In general, to create conducive surroundings that help and stimulate learning, teaching, innovation, and studies, especially university buildings, it requires good maintenance. The main objective of the maintenance is to ensure continuous performance in the building throughout its design life cycle. Maintenance works will affect the building user’s satisfaction especially the university users which are students, staff, and public. Poor maintenance works will result in unsatisfied and uncomfortable for the occupants and users. British Standard BS 3811 (1964) defined maintenance as a combination of any actions carried out to retain an item in or restore it to an acceptable condition or standard. However, Rani et al., (2015) pointed out, British Standard BS 3811 has upgraded the definition of maintenance in 1993 to a combination of all technical and administrative actions, including supervision actions, intended to retain an item in, or restore it to a state in which it can perform a required function. Maintenance includes safekeeping the workplace, structure, equipment, machine, furniture, and facilities in good repair and operates efficiently and adequately. The maintenance contains a lot of obligations together with repairs, replacements, servicing, inspections, and testing.
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maintenance effectiveness . It is not the big investments and changes which are secret to TPM, which have transformed the workplace at the Japanese firms, but the encouragement of production workers who fix many small defects and do minor changes . When implemented fully, Autonomous Maintenance could dramatically improve productivity, quality and reduce costs. Autonomous Maintenance is an approach to eliminate/reduce losses in the plant (time & cost) and equipment management that involves all employees (officers, supervisors & operators) from production, maintenance and administration departments . When Autonomous Maintenance is implemented together with Reliability Centred Maintenance, a comprehensive data base of maintenance requirements, skills required, and stocks that should be held is developed . Within Autonomous Maintenance, operators are taught frontline maintenance skills such as online monitoring also known as Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). CBM is a management philosophy that posits repair or replacement decisions on the current or future condition of assets ; it recognizes that change in condition and/or performance of an asset is the main reason for executing maintenance 
The avoidance of plant shutdowns is one of the highest priorities for plant operators and plant owners . Shutdowns are forced by abnormal situations, such as unexpected breakdowns due to aging or over-straining of the equipment . The performance of equipment depends on the maintenance activities on the entire equipment . Therefore, manufacturers provide excellent reliability and quality of their equipment at competitive prices . These actions are intended to minimize the occurrence of idle time. Idle time is the non-productive time of employees or machines, or both, due to work stoppage from any cause during which an employee is still paid . It is also called waiting time, allowed time, or downtime . Fail in performing good maintenance practices could result in degrading the overall performance of a company .
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Furthermore, building maintenance and building safety are closely related to each other. Maintenance of safety systems like fire services system and security system ensures the safety of occupants. However, unsatisfactory fire safety management and lack of maintenance of fire services system is one of the issues accounted in residential buildings . This would increase the risk of safety issue towards the buildings and occupants. Lai and Yik  claimed that the quality of maintenance management is critical to the operation of the building services and facilities. The performance of the services and facilities may affect the health, safety and enjoyment of the occupants. Yusof, Abdullah, Zubedy and Mohd Najib  confirmed that the maintenance works are vital to maintain the safety and health of residents.
With regards to plant availability, the study found a significant relationship between the old plant and the jubilee plant at the headworks. The finding confirms the assertions made by Robinson (1993), Simpson (2006), Atepor (2005a) and Clifton (1987) that plants must be made available to operate in an efficient manner at the required level of production and there must be no unscheduled stoppages. This difference in plant availability could be attributed to certain situational factors. For instance, data indicated that the jubilee plant experienced frequent power outages which forced the plant out of production for several hours as compared to the old plant. The reason could be the frequent interruption of power supply to the jubilee plant which can only operates on 33kVA power supply. This finding corresponds to the research conducted by (Davis, 2003; Mather, 2002c; Dunn, 1997) who submitted that every plant or equipment is unique and acts and behaves differently in different environments and that a piece of equipment cannot be compared with another equipment but can only be benchmarked against its own performance. For example at the old plant, the low lift pumps and the high lift pumps were available at 93.33% for production while 6.67% downtime was recorded for preventive maintenance and breakdown maintenance. This means that very little maintenance was undertaken and the danger is that major plant failure could occur due to lack of maintenance. For the jubilee plant at the same period, the low lift pumps and the high lift pumps were operated at 77.50% plant availability while 22.50% downtime was recorded for maintenance outages. This also implies that planned maintenance was not practiced. This finding was inconsistent according to GWCL benchmark of 90%, which
Thus, the aspect of cost or expenditure for building maintenance is mostly used in measuring the performance of buildings. Commonly, maintenance performance is calculated using variance of actual expenditure and planned cost for building maintenance activities (Ali, 2009). Comparison between actual and planned cost is made to identify the level of maintenance performance. For instance, maintenance performance of a building system is deemed below expectation when the actual spending for maintenance tasks is more than the planned cost. In contrast, high performance level is achieved when the total expenditure is less than the planned cost for the maintenance works. Since the rising maintenance cost is one of the major issues concerned by the industry and public, the cost performance is concerned in this research.
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This research adopted case study approach that was adopted by Myeda et al. . Four high-rise office build- ings located in Kuala Lumpur were selected for the case study. In the previous customer satisfaction survey re- port towards maintenance management, the buildings obtained 80% or above of satisfactory feedback. Thus, they were deemed to have good maintenance performance. Then, study about the concern and commitment to- wards the maintenance characteristics by the maintenance management, was documented. The aim of the re- search design is to identify the maintenance characteristics and aspects that lead to good performance.
because it describes the failure, condition of unit and triggers of which kind of maintenance action (inspection, repair, and replacement) is needed . But before selecting any strategy of maintenance management should be clear about the objectives of maintenance which helps to measure the performance of maintenance in future. Maintenance strategies should be concerned with creating the appropriate plan for the plant and formulate the best maintenance schedule for the plant. The maintenance strategy can be categorized under corrective, preventive, and predictive maintenance, depending on the function of the equipment . Now the question highlights how to monitor or measure the performance of maintenance? Is the maintenance work is optimized? Is it cost effective? In general is that maintenance work providing required output? The answer to all of these questions lies in Maintenance Performance measurement (MPM). Previously,  divided all performance measurement system into three categories
The construction and validation of the MES was a necessary first step towards the development and validation of a structural model showing how the various factors captured by the survey interact to influence maintenance errors. Despite the proliferation of studies reporting new safety climate questionnaires, there are few studies in the safety literature that have taken the extra step of constructing models to illustrate the interactions among the psychological factors captured by the questionnaires. Using climate surveys in combination with the techniques of multivariate analysis, especially path analysis and structural equation modeling, it is possible to capture elements of the accident causation process and to test different models of how the components of the system work. These models can then be used to direct interventions aimed at improving safety performance in the maintenance environment. The rationale for the model to be tested in the present study is set out in the following paragraphs.
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Abstract. Currently, lack of preventive measure is the problem that implicates poor maintenance outcome. Scheduled maintenance is claimed as a maintenance strategy to tackle the problem. However, the effectiveness of scheduled maintenance can be greatly influenced by the length of predetermined maintenance interval. Thus, this paper aims to study the relationship between length of predetermined maintenance interval and maintenance performance. The literature review identifies the length of predetermined maintenance interval as an importance characteristic of scheduled maintenance strategy. A quantitative approach is adopted and carried out through questionnaire survey. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and correlation analysis are used to analyse the collected data. Then, research result demonstrates that the length of predetermined maintenance interval is significantly correlated to the maintenance performance. The length of predetermined maintenance interval must be considered in maintenance planning and execution. The research recommends continuous monitoring or regular inspection of building systems and components to identify their condition and update the length of predetermined maintenance interval regularly. Consequently, the effective maintenance execution helps to avoid systems failure occurs and optimises maintenance performance.
building a sustainable infrastructure system. It is evident that the government of a developing country has always given priority to construct new roads than maintaining existing ones. The construction project of building new roads seems to be more attractive than the maintenance of older one to draw the attention of general public. The scenario of Bangladesh which is a developing country of south Asia can help understanding the problem. The cur- rent research shows that bureaucracy among the various ministries and fund shortage for road maintenance pro- jects cause delays in allocating fund for road mainte- nance works in Bangladesh. When the roads become al- most unusable or majority of people criticize the gov- ernment’s effort towards road maintenance, government immediately manages to allocate some fund to stop the peoples’ outrage. However, the implementation of PBMC requires continuous government support towards this pri- vatization approach due to the long-term nature of the performance-based maintenance contracts.
Performance measurement is a fundamental principle of management. It is important because it identifies current performance gaps between current and desired performance and provides indication of progress towards closing the gaps. Carefully selected KPIs identify precisely where to take action to improve performance (Weber & Thomas, 2005). KPIs represent a set of measures focusing on those aspects of organizational performance that are the most critical for the current and future success of the organization (Parmenter, 2007). There is a difference between ‘leading performance indicators and lagging performance indicators. (See Figure 3.3). Leading indicators monitor if the tasks are being performed that will ‘lead’ to results. On the other hand, lagging indicators monitor whether the results or outcomes that have been achieved. Both leading and lagging indicators are therefore important for managing the performance of the maintenance function. Moreover, the leading indicators are even more important than lagging indicators because they have the potential to avoid unfavorable situations from occurring (Muchiri, 2010).
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As mentioned earlier, this study also investigated the extent to which a number of organisational, job and individual variables influence maintenance errors and other intermediate outcome variables, such as health and turnover. The variables comprising the “Dirty Dozen” (e.g., Taylor, 1997) were used as a starting point for an examination of the organisational and job elements that might impact on performance. Input variables for other outcomes indirectly related to performance have already been identified in the literature – for example safety (e.g., Shappell and Wiegmann, 1997) and job satisfaction (e.g., Bogg and Cooper, 1995). In addition, a decision was made to include a number of relevant individual aspects, especially the extent to which individual dispositions arising from personality characteristics influence performance.
Abstract: The main objective of this research is to identify the impact of shift and schedule related to stress that are reflected in line maintenance performance. It is also intended to emphasize more on the consequences towards the line maintenance personnel so they would be aware and take precaution steps. With the utilization of quantitative methods, 100 Malaysian Aircraft Maintenance Technicians (AMTs) from a major low- cost airline company were given a specifically-tailored questionnaire which investigates the impact of shift and schedule in their Line Maintenance Department. Based in Selangor, these maintenance personnel were from the 23-46 years of age and had a variety of weekly work schedule. The data has concluded that among them, several different health issues have been recorded because of irregular and/or extensive working hours. Other contributing factors included tough deadlines, low wages, work environment, and mismatch between personnel’s capabilities and organizational demands.
debt enforcement agencies, iQor and Eversheds, to actively seek collection of arrears on its behalf. It was anticipated that using debt collection agencies would recover some £113 million of outstanding maintenance arrears over the life of the Operational Improvement Plan. In total 63,500 cases had been referred to the collection agencies by March 2009, with a total value of £357 million. By September 2009 only £26 million (seven per cent of this debt) had been collected, with the collection agencies receiving £3.5 million for their work. This amounts to a cost of approximately £0.13 for every pound collected although this does not include the Commission’s costs associated with preparing cases prior to referral to debt collection agencies. The Commission have not been able to provide us with sufficient information to present a comparator for cost of collecting this equivalent debt in‑house. The Commission believes that if debt collection agencies are used in future, any business case must take into account all the costs involved and the agencies need to understand the differences between collecting child support debt and securing commercial debt.
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This research has been examined and focused on the essential of stable energy maintenance in mobile applications. The residual of this work is organized as follows: section II describes about the conventional methodologies with a detail survey with its technique and uses. It also identified the problem and declared the drawbacks. Finally, the article is summarized in section III.
The limited number of studies into supply chain management of ship maintenance prompted utilisation of an exploratory research method which enables better understanding and clarifies the concept of this research interest (Cooper & Schindler 2011, p. 143; Zikmund 2010, p. 55). Several scholars have used this method to undertake research in similar circumstances where there are limited sources of related knowledge available. For example, Arlbjørn, Freytag and de Haas (2011) used this method to investigate lean practices in service supply chain management, and Behzad, Moraga and Chen (2009) in exploring the bullwhip effect in a healthcare service supply chain. Other examples appear in the studies of Georgise, Thoben and Seifert (2012) in investigating the implementation of a supply-chain operation reference model in developing countries, Giannakis (2011) in exploring the management of service supply and Prakash (2011) in exploring service quality in supply chains in the Indian automotive industry. The method enables the current research to explore the internal readiness of the shipping companies, the external relationship conditions and the supply chain service processes that are involved in adopting supply chain management as a strategic approach for ship maintenance (Kotzab et al. 2011).
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In order to validate the questionnaire results, building managers were interviewed at the third stage. In the interview sessions, the in- terviewees were required to answer the interview questions and to provide further explanation about the implementation of the main- tenance strategy. Thus, the building manager with more than five years’ experiences and expertise in office building maintenance was the minimum requirement as the interview respondent. The interview- ees were selected from the questionnaire respondents who fulfil the requirement. 76 respondents who met the requirement were identi- fied. However, only 15 of them agreed to participate in the interview session. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain fur- ther details and understandings about the significant characteristics of condition-based maintenance determined through the correlation analysis. For example, one of the interview questions was “Does the level of manager skill and knowledge significantly influence the cost performance? How does it influence the cost performance?” This type of interview allows the researcher to explore and uncover the respondents’ views in detail .
In scheduled maintenance, the quality of work provided by the maintenance labour directly influences the maintenance performance outcomes . This statement is confirmed by the analysis result. According to the correlation analysis results obtained as shown in Table 1, the skill and knowledge of maintenance labour is significantly correlated to the maintenance expenditure variance. In addition, the majority of respondents who participated in interview sessions confirmed that a skilled and knowledgeable technician is able to perform maintenance tasks with a minimum error. They further explained that this would avoid additional expenditures due to mistakes or errors in the conduct of maintenance activities. In fact, the labour without proper skill and knowledge is more likely to misjudge and misinterpret the condition or problem in the system. The repair and replacement works done by such labour might not be appropriate. As a result, further damage will occur and additional repair works will be required. Consequently, an additional maintenance cost will be incurred to realize the task, and the maintenance budget will be exceeded.
grit, yard or construction materials (C. O. Owuama, 2012). As reported by Rokade S.et.al. (2012) that water related damage to pavement can cause one or more of the following forms of deteriorations: a) reduction of base, sub base and sub grade strength, b) differential swelling in expansive sub-grade soils, c) stripping of asphalt in flexible pavements, d) frost heave and reduction of strength during frost melt, and e) movement of fine particles into base or sub base materials resulting in a reduction of the hydraulic conductivity considerably. The damage to the road can be reduced if the flow of water is controlled. Minor damages can easily be repaired as part of the regular maintenance provided to the road and its structures. If the flow of water is not properly managed, the deterioration of the road will be more serious and occur more rapidly. This will lead to higher maintenance demands and in the worst cases result in serious damage which may obstruct the traffic flow.
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