As I slipped through that computer course, I think possibly having ICT almost as a curriculum area, like a component of preservice teacher education, like how you have human development and all that for a semester. I think that should be compulsory for everyone in computer skills. For those who already have the skills, still have the initial test, but have a higher cut off point, like a 90% pass rate, so if you get 90% in this test, that’s fine. There may only be 10 very able students go through, while the rest still have to do a course. I know that’s, sort of, what is in place at the moment but that only went for—I don’t even know how long they went for! [Laughed] But it cannot have been that long. . . . I think if there was a course that showed everyone the different programs, when to use it and why and how and all that in different ICT areas. . . . And they also need like a unit standard for a NZQA sort of system like the other courses have, like say you get 6 credits for English, make something for ICT, so it’s a major component you have to get to pass the course. It would have helped me a lot for this year, because I would have known this stuff. I would have known more. (Interview 2)
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I also anticipated that several of the participants in the experimental group would develop evolution lesson ideas integrating situations of uncertainty. However, the experi- mental group participants failed to integrate situations of uncertainty concepts into their lesson ideas in a manner that resulted in detectable assimilation or comprehension of the content. This is reflective of the position of Gould (2002), who argued that there are significant levels of prior knowledge required for comprehending the relationship between uncertainty and evolution. The probable limited prior knowledge of situations of uncertainty of my participants may have constrained their ability to effectively integrate the content into their visions for teaching evolution. This is consistent with other research that reports that limited knowledge of stochastics impedes the ability to apply situations of uncertainty toward understanding and communicating about evolution (Garvin-Doxas and Klymkowsky 2008, Sadler 2005). Therefore, it is likely that a more intensive instructional intervention may be required to effect preservice teacher comprehension of the relationship between uncertainty and evolution, so they may effectively apply the concepts in their science curriculum and instruction.
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Another proactive measure that can improve student teacher experiences is to provide a welcoming environment for student teachers. Instituting basic orientation procedures would help student teachers more rapidly and efficiently integrate into the school community. This could be achieved by treating student teachers like members of the extended faculty within the building. Districts can support the transition into the school environment by providing each student teacher with an assigned parking space, access to the school network, a district email address, official school identification, and classroom keys. Administrators should ensure that student teachers are formally introduced as faculty to students, parents, staff and other faculty members. Mentor teachers and field supervisors can also support student teachers by clearly defining expectations for duties and responsibilities and establishing a timeline with benchmarks for performance. Furthermore, including student teachers as participants in all aspects of routine professional life such as faculty meetings and Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meetings for students with special needs, curricular planning, and social events helps student teachers become integrated as members of the community. Efforts to receive and support student teachers at the start of field service may translate into more rapid community integration, which supports positive teacher identity development. Additional Recommendations
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Tara had no hesitation at all expressing her thoughts about the children of Charity. When she was asked if there were any diversity or racial “ah-ha” moments Tara very quickly answered with a resounding no. What initially struck her more than anything else was the laid back nature and atmosphere of the fourth grade class that she observed. She stated, “I did see that the classroom setup was very laid back, it was not ‘I’m your teacher, I’m going to teach this—you’re going to sit there all day long and not talk and not do anything. ’” Tara thought for just another moment and went on to give further elaboration.
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144 context of a larger unit, and explained how or why they were doing things to the viewer. It is more feasible to consider the screencast investigation assignment as a mastery teaching statistics experience for those participants who did these things. If participants viewed the screencast investigation assignment as an experience in teaching statistics, it has more of a chance of impacting their PTE because mastery experiences should involve the actual activity being mastered, which in this case is teaching, not doing, statistics. Those who did not take on the teacher role very much took the role of an investigator doing a statistical exploration themselves. It was treated more of a documentation of their own investigation, with little or no reference or acknowledgement of the viewer; in that case, mathematics PSTs still had the opportunity to display pedagogical knowledge of how students should engage in a statistical investigation, by modeling it themselves. None of the participants from Institution B showed evidence of rehearsal or took on the teacher role. Contrast that to Institution A, where half of the participants did both of those things. The difference in results among the two institutions can be attributed to the way the task was presented to participants. At Institution A, there were specific written instructions given that indicated participants should rehearse their screencast investigation, include advanced features of the technology, use appropriate statistical language, and incorporate statistical habits of mind. In addition, there were informal oral instructions given to encourage participants to treat the screencast investigation as if they had a student who was absent and this was their way of filling in that student. At Institution B, participants had completed a written statistical
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Recently, few studies have focused on the intertextuality of voices in courses for preservice teachers. Bloome and Egan-Robertson (1993) focus on the characteristic of intertextuality in the voices of teachers and students and how they use intertextuality to deﬁ ne themselves and others, to form social groups and to identify and validate previous events as sources of knowledge. Though they concentrate on ﬁ rst grade students and on reading and writing, they do offer good examples of how intertextuality is constructed by speakers. Adelmann (2001) does offer insight into the voices of preservice teachers by identifying the polyphony of different voices used by them. He further extends on this by making a connection to the various listening repertory of the students. Downs (2000), Gutierrez et al. (1995), and Lewis & Ketter (2004) focus on the discursive relationships in the classroom. These studies focus on the interactions between the teacher and the students during various classroom experiences. Candela (1998) focuses on the discursive resources used by the teacher in order to exercise power in the classroom and how these resources are available for the students who may appropriate them in order to defend their position to the teacher. Little research has been done on the discussion sessions in preservice teacher courses. Discussions are a language interaction that offer much insight into the thoughts of students and is a valuable resource for information on language use among individuals as well as groups. In addition, Green and Johnson (2003) show how group work such as discussion sessions “produce higher participation and deeper discussion, which should positively affect learning” (148). I will focus on the dominant voices in a preservice teacher discussion session, where the teacher and the preservice teachers position themselves and voice these positions in various ways.
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Educating preservice teachers about resilience is one way of equipping individuals to manage their own work related stress. It is widely acknowledged that show that teaching is a stressful occupation and that teachers report high levels of work-related stress (Schonfeld, 2001; De Noble & McCormick, 2005; Parker & Martin, 2009). These noted studies cite stressors such as excessive workload, poor relationships with colleagues or students, and poor school climate as antecedents of occupational stress. These studies suggest occupational stress can impact the psychological, physical and behavioural wellbeing of individuals. Occupational stress contributes to high teacher attrition in the first few years of teaching (Berry, 2004; Ewing & Manuel, 2005). Conversely, low levels of occupational stress are correlated with teachers’ enhanced job satisfaction and reduced incidence of teacher burnout (DeNoble & McCormick, 2005; Grayson & Alvarez, 2008). The assumption is made that if preservice teachers have an awareness of stressors and ways of dealing with them, it may lead to a reduction of stress as a practicing teacher.
As it can be seen from the results, the knowledge that was substantially recruited by the PSTEs in the first two maps were KSC and OTS, being used in such association to justify their Curricular saliency (Rollnick et al., 2008),while KAs & TE were barely noticed. The similarities and differences found between them appear to be coherent with the nature of the documents used to elaborate it. As there is no unifying agreement on how to measure PCK (Borowski et al., 2011), we have employed an instrument that bestowed peer credibility, and that is used by several studies (Eames, Williams, Hume, & Lockley, 2011). The CoRe is an instrument designed to probe the complexity of PCK with all it’s components trying to capture the PCK by making subjects respond to eight questions about each of the main ideas of a chosen content (Loughran et al., 2001; Loughran et al., 2004; Garritz et al., 2013), being the most useful technique to capture and record directly teachers’ PCK (Kind, 2009). It follows that it can capture all aspects from PCK bringing light to the hidden intents and objectives of the actions developed in the classroom, differently than the PCK from the plan. It was made under the recency effect (Jabine, Straf, & Tanur, 1984) of two activities proposed by the teacher that require, from the PSTE, the formulation of a plan for the class they were to teach, meaning the PCK components shown are likely to be the ones requested in those tasks, and clarify the increase in KSU. This may indicate an influence of the teacher in the abilities expressed by the PSTE, as they spend time reflecting how they would express that knowledge in a real class. That hypothesis is strengthened by the map from the activities, which presents a heavy emphasis on KSC and OTS alongside with a strong relation between them and a lack of attention to KAs and KSU.
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The purpose of this investigation was to uncover characteristics in preservice teachers' reflections during the 30- hour required school observations in middle and high schools located in central Alabama. Both schools were located in an urban area and had a student population of at least 90% African-American receiving free and reduced lunch (at least 75%). Participants in the investigation consisted of 7 preservice teachers who were enrolled in a required professional education course during the Spring 2015 semester. All had been admitted to the teacher education program and were currently completing the 30-hour course requirement for secondary education majors. The preservice teachers majored in the three content areas: three (3) were English Language Arts Education; three (3) were Social Science Education; and one (1) was General Science Education. To carry out this investigation, the researcher accompanied the preservice teachers for each school visit, assigned classroom teachers and class rotations, designated starting and ending times, and initiated reflective feedback. The format of the 30-hour required field-based observation was that no more than four students entered a classroom at one time. The group arrived in the main office before the observations began to receive instructions and assignment “look-fors”. The course professor accompanied at least one group to engage in dialogue and identify elements during instruction. The professor pre-arranged classroom visits with the inservice teachers and school administrator. The teacher allowed the preservice teachers to observe (occasionally participate) instruction and the school administrator prepared a space in the school building for immediate discussion and reflective feedback.
The project utilised qualitative methodology to collect data. Preservice teachers involved in the SWIRL program undertook both focus group sessions and interviews. Interviews and focus group sessions provided the researchers with opportunities to delve into subjective viewpoints related to preservice teacher involvement in the SWIRL program. The richness that comes with qualitative feedback may not have otherwise been granted to the researchers if they had relied on surveys or questionnaires to document preservice teachers’ perceptions. Central to this work has been the development of professional relationships between all participants. Relational pedagogy underpins the philosophy and practice for SWIRL. This is the capacity to build trust in relationships across time and these great distances. The centrality of relationship in this research is fore grounded as the methodological deliberations are discussed. Through a Collaborative Practitioner Research (CPR) methodology (Chered- nichenko, Davies, Kruger & O’Rourke. 2001), participants are active in all stages of the re- search: from planning through data collection and data analysis, to the generation of findings. The methodology uses participatory action research approaches, as participation in the re- search is designed to reflexively inform participants and aid the development of their work. For the research methodology to be responsive to the oral tradition implicit in Indigenous culture, dialogue between the communities/participants and the researchers is viewed as a valid and necessary means of data collection. Action research and community-engaged re- search is a regular practice in educational research. CPR is based on accepted processes of action research (see, for example, Reason & Bradbury’s 2008 Sage Handbook of Action Research).
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Among all participants, but especially those who had completed the literacy methods course, another important factor behind the participants’ decision to exclude the literacy strategy involved the amount of time that would be required for its successful integration. One participant commented that, "actually implementing it during the time that we taught science seemed a little farfetched, just because they do that [reading/language arts] right after science... so it just didn't make a whole lot of sense." Additionally, some participants indicated that the inclusion of a literacy strategy into a science lesson might even be detrimental to the students' comprehension, as a result of poor timing. As stated by one preservice teacher, "I was scared that that [the literacy strategy] was going to take away from the actual science learning." Despite acknowledging that a literacy strategy could be used effectively if the timing is appropriate, one preservice teacher spoke to the potential for issues to arise from using science-related literacy strategies in close proximity to the students' actual reading/language arts instruction. "I just don't think that it would've been appropriate for the students. I think it might have confused them a little bit more to have thrown in an extra chart." The preservice teachers repeatedly expressed concerns about the potential for the literacy strategy to impinge upon their ability to address all necessary science content, as a result of, what was at least perceived as, forfeited time. "I was a little nervous with using the strategies because the class period just isn't very long and I was afraid that it would take up too much time..." Suggestions for addressing issues of timing put forth by preservice teachers included the idea that there should exist "a whole block of time to do literature and science," as this, "would make it ten times easier to incorporate these [literacy] strategies, because I felt like in the small science portion that we were given I don't know if there would've been time and it might have been confusing if you're teaching literature and science together."
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By teaching with technology in their field experiences student teachers were also able to see the value of integrating technology into the curriculum. For example, one preservice teacher had her students use the Internet to research the meaning of their names in a multicultural lesson. She reported that, “although our class is only able to go to the computer lab once a week, they are able to make connections and explore the world of information at their fingertips.” Another preservice teacher used a CD-ROM to provide students with clues as they attempted to identify a certain species of tree and its distinguishing characteristics. The information made available by the CD- ROM led students to the identification of the native oak. She reported, “the students gained a greater understanding of where and why the oaks are rapidly diminishing throughout California and many of the students used the information from the CD-ROM software to support their arguments.” Another example came from a preservice teacher who found that the use of a WebQuest in a social studies lesson provided her students with, “immediate access to information, which could not have been done without computers.” Finally, preservice teachers assisted K-12 students with whom they worked in meeting technology standards. The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) has developed technology standards for K-12 students referred to as National Educational Technology Standards (NETS). The methods by which student teachers gained technological expertise through the CTAP proficiencies supported them in helping their students meet the NETS standards. For example, using KidPix® in one of her lessons, a preservice teacher acknowledged the connection to the NETS by mentioning that “this program requires students to generate an image using the mouse and keyboard, as well as become familiar with the actions of saving, editing and copying.”
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The importance of rural experience in preservice teacher education, which is highlighted in the research literature related to R & R teaching, is acknowledged in the teacher preparation programs that include opportunities for experiences in rural settings, and specific courses of study that address the cultural and learning needs of R & R communities (Richards, 2012; Trinidad, Sharplin, Ledger, & Broadley, 2014). Inclusions of specific education topics or units of work that focus on teaching in R & R locations and issues of inequality, are regarded as worthwhile in both preparing teachers for the challenges of teaching in rural and/or remote locations and, possibly stimulating an interest in teaching in these settings (Delano-Oriaran, 2012; Green & Reid, 2004; McFarland & Lord, 2008; Reid et al., 2010; White & Kline, 2012). By way of example, one school of education at a university where teacher preparation is undertaken, developed a unit of work (based upon the information provided by AITSL) that includes ‘Foundations of Professional Practice’ which is concerned with ‘Knowing your Students’ (AITSL, 2011, p. 8). Furthermore, at this particular
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Lampert and Graziani (2009) have extended the work on approximations of practice by examining the structure of a teacher education program in Rome called Dilit that prepares preservice teachers to teach Italian using the “communicative approach.” The communicative approach is a teaching practice that focuses on the problems associated with students learning how to read, write, speak, and listen in a new language. The Dilit teacher education program uses a cycle of learning that parallels the work conducted on the Grossman et al. (2009) pedagogies of practice framework. The cycle consists of presentation and demonstration by teacher educator, co-planning of lesson activity, rehearsal of instructional activity, teaching in class, and then reflection. During the rehearsals, the teacher educator designs a very specific set of interactional actions that the preservice teacher rehearsed with the aim of routinizing aspects of the complex practice of attending to student ideas. In subsequent rehearsals, the instructional activities target other aspects of the communicative approach of learning the language. The preservice teachers teach two classes each day without a cooperating teacher, videotape their lessons, and then watch the videos of their own instruction that day with the teacher educators. Since the Dilit teacher educator program is situated in the school, the teacher educators are able to develop instructional activities for the preservice teachers that are regularly investigated, rehearsed, enacted and reflected upon.
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the iPod may not only be a flexible tool for teaching, learning, and self reflection, but also given its ubiquitous nature, it is timely to have a mean- ingful exploration of the array of preservice teacher program related experi- ences it may augment or enhance. Use of iPods will increase student access to existing resources for teaching and other course related materials. addi- tionally, it will provide an opportunity for preservice teachers to construct their own instructional materials using media related technologies for inte- gration into their teaching. Consequently, new technologies require teacher educators to rethink the pedagogical framework and its influence on preser- vice teachers as well as their future students.
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Of the eight positions originally identified by Morgan (1998), the first four have been incorporated into the model proposed here and are now defined in theoretical terms. Of the others, we now see „imaginary naive reader‟ as a strategy adopted in order to operationalise criteria rather than as a genuine position. „Teacher/pedagogue‟ can be seen as a more general or less refined position that can be recategorised as either teacher/advocate or teacher/adviser or may arise from a less „consistent‟ use of resources, for example, combining orientation towards the student with a focus on absences. The position of „interviewee‟ is alienated from the assessment discourse in that a teacher is engaging in a practice that is not an assessment practice. Some examples of teachers apparently positioned as „interested mathematicians‟ are similarly seen to be in alienated positions, while most are re-categorised as speaking with the voice of an unofficial discourse (either teacher/advocate or examiner, setting and using their own criteria, depending on their orientation).
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Play belongs in kindergarten classrooms. As evidenced through their survey responses and individual interviews, both BS and TC preservice teachers in this study believed that play belongs in the kindergarten classroom. Participants’ survey responses demonstrated that preservice teachers in this study believed that kindergarten teachers should provide a variety of materials that support children’s play, and that kindergarten teachers should provide extended periods of time for children to play both indoors and outdoors during the school day. This belief is supported in scholarly literature stating that children allowed to interact with materials in their environment construct their own knowledge about the world (Piaget, 1948). Playful learning promotes academic gains, (language and literacy, mathematics, and problem solving) as well as social development (Hirsh-Pasek, et al., 2009; Reed, et al., 2012; Singer, et al., 2006). Several researchers discuss the importance of outdoor play to children’s development in self-regulation of impulsivity, gross motor development, and social development (Carlson, 2012; Hirsh Pasek, et al., 2009; Rivkin, 2015; Singer, et al., 2006). Survey responses revealed that BS and TC believed that free play is an appropriate method of instruction for kindergarten. This finding is in agreement with Zigler & Bishop- Josef (2006), who say, “Through both forms of play [free play and teacher-directed play], children can learn vocabulary,
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preparatory school to university (Murphy and Elwood, 1998). Male preservice teachers, because of their overall gender socialisation as males, are likely to have some commonalities in the way they engage with a teacher education program. Following this social constructionist logic it could be considered that the reason men do less well than women is related to the way that many westernized societies currently delineate gender by categorising many human qualities as either male or female. While not subscribing to the following categorization of gender Francis and Skelton (2005) provide a guide for the following analysis as to how these qualities in western societies are currently split.
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In this theoretical research an impersonal style should be used the status of teacher research in science education, examine the advantages of science teacher research, and consider possibilities for the role of science teacher research. In literature teacher research or teacher action research was mentioned only briefly as a part of qualitative research or science teacher education. This lack of attention to science teacher research might reflect the relatively late entry of science teachers into the teacher research movement. Teacher research is an effective model for teacher learning and development. Teacher research can make valuable contributions to the knowledge base for science teaching. Teacher researchers step outside their own assumptions and preconceptions and maintain a healthy skepticism about their observations of themselves and their students. One semester action research project was implemented in observing teaching practice course at the preservice science teachers training at Faculty of Science Palacky University in Olomouc. Students during this semester observed science lessons in upper secondary schools. They analyzed pedagogical events that happened in the class. They also developed a research-base rational paper describing how they will teach science. During this semester students examined one aspect of this rationale in an action research project carried out in collaboration with the host teacher. Science teacher research can contribute to the development of prospective science teachers and the development of a knowledge base for science teaching and learning. This is a particularly interesting moment in time to examine the contributions and potentials of science teacher research. Key words: science education, preservice science teacher training, science teacher research, development of preservice science teachers, action research, preservice science teacher as a research.
“I didn’t ask him about that during but afterwards when I looked at it, I said, “Why did you draw five on top and on bottom?” and he said, “Well there were 54 so I drew 54 first” and then he said, “And then I realized that I needed to get to 100 so I was drawing…I was making partners on top to make sure they added up,” and then he realized that 50 and 50 was 100. So he said, “And I knew then that I needed less than 50 to make my problem true.” And he can count back and not many of my students can count back, especially with two-digit numbers. So that really surprised me.” The other preservice student teachers collectively discussed this student’s solution and collectively identified the level of sophistication of the strategy as a level 3. Kelli explained her reasoning, “I would think so. Since he could explain it. Looking at this I couldn’t really tell his work but he could explain it. I mean I think explaining it is the hardest part. And the fact that he knew he needed less than 50 because he already had over 50.” Kelli’s comment is focused on the mathematics and clearly illustrates her realization of the importance of
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