ABSTRACT: Industry 4.0 can be understood as the integration of the digitization to the industrial activity, that is, sensors and equipment connected in network, allowing the fusion between the real and virtual world (Cyber- physical Systems). This concept, called Industrie 4.0, was introduced in Germany, so that German industries were able to maintain leadership in the global equipment manufacturers market (integrating information and communication technologies) and also to become a leading supplier of smart manufacturing technologies. The main focus of Industrie 4.0 is on the shop floor of the manufacturing industry, however, the term Industry 4.0 or Digital Transformation is more embracing, being applied in the value chain and not only in the discrete process industries (manufacturing), but also in the continuous process industries. This Digital Transformation is being responsible for the 4th Industrial Revolution and has three pillars that integrated constitute a foundation within the industries, they are: Automation Systems, Information Systems and Cyber-physical Systems. Therefore, this term paper has as main objective to evaluate the automation level in the pulp and papermills in Brazil, as well as to analyze the knowledge and actions of these industries for Digital Transformation. The method used in this term paper consists of an exploratory bibliographical research on the Enabling Technologies of Industry 4.0 and a survey research through a questionnaire designed to obtain the level of automation, as well as the positioning of the pulp and paper sector in the use of the Enabling Technologies. Among the expected results, in addition to meeting the main objective proposed, there are answers to the problem that originated this research, that is: What is the Automation level and which are enabling technologies that can be used for Digital Transformation (4th Industrial Revolution) in the Brazilian pulp and papermills?
Abstract: Nigeria paper industry has not reached the optimum performance level expected of it by planners despite the huge money spent on the establishment of pulp and papermills in the country before it finally stop production in 1994 due to the high dependence on foreign inputs. This paper examines the problems militating against pulp and paper production in Nigeria and highlights the pathway for promoting optimal pulp and paper capacities locally. Commonly used tree species for pulp and paper production like Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea etc, are threatened due to high rate of deforestation and increasing demand of their wood for other economic purposes. Hence, none of the three primary pulp and papermills established in the country by government within 1960’s to 1970’s performed optimally except The Nigerian Paper Mill, Jebba in the 1980’s as pulp and paper importation reduced drastically as a result of high capacity utilization in the mills. In 1985 and 1986, capacity utilization in Nigerian Paper Mill was 62.3% in 1960’s and 66.17% in the 1960’s. In 1996, The Nigeria Newsprint Manufacturing Company (NNMC), Oku Iboku also stopped production leading to complete dependence on importation of paper and paper products. In 2006, the mills were privatized, and, currently more than 500 billion naira is expended on importation of paper products annually. The only and urgent remedy is to put in place machinery for massive sustainable wood production. Likewise, the use of indigenous wood species and agricultural residues should be encouraged for long fiber pulp production. Efforts should further be made for a stable power supply from national grid to ensure the sustainability of industrial growth most especially in the pulp and paper industries.
Pulp and papermills employ various raw materials and chemicals for processing and production. As a result, the above chemicals, in their varied forms, are present in the discharges emanated from these mills and contribute to the dissolved solids content. The organic dissolved compounds consist mainly of chlorinated compounds, which arise in the form of chlorinated resin acids like abietic and pimaric acids, etc. Organically bound halogens where the halogen is usually chlorine, imparts AOX (Adsorbable Organic Halides) in the effluent 10 . Besides the above chlorinated
The wood extractives from softwood species, which include resin acids, fatty acids and triglycerides, have useful properties making them valuable as natural products. Their water repellency, adhesive properties and biological activity make them useful in manufacturing, agriculture and medicine with broader applications expected to be developed in the future with a shift toward renewable resources. These wood extractives can be problematic in paper manufacture as they cause deposits on machinery and in the paper products, which requires higher levels of maintenance, limits water recycling, increases wastewater toxicity and can reduce product quality. Current methods for addressing these problems in thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) and papermills include treatment of wood to reduce extractives content prior to pulping, tighter control of processes to prevent formation of deposits, and the use of additives to fix extractives into the paper product. Recovery of the wood extractives from the process water in a reasonably pure form would provide new value-added products turning a once troublesome material into something of value for existing pulp and papermills.
for any pretreatment exist already in Kraft PulpMills (Figure 2), using chemistry, technology, and process equipment proven for more than a hundred years. When using acid, this approach has less value, but there are advantages to alkaline pretreatments that have been documented in the literature, not the least of which is avoidance of enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation inhibitors . Mildly acidic (greater than pH 3) processes, such as autohydrolysis with hardwood, can also be accomplished in mild steel equipment typical of pulp and papermills. Often understated is the value of having a complete chemical and energy recovery system built into the design of every kraft mill in the world. The real questions on this approach are: (A) carbohydrate preserva- tion – generally not as good as other pretreatments; and (B) applicability to a greenfield or co-located installation as opposed to repurposing. Carbohydrates are lost in alkaline pretreatments by the well know alkaline “peeling” reaction that results in loss of hemicelluloses .
Modern waste minimization approach is by two means. This first way is chemical recovery and recycling. This system especially in chemical pulping process significantly reduces pollutants and additionally economical return is another important aspect. Chemical recovery is necessary because of the basic economic viability of the Kraft process. According to EPA, all Kraft pulpmills worldwide use chemical recovery systems. Additionally, scrubber system particulate "baghouses" or electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are often mill air pollution control components. The second way to minimize waste production from pulp and papermills is the application of best available techniques (BAT) according to the Integrated Pollution, Prevention and Control (IPPC) Regulation. An effective waste minimization method reduces cost, liability, regulatory burdens of hazardous waste management. Furthermore, hazardous waste generation can be reduced by waste management methods including: -
The layout of Pulp and Papermills was excellent in its own class, and maintained a compatible flow of materials. Throughout the industry the processes were connected to prevent long distance transportation costs the plant had its pulping store. Overall the structure of Mill can be rated as comparatively good as compare to other similar plants. The building was made up of concrete and the roof-bearing walls were cemented and plastered. Therefore, few areas in the plant required maintenance and plastering of walls such as chemical storage area required particular attention. The structure was supported by iron pillars. Daylight openings were provided throughout the plant. Production hall was
of the lymphatic and haemopoietic tissue among the workers in the pulp and papermills. Regarding respiratory ailments, our results are in agreement with the results of a parallel study conducted by Glindmeyer et al. , who have reported that the workers exposed to such environments in pulp and paper industry have lower pulmonary function tests. Our results are presented in Table-1.
water used in the paper and pulpmills is discharged as effluent. The wastewater emanating from the pulp and papermills is rich in lignin, cellulose, organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, sulphite and bicarbonate (Rajannan and Oblisami 1979). These effluents are being used for irrigating various crops. The present investigation was therefore, carried out to study the effect of application of different levels of treated paper mill effluent on rice variety PB-1. The treated pulp and paper mill effluent has been classified in the irrigation water class of ‘increasing problem’ to ‘severe problem’ with respect to salinity and specific ion toxicity by Thawale et al. (1999). The effect was studied in terms of germination behavior and physiological response of rice var. PB-1.
Pulp & papermills have been recognized as a major source of GHG emissions in recent years. There are considerable efforts going on to determine cases on footprint of pulpmills with respect to GHG emission, energy usage, etc. In order to determine GHG from a mill an inventory has been designed by IPCC in which inventories of all GHG’s has to be calculated and appropriate global warming potential(GWP) of each gas has to be applied. This present study titled “Analysis & Control of emission from pulp & paper using GHG protocols” was attempted in direction and calculations for GHG emissions from different pulp & papermills situated in or near district Bijnor through IPCC guidelines 2006 have been done. Data of four months i.e. February, March, April, May have been collected from different papermills on a daily basis of gas production and calculation of GHGE using those data through earlier defined standard equations have been done. Also, comparative study in collected data and calculated data is done. On the basis of the results the following conclusions have been made: a) Significant quantities of GHG’s are produced from pulp &papermills. However, inaccuracy of these results can be ruled out because of lack of data, assumptions are made in the analysis, lack of monitoring etc.
Signiﬁcant innovations in paper-making accompanied the so-called Industrial Revolution in the UK from about 1760 CE onwards [11,14,15] accompanying, for example, the discovery of ways of bulk-producing acids and alkalis. Such developments came about from a fusion of empirical ‘rules of thumb’ with the basic sciences . The ﬁrst steam engine to drive a paper mill was installed at Wilmington near Hull in about 1786, and there were several steam-powered mills located in various parts of Britain by 1815 . Machines to make paper on an endless ‘ web ’ (similar to that patented by John Gamble in 1801) were built by the London inventor and engineer Bryan Donkin  in 1804 in order to replace the earlier batch type of process . Pulp was poured onto a moving web (belt or cylindrical drum) from which it was drawn out as a continuous sheet, and then dried on rollers . Var- iants of this design were installed by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier in papermills that continuously produced paper or board at Two Waters and Frogmore in Hertfordshire, and at St Neots in Huntingdonshire (see Fig. 4 ). Donkin subsequently developed a rotating type bed that came into practice in 1813 , and which further increased the speed of printing . A dramatic rise in the reading public in the latter half of the 19th Century led to a signiﬁcant increase in the consumption of paper, even before the excise duty was abolished in 1861 . The provision of the ﬁ rst municipal libraries in Britain around 1850 gen- erated interest in books and, after the newspaper tax was repealed (in 1855), the number of newspapers trebled in forty years . This de- mand could not be met from linen and cotton rags and straw, and Esparto grass from Spain and North Africa began to be imported . However, the real solution to this problem was the use of wood-pulp, which progressively replaced rags with cellulose ﬁ bre from coniferous trees [11,14]. The pulp was initially prepared by using grindstones immersed in water containing ready-cut logs. But this did not remove detrimental resin and other impurities, and from 1873 onwards che- mical wood-pulp was employed by boiling wood chips with soda or sulphite solutions. This provided most of the input material for the great rolls needed by the emergent newspaper industry .
Abstract- Paper mill industry has seen a lot of revolution since automation took place. Automation has led to reduced human efforts and also reduced costing of human labor, the advantage of automation is that controlled error techniques can be employed to remove any manufacturing error. Paper mill industry involves making paper from pulp then this processed sheet is passed through rollers in order to heat it and make it process-able for making paper , the sheet of papers are then cut according to the usage and application in which the paper shall be used. The proposed work presents an implementable technique for paper mill which will automate the process of papermills and reduce human efforts. If the speed of motor is not controlled it may lead to damage of the papers and eventually tearing down of whole manufactured batch hence there is a need to control the speed of motor and maintain it at accurate speed. Each stage in paper mill requires different speeds and ratings hence synchronization for the whole unit has to be done. Induction motors are the most efficient motors in terms of usage in manufacturing plants and mills. The paper mill uses induction motor and drives at various stages. The main motor runs at a constant speed and variation in its speed affects the quality of paper severely. The speed of motors cannot be monitored and maintained manually. Automation at this stage and synchronization of the whole unit is thus done using PLC. PLC is a automation technology used in electrical industry and it' is widely used due to its reliability and good control techniques.
In this work, the researchers use loads of 10 FPU g -1 for 48 hours. The production of ethanol from office paper was higher than the tests performed with recycled paper sludge raw material. Looking at the research developed by Dwiarti et al. (2012), where Trichoderma Reesei covers are used for cellulose conversion, the results showed a higher yield of ethanol production during the simultaneous SSFsaccharification process. In the work reported by Nishimura et al. (2016) for the production of ethanol from recycled paper, the pre-saccharification with Carboxymethyl cellulose enzyme was used, with reducing the simultaneous saccharification time (SSF) and avoiding bacterial contamination of the minimizing the need for high rates of enzymatic loading in the saccharification process with high yield (91.8%) of the ethanol production using recycled paper biomass.In the research developed by Boshoff et al. (2016) the objective was to reuse paper sludge as a raw material for the production of bioethanol. In this studypaper pulp samples from several papermills in South Africa were analyzed. The first result was the differences in chemical composition between pulps from corrugated recycle paper sludge and pulpmills, due to the water retention capacity and viscosity, significantly interfering with the characteristics of the ethanol produced. To determine these characteristics, the researchers classified the
The process of paper mill has to be analyzed in order to design an efficient system that monitors the speed and synchronizes the whole unit so as to manufacture good quality of paper. Figure 1 shows a paper mill unit which requires rollers. The paper is made out of wood logs or the agro-wastes which is converted into pulp by a set of machines. The pulp is processed into heating machines and then dried to form paper. The thickness of the paper is decided initially for pulp process control. The paper is then rolled on conveyor belt which is controlled by motor rotations. The set of rollers decide the paper quality and paper is drawn out as output. According to the size of paper required, the paper is cut into sets while rolling through the rollers. The quality control unit keeps the track of every batch being manufactured. All the above steps require monitoring of speed at each stage. PLC makes the whole process automated and keeps the track of speed at each stage. A human machine interface helps to produce the output readings for users and keep a track of the whole process.
A few laccases are at present in market for textile, food and other industries, and more candidates are being actively developed for future commercialization. A vast amount of industrial applications for laccases have been proposed and they include pulp and paper, textile, organic synthesis, environmental, food, pharmaceuticals and nanobiotechnology. Laccases are highly specific, energy-saving, and biodegradable therefore laccase-based biocatalysts fit well with the development of highly efficient, sustainable, and ecofriendly industries.
volatile organics, sulfur compounds, and other chemicals. The pulp and paper industry also generates more than 12 million tons per year of solid waste, consisting primarily of de-watered sludge. The standard treatment for these wastes in the past was to deposit them in landfills. Today they are more often being handled by incineration, conversion to useful products, and land application. Most solid waste from mills, such as sludge from deinking plants, is non-hazardous and requires no special handling.