Probing Pocket Depth

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Evaluation of Gengigel

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Grade II furcation were done by clinical and radiographical methods and were randomly divided into Group A and Group B. The patients selected were subjected to assessment of Plaque index (Silness J and Loe H 1964) [35], Gingival Index (Loe H and Silness J 1963) [36] and Sulcus bleeding index (Muhlemann HR and Son S 1971) [37]. The probing pocket depth, RAL and gingival margin position were recorded using UNC-15 periodontal probe with the occlusal stent [2]. These measurements were assessed at baseline, three months and six months. After the completion of phase I therapy and the attainment of surgical manageability of the tissues, the selected sites in Group A were treated surgically by open flap debridement and placement of Gengigel ® with coronally positioning of flap. In
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Correlation between the state of periodontal tissues and selected risk factors for periodontitis and myocardial infarction

Correlation between the state of periodontal tissues and selected risk factors for periodontitis and myocardial infarction

Objectives. The aim of the study was an analysis of the correlation between the state of periodontal tis- sues and selected risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI) in patients after recent myocardial infarction. Material and methods. The study included 417 patients (92 women, 325 men) hospitalized due to re- cent MI. The inclusion criteria were MI history and age below 70 years. The state of periodontal tissues (plaque index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss, CPI index) and selected risk factors for periodontitis and CVD were recorded.

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JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH

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Background and Objective: Considering the hypothesis that generated a link between joint diseases and periodontitis many centuries back, and the renewed interest lately in association between periodontitis and specifically rheumatoid arthritis, this study was undertaken in an Indian population. A correlation was done between the degree of periodontal disease in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non rheumatoid arthritis (NRA). Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 202 subjects, who were divided into rheumatoid arthritis and non rheumatoid arthritis groups of 101 subjects each. The periodontal status was evaluated through an inclusion criteria by evaluating the probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding scores and plaque scores. The degree of periodontal disease was compared to the severity of rheumatoid arthritis. Results: There was no statistically significant prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in the RA and NRA groups. Interpretation and Conclusion: Thus, as per this study, RA is not a risk indicator for periodontal disease, as both these diseases were not associated significantly in the Indian population.
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PubMedCentral-PMC5055738.pdf

PubMedCentral-PMC5055738.pdf

we reviewed studies where periodontitis was classified by examiner- assessed measures of probing pocket depth (PD) and/or clinical attachment level (CAL) and also included studies of self-reported assessments of tooth loss. We justify the latter on two grounds: (a) by necessity, PD and CAL measurements are made on teeth that have not been lost due to disease, thereby underestimating the degree of periodontal disease experienced in a person’s lifetime and (b) PD and CAL measurements are “surrogate” clinical endpoints of periodonti- tis, whereas tooth loss is a “true” clinical endpoint of periodontitis. 10
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Comparitive evaluation of clinical and radiological parameters of intrabony defects treated with simvastatin loaded collagen membrane / collagen membrane alone: 12 months randomized controlled clinical study

Comparitive evaluation of clinical and radiological parameters of intrabony defects treated with simvastatin loaded collagen membrane / collagen membrane alone: 12 months randomized controlled clinical study

The present study was involved a comparative clinical and radiographic evaluation of regenerative osseous surgery with simvastatin loaded collagen membrane and collagen membrane alone in intrabony defects. The study population comprised of 10 patients and all the patients returned for maintenance visits. A total of 20 intrabony defects were treated and post-operative healing in the treated areas was satisfactory. The following clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, oral hygiene index- simplified, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Hard tissue evaluation was made by RVG.
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Comparison of salivary levels of Amylase and Mucin in Chronic Generalised Periodontitis patients before and after phase I Periodontal therapy

Comparison of salivary levels of Amylase and Mucin in Chronic Generalised Periodontitis patients before and after phase I Periodontal therapy

after periodontal treatment. 92 subjects were clinically examined and divided into 4 groups namely cli nically healthy, mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis according to the periodontal status, and the value of clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD). Unstimulated saliva was collected for 5 min. Later salivary proteins, amylase and mucin were determined by colorimetric methods. Results shown that the significant positive correlation was seen between salivary mucin, amylase, or protein and PPD or CAL before periodontal treatment, while flow rate decreased. After treatment, the imp rovement of clinical parameters was associated with decreased salivary mucin, amylase concentration, and output in moderate and severe group. and it was concluded that increased level of salivary mucin and amylase indicated that salivary glands respond to the disease by increasing the protective potential of saliva when in need and return to the normal rate of secretion after the resolution of the inflammatory process.
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Photodynamic Therapy as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Photodynamic Therapy as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

and microbiological effects of PDT in the treatment of residual pockets of 34 patients with chronic periodontitis subjected to supportive therapy. 34 subjects presenting at least four sites with residual pockets were randomly assigned to test – PDT (with 0.01% methylene blue and 660nm diode laser ) or control (sham procedure) group. The treatment was repeated 3, 6 and 9 months after the initial procedure. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BoP) and plaque index (PI) were measured before intervention and after 3, 6 and 12 months. Subgingival samples were collected at baseline, 7 days, 3, 6 and 12 months. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were quantified by RT-PCR. The results showed that all treatments resulted in significant clinical improvement in patients with residual periodontal pockets but did not find any additional significant benefit of PDT in terms of PPD, CAL, BOP and pathogens levels reduction and concluded that the PDT protocol used in this study is not superior to supragingival plaque control in persistent pockets.
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Nonsurgical periodontal treatment and prosthetic rehabilitation of a renal transplant patient with gingival enlargement: a case report with 2-year follow-up

Nonsurgical periodontal treatment and prosthetic rehabilitation of a renal transplant patient with gingival enlargement: a case report with 2-year follow-up

papillae, facial and also lingual gingivae were noted, es- pecially in the anterior segment (Fig. 1). The patient ’ s upper left and lower left molars were missing. Her anter- ior teeth were flaring and highly mobile with a diastema of approximately 2.5 mm between the maxillary central incisors. Upon examination, we noted full mouth deep probing pocket depth (up to 15 mm) and profound bleeding. A fistula with suppuration was observed over buccal gingiva of tooth 46 (lower right first molar). Peri- apical films revealed generalized horizontal bone loss with the supporting bone of less than one half or one third of the root length. Periradicular radiolucency with an angular bony defect extending beyond the apex was observed over the mesial root of tooth 46 (Fig. 2).
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Study on Periodontitis in Relation with Subgingival Calculus in Rajshahi Region, Bangladesh

Study on Periodontitis in Relation with Subgingival Calculus in Rajshahi Region, Bangladesh

The method used to diagnose periodontal disease in these studies was probing of the periodontal pockets following the protocol recommended by the WHO 4,5 . The study involved assessment of probing pocket depth not only in adults but also among children aged 14 years or more. Usually, assessment of PPD is not recommended under 15 years of age 4,5 . In addition, for young people up to the age of 19 years, all second molars (17, 27, 37 and 47) are excluded in the PPD assessment to avoid inclusion of eruption gingival crevices (pseudo pockets) as real pockets 4,5 . However, the first encounter of PPD 3–4 mm was in patients aged <18 years, where the prevalence was 2%, and PPD >6 mm >45 years of age 12.5%. The relatively high prevalence of PPD 4–6 mm found >45 years of age. The results show that the occurrence of periodontal pockets, for example, among adults aged >45 years was high in some populations, almost as high as four in five, while in the other populations it was as low as one in five . The differences in methodology in terms of partial versus full mouth examination and recording, together with some possible intra- and inter-examiner variability might have contributed to the variations in the present study. However, the amount of variation due to real differences in the different populations studied is not known and may be assumed to be minimal. Even where it was formerly thought that there was a big difference between industrialized and non- industrializes countries in the occurrence of periodontal disease, the understanding has changed, because the Global Oral Data Bank that used CPITN worldwide has revealed that the differences are not clear 19-21 . In addition, despite massive gingival inflammation and very poor oral hygiene, as also seen among the Kenyans,
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A Study to Assess and Correlate Osteoporosis and Periodontitis in Selected Population of Maharashtra

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Periodontal examination: The clinical parameters like plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded by junior researcher and the values were validated and confirmed by senior periodontist to minimize the observer bias. A disclosing agent (Alphaplac, DPI, Wallace Street, Mumbai) was used to disclose the plaque during the examination. Plaque index was measured using Turskey-Gilmore-Glickman Modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, 1970. An index for entire mouth was determined by dividing the total score by the number of surfaces examined, Score 0 or 1 is considered as low and score 2 or more was considered high [8].
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EFFECTIVE ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY OF PERIODONTITIS - AN OVERVIEW OF DENTAL/PERIODONTAL CHIP

EFFECTIVE ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY OF PERIODONTITIS - AN OVERVIEW OF DENTAL/PERIODONTAL CHIP

Chlorhexidine chip is a small biodegradable chip of hydrolyzed gelatin containing the antimicrobial chlorhexidine gluconate [37]. Clinical studies showed the adjunctive use of chlorhexidine in patients with chronic periodontitis reduces probing pocket depth and bleeding. The intent of the study was to assess the treatment periodontitis patient group including men and women received under the care of general dental practitioners over a period of one year. It was concluded that adjunctive chlorhexidine chip used in general practice for patients with periodontitis increases cost but reduces surgeries over one year. Potential economic impact of new periodontal chemotherapeutic, testing the hypothesis that its adjunctive use would result in reduced periodontal surgical needs [38]. Costs were assigned using general list fees and special list fees weighed by the percentage of the procedure performed by each group. Adjunctive use of the chlorhexidine chip could reduce periodontal surgical needs at significantly little or no additional cost.
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“Assessing the Change in Clinical Indices of the Chronic Periodontal Disease Before and After Surgical Treatment Implementing the Full Thickness Flap” by Al-Shaer, S, Al-Haffar, I, Khattab, R, Syria.

“Assessing the Change in Clinical Indices of the Chronic Periodontal Disease Before and After Surgical Treatment Implementing the Full Thickness Flap” by Al-Shaer, S, Al-Haffar, I, Khattab, R, Syria.

This article addresses the assessment of change in the indices of the periodontal ailment before and after the surgical treatment using a full thickness flap. Variations clutched to gingiva, which are a consequence of the periodontal diseases, are highlighted. Along with perceiving the response to treatment, this clinical study that aims at evaluating the indices associated to such cases of the frontal mandibular region. The study included 20 patients affected with a chronic periodontitis of mid-levelled nature to advanced phases. The average of whose ages holds the mean of 42.95 years. Indices have been recorded include: Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI) (Mühlemann & Son, 1971) also known as Bleeding upon Probing (BuP), Plaque Index (PI) (Silness-Löe, 1964), Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL), and Tooth Mobility(TM) (Miller, 1985). t-Test has been implemented to study the differences in numbers for these aforementioned indices before the treatment and after it in six month at the probability value (p- value) of p<0.05. In this study, the values of the five studied clinical periodontal indices decreased as can be summarized in the following: PI, SBI, PPD, and CAL have neighbored the statistically indicative value of p=0.00, which has recorded after six month with the probability value of p<0.05 in comparison of their counterparts before the practitioner’s interference. However, TM has decreased after treatment due to inflammatory recess in the periodontal tissues but this has not been indicative for the remaining group of teeth.
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Evaluation of Levels of Adiponectin and Resistin in Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Periodontal Health, Disease and After Treatment: A Clinico Biochemical Study

Evaluation of Levels of Adiponectin and Resistin in Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Periodontal Health, Disease and After Treatment: A Clinico Biochemical Study

Bhansali R et al., (2014) (15) reviewed that treatment of periodontitis was mainly directed towards elimination of pathogens in the subgingival biofilm. To achieve this non surgical periodontal therapy can be employed. Non surgical periodontal therapy has been proved to improve probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level in mild to moderate periodontitis. It can also change host response in the periodontal tissues. Mechanical therapy has both supragingival and subgingival scaling and debridement of the roots to remove plaque, calculus, endotoxins and other plaque retentive factors.
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Comparative evaluation of concentrated growth factor (cgf) and platelet rich fibrin (prf) in combination with dfdba and open flap debridement with prf for the furcation defects (grade ii and grade iii)

Comparative evaluation of concentrated growth factor (cgf) and platelet rich fibrin (prf) in combination with dfdba and open flap debridement with prf for the furcation defects (grade ii and grade iii)

That is, the graft material induces host undifferentiated mesenchymal cells to differentiate into osteoblasts with subsequent formation of new bone. Moreover, DFDBA also provides a scaffold for osteoconduction. DFDBAs have repeatedly demonstrated significant improvements in soft and hard tissue clinical parameters for the treatment of intraosseous periodontal defects. Recently, the use of growth factors in periodontal regeneration has shown promising results. Growth factors are a class of natural biologic mediators that regulate key cellular events in tissue regeneration including cell proliferation, chemotaxis, differentiation, and matrix synthesis via binding to specific cell surface receptors. 25 Platelet alpha (α) granules form an intracellular storage pool of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor β (including β-1 and β-2 -isomers), vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. A combination of PRF+CGF with DFDBA demonstrated better results in probing pocket depth reduction, reduction in depth of furcation depth and clinical attachment level gain as compared to open flap debridement with PRF in the treatment of periodontal furcation defects. In this study, Assessment of soft tissue findings revealed, after treatment, pocket depth was significantly decreased as compared to baseline values in both groups, but the difference was not significant in control group. The mean of periodontal probing depth (PD) for DFDBA+ PRF+CGF was 9.8 mm ± 1.83 at baseline and 4.4 mm ± 1.07 at 12 months, while in the open flap debridement group with PRF, mean of probing pocket depth (PD) was 9.7 mm ± 1.56 at baseline and 7.3 mm ± 1.89 at 12 months, showing statistically significant result in test group. Relative attachment level depicted 13.5 ± 2.22 at baseline and 7.5 ± 1.90 after 12 months, showed gain of 6.0 ±0.32 and in control group it showed 13.5 ± 2.22 at baseline and 10.0 ± 1.63 after 12 months, depicted gain of 3.5 ± 0.59. Reduction in furcation depth in test group as shown in table 3 is 4.22±0.01 and in control group it is 2.27±0.11.
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Comparison between rapid and slow palatal expansion: evaluation of selected periodontal indices

Comparison between rapid and slow palatal expansion: evaluation of selected periodontal indices

The probing pocket depth was measured in 3 vestibular sites (mesio-buccal, buccal and disto-buccal) and 3 palatal sites (mesio-palatal, palatal and disto-palatal), at the level of the first upper molars, left and right. An standard WHO clinical periodontal probe was used. To standardize the procedure, the probe was inserted until its tip en- countered the resistance of the junctional epithelium that forms the base of the sulcus. The pressure exerted with the probe tip against the junctional epithelium was

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Clinical Efficacy of Soft Tissue Diode Laser as an Adjunct to Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy

Clinical Efficacy of Soft Tissue Diode Laser as an Adjunct to Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy

and control group (0.508±0.054) from baseline to 6 months groups (p≤0.005). Probing pocket depth is still one of the most important clinical parameter for periodontal diagnosis and prognosis. Lang& Bragger (17) stated that increased probing depth and loss of clinical attachment are path gnomic of periodontitis and hence pocket probing is a crucial and mandatory procedure in diagnosing periodontitis and determining the success of periodontal therapy. This is in accordance with a study done by Kaldahl et al. (18) which reported a 1.23mm reduction in probing depth for sites with initial probing depths from 5.0-6.0mm at 3 months following scaling and root planing. A probing depth reduction of 2.18mm (1.66mm gain in clinical attachment) in sites ≥ 7.0mm was noted. Although sites in both the groups responded favorably to treatment, additional application of diode laser in test group resulted in higher improvement and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. This reduction in pocket probing depth at the test sites might be associated with the improvement in periodontal inflammation: because they experience less distress, patients may be able to brush more thoroughly and maintain good oral hygiene at these sites suggesting that the application of lasers as an adjunct to scaling and root planing may be helpful in reducing the periodontal disease as showed by Yukna et al. (19)
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Immediate Versus Delayed Loading of Implant for Replacement of Missing Mandibular First Molar: A Randomized Prospective Six Years Clinical Study

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After the placement of implant with adequate stability, in Group I (single piece implant with abutment); which were left in place undisturbed until the prosthetic procedure. All implants had internal hex with length ranging from 10 mm to 13 mm and diameter 3.3 mm to 4.5 mm. Incision was closed using 3-0 mersilk suture, recalled after seven days for suture removal. In Group-I, acrylic provisional crown prosthesis was given within 48 hours of implant placement [Table/Fig-6] and was replaced by metal-ceramic single crown prosthesis after three months. In Group II, second stage surgical procedure was performed after three months of implant insertion. The implant was exposed using a biopsy punch and the cover screw removed [Table/Fig-7] for placement of healing caps [Table/Fig-8]. Two weeks after healing abutment placement, implant was restored with metal-ceramic single crown [Table/Fig-9]. Patients were assessed for implant mobility, marginal bone level, peri-implant radiolucency, bleeding on probing and also probing depth at first and six months after loading and later at 12 th , 36 th and
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Atomic Scale AES EELS Analysis of Structure Phase State and Growth Mechanism of Layered Nanostructures

Atomic Scale AES EELS Analysis of Structure Phase State and Growth Mechanism of Layered Nanostructures

A review of our experience in range of electron spectroscopy of the physical vapor-phase deposi- tion and growth of single- and multilayer nanostructures with atomic scale interfaces is presented. The foundation of an innovative methodology for the combined AES-EELS analysis of layered na- nostructures is developed. The methodology includes: 1) determination of the composition, thickness, and the mechanism of phase transitions in nanocoatings under the probing depth most appropriated for the range of film thickness 1 - 10 ML; 2) quantitative iteration Auger-analysis of the composition, thickness and growth mechanism of nanocoating; 3) structural and phase analy- sis of nanocoatings with use of the analysis of position, shape and energy of the plasmon EELS peak and with subtracting the contribution from the substrate; 4) analysis of phase transitions with use of the shift of the plasmon Auger-satellite and 5) non-destructive profiling of the composition of nanocoatings over depth with use of a dependence of the intensity and energy of EELS peaks on the value of the primary electron energy.
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Effects of Initial Periodontal Treatment in Moderately Compensated and Decompensated Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Effects of Initial Periodontal Treatment in Moderately Compensated and Decompensated Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Collections were made in 4 sites with probing depth greater than 5 mm, on the buccal and lingual/palatal faces with absorbent paper points. With the area dried and the biofilm removed, they were inserted below the gingival margin by 30 seconds. The paper points were placed immediately in 0,2% alcoholic ninhydrin solution. Then, they were photographed and analyzed with a computer program (Image Pro Plus® Version 4.5.0.29, Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD, USA) for determining the amount of fluid absorbed in mm2 [15].

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Comparative Evaluation of Platelet-rich Fibrin with
Metformin and Platelet-rich Fibrin Alone in the
Treatment of Intrabony Periodontal Defects:
A Clinical and Radiographical Study

Comparative Evaluation of Platelet-rich Fibrin with Metformin and Platelet-rich Fibrin Alone in the Treatment of Intrabony Periodontal Defects: A Clinical and Radiographical Study

Results: Improvement in clinical parameters [plaque index, gingival index, probing depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL)] as well as in radiographic parameters (defect depth and defect volume) as compared with baseline in both the groups was observed, with group I exhibiting higher statistically signifi - cant values as compared with group II.

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