAB. The TRL legform impactor consists of three parts: a femur, a tibia, and a ligament connecting them. The impactor was physically modelled with springs, dam- pers and two masses as a dynamic model. The impactor behaves in a transla- tional and rotational motion during the collision with a vehicle. The behavior of the impactor during the crash event was captured by a high speed camera and is regarded as the four-degree-of-freedom system in terms of translational and rotational motions. Pedestrian injuries are evaluated by three physical quantities indexes: the acceleration of the tibia, both the displacement and the bending angle between the femur and the tibia. The physical model for the impactor was expressed mathematically by differential equations. In the case of modelling, the ligament connecting both the femur and the tibia in partic- ular plays an important role. Shear forces were applied to the ligament in translational motions and the bending moments in rotational motion. Diffe- rential equations were expressed in the form of a state equation and an output equation by MATLAB. Numerical solutions were obtained by a block diagram with Simulink. As a result, it was found that the predicted injuries agree quite well with their experimented data in terms of acceleration, displacement, and the bending angle mentioned above.

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Challenges in studying statewide pedestrian injuries and drug involvement

Challenges in studying statewide pedestrian injuries and drug involvement

This study examines traffic injury surveillance in one state over time. Although efforts have been made on a national level to standardize traffic injury surveillance systems (Na- tional Highway Traffic Safety Administration n.d.), data and measurement challenges in California’s injury surveil- lance system may not be generalizable to other states. A substantial proportion of drivers who hit pedestrians were not included in this study because they fled the scene of the crash before police investigation could take place. It is possible these drivers were more likely to be intoxicated and left the scene as a result. Consequently, missing data for drug and alcohol involvement among drivers may be overestimated. Likewise, pedestrians who were injured but did not summon the police may not be present in these data. Previous studies have shown that Blacks, men, and pedestrians with less severe injuries may be underrepre- sented in police reports because of the reluctance on the part of some to involve police when they have not been called to the scene of a crash (paramedics in California are not required to report pedestrian injuries to police) (Scior- tino et al. 2005). We did not have access to medical reports for the pedestrians included in this study as these records are not publicly available. While it is possible these records would have included more complete drug and alcohol screening results, drug and alcohol screening in trauma care is not routine and may be biased based on patient ’ s age, sex, or race when conducted at all (Dultz and Frangos 2013; Yuma-Guerrero et al. 2012).

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Vehicle pedestrian collisions: Validated models for pedestrian Impact and Projection

Vehicle pedestrian collisions: Validated models for pedestrian Impact and Projection

Abstract: The most important factor in pedestrian injuries from vehicle collisions is the impact velocity. In cases where the impact configuration can be ascertained, the most common method now used to determine vehicle speed involves the pedestrian projection distance. The more traditional method of using tyre brake marks is losing applicability as ABS braking systems become more common. The two most common impact configurations are wrap projection and forward projection, these being determined by the vehicle/pedestrian geometry and the initial conditions of the impact. In this paper, two models are presented for pedestrian forward and wrap projection impacts. These models are predicated on separating the total projection distance into the individual projection distances occurring during three principal phases of the collision. The models are novel as they use a rigid single-segment body representation of the pedestrian, include explicit modelling of the impact phase, and also allow for uncertainty in the input parameters. Published data are used to provide distributions for the input variables such as pedestrian and vehicle masses, etc. The model predictions of impact speed from overall projection distance are validated by comparison with real-world accident data.

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Global Incidence and Mortality Patterns and Forecast of Pedestrian Road Traffic Injuries by Socio-Demographic Index Findings from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2017 Study

Global Incidence and Mortality Patterns and Forecast of Pedestrian Road Traffic Injuries by Socio-Demographic Index Findings from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2017 Study

Abstract: (1) Background: Pedestrian injuries (PIs) represent a significant proportion of road traffic injuries. We aimed at investigating the incidence and mortality of PIs in different age groups and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) categories between 1990 and 2017. (2) Method: Estimates of age- standardized incidence and mortality along with trends of PIs by SDI levels were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease from 1990 to 2017. We also calculated forecasts until 2040. (3) Results: Globally, PIs incidence increased by 3.31% (–9.94 to 16.56) in 2017 compared to 1990. Men have higher incidence of PIs than women. Forecasted incidence was 132.02 (127.37 to 136.66) per 100,000 population in 2020, 101.52 (65.99 to 137.05) in 2030 and reduced further to 71.02 (10.62 to 152.65) by 2040. Globally across all SDI categories, there was a decreasing trend in mortality due to PIs with the global estimated percentage reduction of 37.12% (–45.19 to –29.04). (4) Conclusions: The results show that PIs are still a burden for all SDI categories despite some variation. Although incidence and mortality are expected to decrease globally, some SDI categories may require particular attention in addition to specific vulnerable age groups. Further studies addressing incidence and mortality patterns in vulnerable SDI categories are needed.

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The Pediatrician’s Role and Responsibility in Educating Parents About Environmental Risks

The Pediatrician’s Role and Responsibility in Educating Parents About Environmental Risks

Injuries remain the leading cause of death in this age group. In fact, more school-aged children die from injuries than from all other diseases combined. 1. Pedestrian injuries. Pedestrian injuries remain the most common cause of death from trauma for children aged 5 to 9 in the United States. Help children to understand the following street- smart rules. Most parents consider a child this age to be able to cross the street without super- vision, which is a mistake with some children in this age group. Children this age need constant reminders of the safety procedures to follow when crossing a street. It may not be safe to cross when the light is green. Drivers may not see you and may not stop. Impulsive children or those who are taking some psychopharmacologic med- ications may need supervision when crossing the street.

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Timing and effect of a safe routes to school program on child pedestrian injury risk during school travel hours: Bayesian changepoint and difference-in-differences analysis

Timing and effect of a safe routes to school program on child pedestrian injury risk during school travel hours: Bayesian changepoint and difference-in-differences analysis

New York State received $31 million dollars from the 2005 SAFETEA SRTS federal budget allocation of which $10,298,000 was allocated to New York City (National Center for Safe Routes to School 2013). As part of this funding, the New York City Department of Transportation introduced safety improvements at 124 schools with the highest injury rates. The work included traffic calming measures like narrowing roads, new traffic and pedestrian signals, the addition of timed crossings that allow pedes- trians to cross before cars, speed bumps, speed boards (radar-equipped digital signs that tell drivers how fast they are moving), high visibility crosswalks and new parking regulations. These changes reduce pedestrian injuries by slowing traffic, ceding rights to pedestrians, and providing disincentives for driving. As of 2009, the New York City Department of Transportation reported that “100% of the short-term safety improvements … are complete”, and that additional longer term capital improvements had advanced far enough for the department of trans- portation to propose expanding the program to an add- itional group of approximately 100 schools (New York City Department of Transportation 2012).

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Pediatric emergency department visits for pedestrian and bicyclist injuries in the US

Pediatric emergency department visits for pedestrian and bicyclist injuries in the US

traumatic brain injury (TBI) was a strong, statistically significant predictor of in-hospital mortality in children hit by motor vehicles. In particular, pedestrian injuries in children and adolescents involving TBI were more likely to be fatal than bicycle-related TBI. These findings were consistent with several international studies document- ing increased prevalence of severe TBI among pedes- trians compared to cyclists or motor vehicle occupants (Javouhey et al. 2006; Majdan et al. 2013; Leijdesdorff et al. 2014; Cheng et al. 2017); uniquely, our study assessed mortality risk among young US pedestrians and bicy- clists injured using a large, nationally representative source of ED records. The reasons for increased fatality risk among pedestrians with TBI is likely multi-faceted and future research may be able to shed light into these mechanisms. We speculate that increased severity of TBI in pedestrians may be an important explanatory fac- tor, likely associated with the nature of crash impact and/or the protective effect of helmet use among bicy- clists (Forsse et al. 2015; Macpherson and Spinks 2007).

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Spatial analysis of the association of alcohol outlets and alcohol-related pedestrian/bicyclist injuries in New York City

Spatial analysis of the association of alcohol outlets and alcohol-related pedestrian/bicyclist injuries in New York City

injured by motor vehicles had used alcohol as measured by emergency deparment blood alcohol testing (Dultz et al. 2013). Despite these individual-level associations, stud- ies have found that proximity to bars is unrelated to alco- hol consumption (Bernstein et al. 2007) and negatively associated with drinking and driving (Gruenewald et al. 2002). In this latter study, while bar density was not asso- ciated with drinking and driving, restaurant density was. A follow up study by the same group using similar methods later found bar densities to be positively associated with drinking and driving (Ponicki et al. 2013). Inconsistency in the observed relationship between alcohol outlets and both proximal and distal consequences may derive partially from differences in modeling proximity to alcohol outlets or the pedestrian population at risk. Bayesian hierarchical spatial regression models offer a natural modeling strategy to explore spatio-temporal differences in risk, and have been explored extensively to relate presence of alcohol out- lets to prevalence of violent crime (Toomey et al. 2012; Yu 2008; Sparks 2011). To our knowledge, they have not pre- viously been applied to investigate the relationship between alcohol outlets and pedestrian/bicyclist injury risk.

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Study on Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour at Intersections

Study on Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour at Intersections

conditions, road conditions, walking environmental surroundings and intersection was considered. Pedestrian characteristics like age, gender and that of carrying baggage or luggage and their respective crossing patterns was examined. Considering the safety margins and gaps accepted by pedestrian in traffic stream pedestrian safety was also analyzed. It was observed that males and children have higher crossing speed. Approximately one out of five pedestrians has the safety margins of 0 second. Pedestrian waiting time analysis can be used to decide the need of pedestrian facility in that area

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Pedestrian Tracking under Dense Crowd

Pedestrian Tracking under Dense Crowd

In densely populated scenes, pedestrian tracking algorithms are faced with severe mutual occlusion between pedestrians. The problem of pedestrian detection is similar to that of pedestrian tracking, illumination change and environmental impact. The FHH-PF pedestrian tracking algorithm is mainly divided into two parts. One is to add HOG and HSV histogram features to the particle filter framework to complete the particle tracking. Another part is the processing flow for the short lost target. The transient loss of the target refers to the situation that the target meets the occlusion, the state (speed, position) mutation, the target departure from the video frame and so on. Otherwise, the target should be dealt with, otherwise the tracking effect of the algorithm is not reliable. The following two parts of the algorithm flow detailed description.

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Environmental, Human and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Pedestrian Injury and Death in Las Vegas, NC

Environmental, Human and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Pedestrian Injury and Death in Las Vegas, NC

Pedestrian crashes are a barrier to physical activity and efforts to reduce them should be undertaken. Based on the Social Cognitive Theory, reducing pedestrian crashes may help to promote walking both for pleasure or utilitarian purposes. Significant predictors of pedestrian crashes were median household income, percent Hispanic population, population density and median age. Additionally, more pedestrian crashes occurred during the day when alcohol and drugs were not suspected. These data could be utilized to develop educational or outreach efforts to increase driver and pedestrian knowledge of pedestrian safety issues. More ecological research is needed in areas of high pedestrian crashes to understand specific conditions in the built environment that might contribute to crashes. By identifying ‘hot spot’ areas within a community, further research can be conducted to ascertain issues that contribute to pedestrian injury/death. Resolution of issues could positively impact physical activity and walkability in a metropolitan area.

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Study on Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour at Intersections

Study on Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour at Intersections

conditions, road conditions, walking environmental surroundings and intersection was considered. Pedestrian characteristics like age, gender and that of carrying baggage or luggage and their respective crossing patterns was examined. Considering the safety margins and gaps accepted by pedestrian in traffic stream pedestrian safety was also analyzed. It was observed that males and children have higher crossing speed. Approximately one out of five pedestrians has the safety margins of 0 second. Pedestrian waiting time analysis can be used to decide the need of pedestrian facility in that area

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NonOperative Management of Blunt Solid Abdominal Organ Injury in Calabar, Nigeria

NonOperative Management of Blunt Solid Abdominal Organ Injury in Calabar, Nigeria

Table 1 shows the mechanism of injury, road traffic accident (RTA) in 17(89%) patients while 2(11%) pati- ents suffered injury from sports (football). Of the RTA, 4 were motor vehicle (MV) related and 13 motorcycle (MC). The spleen was the commonest solid organ injured 12(60%), Figure 1, others were, liver 6(30%), and renal contusion (With evidence of retroperitoneal haematoma), 2(10%). A patient (MV–occupant) suffered multiple or- gan injury (liver/spleen), while 3 patients (MC/pedestrian) suffered splenic injuries associated with fractured left femur, Table 1. The mean injury severity score (ISS)

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Pedestrian utilization; enhancing from existing : a study case of pantai Chenang, Langkawi and Melaka Historical City, Melaka

Pedestrian utilization; enhancing from existing : a study case of pantai Chenang, Langkawi and Melaka Historical City, Melaka

For example, “based on a public opinion survey conducted by the Public Callout, Greater KL / KV, Kuala Lumpur is not a pedestrian-friendly city. Currently it has inefficient designs, poor maintenance and poor accessibility. Locals and tourists hardly find the physical connection between buildings. Furthermore, the physical connections are normally bad and they lack in pedestrians’ access for the disabled and the elderly. For the purpose of enhancing the network of existing pedestrians’ walkways, DBKL has planned to build more pedestrians’ walkways network throughout the City of Kuala Lumpur, totalling 45 kilometres in distance. Overall financial requirements are estimated at RM105 million from 2011 to 2020”. (Chapter 5; The Economic Transformation Program, A Roadmap For Malaysia, 2010). Therefore, in order to avoid unproductive efforts to continue, a study to select the best pedestrians’ network should be implemented to identify specific sites.

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EFFECT OF PEDESTRIANS UN-SIGNALIZED MID-BLOCK CROSSING ON VEHICULAR SPEED

EFFECT OF PEDESTRIANS UN-SIGNALIZED MID-BLOCK CROSSING ON VEHICULAR SPEED

and vehicular flow characteristics (speed, vehicular flow etc.) at un-protected mid- block locations due to non-complaint road crossing behaviour of pedestrian. Improper modeling and designing of pedestrian facilities have adverse effects on vehicular flow characteristics and safety of pedestrian. Also the type of regulation (signalized or partial controlled) and road geometry play a key role in vehicular flow characteristics (Brumfield et al., 2013). Ottomanelli et al. (2012) has developed pedestrian vehicle interaction simulation based model and it is useful to evaluate the pedestrian safety as well as performance of the vehicular flow. In the urban transportation system at some locations (school zone and residential areas) the effect of vehicular traffic is reduced by implementing raised pedestrian crosswalks. Some research studies were carried on effect of raised pedestrian crosswalks on urban vehicular traffic speed (Mohammadipour et al., 2012). However, the improper mid- block crosswalk location was deliberates the pedestrian crossing behaviour. Moreover this crossing behaviour leaves a deleterious impact on traffic stream. Few research studies address the effect of pedestrian

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Channelizing Traffic Flow by Reducing Delay at Intersection                 

Channelizing Traffic Flow by Reducing Delay at Intersection                 

Traffic signals are utilized to assign vehicular and pedestrian right of way they are utilized to advance the deliberate development of vehicular and pedestrian traffic and to anticipate excessive delay to traffic signals ought not to be introduced unless one of the warrant determined by the manual on uniform traffic control devices (MUTCD) has been fulfilled the fulfillment of a warrant is not in itself legitimization for a signal A traffic design investigation must be lead to decide if the traffic signal ought to be introduced the establishment of traffic signals requires sound designing judgment, and must adjust the following, sometimes clashing, and goals:

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Assessment of pedestrian movement scenario and strategies to improve pedestrian movement in mysore city

Assessment of pedestrian movement scenario and strategies to improve pedestrian movement in mysore city

Pedestrian zone: Happy and healthy living in towns is related to the extent that town’s open green space system is enough for the requirements. Today, pedestrian zones have been achieved to increase rapidly disappearing open space and to provide comfortable and safe circulation for pedestrians. A pedestrian zone is simply an area where vehicles are restricted and reserved for pedestrians who are free to occupy the entire space. The zone entrances and exits are often designated with signage to make all users of the road aware when they are entering or exiting such an area.

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Enhancing the walking experience of skywalk system as a public space in high densitycity of Hong Kong

Enhancing the walking experience of skywalk system as a public space in high densitycity of Hong Kong

Pedestrian safety is considered as a serious traffic safety problem in the nationwide and is not confined to urban areas only. Every year many pedestrians are injured or killed in traffic accidents in rural parts of the country. As an example, Ivan, Garder, and Zajac (2001) studied pedestrian related accidents in rural areas of New England, USA. The authors researched the safety of pedestrian crossings in rural areas to discover and confirm factors that help explain high rates of motor vehicle–pedestrian collisions at pedestrian crossings. The following environmental and exposure factors are considered for the traffic safety: population density, type of pedestrian crossing, traffic control used at the crossing, surrounding land use type, highway facility type, vehicle travel speed, vehicle volume and pedestrian volume.

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Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour at Suchitra Junction on NH-44 Using Discrete & Continuous Model

Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour at Suchitra Junction on NH-44 Using Discrete & Continuous Model

Few studies have also explored the importance of the pedestrian speed at different locations (Knoblauch et al., 1996; Rastogi et al., 2011), such as the zebra crossing location (Varhelyi, 1998) and signalized intersections (Tarawneh, 2001). Outline of these studies suggest that males walk significantly faster than females while crossing the roads. A recent study was focused on legal versus illegal pedestrian road crossing behavior at mid-block location in China (Cherry et al., 2012). Few studies have identified pedestrian behavior in mixed traffic streets and developed a micro-simulation model in order to find out the fundamental characteristics as well as the conflicts of the pedestrian movement (Shahin, 2006).

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