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Knowledge on Radiation Protection & Practice among Dental Students

Knowledge on Radiation Protection & Practice among Dental Students

themselves. This philosophy of radiation protection is often referred to as the principle of ALARA (As low as reasonably achievable).The third principle is that of dose limitation. Dose limits are used for occupational and public exposures to ensure that no individuals are exposed to unacceptably high doses [1-5]. Radiation protection is the science and art of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It is also described as all activities directed towards minimizing radiation exposure of patients and personnel during x-ray exposure [2,6]. The amount of exposure received by a patient or operator from dental radiography depends on the film speed, exposure parameters of collimation, technique, and protecting barriers used [2,4]. This demands the operator to have detailed knowledge towards radiation hazards and its protection procedures. Previous literature documented insufficient knowledge among medical students, doctors, paramedics and dentists about their understanding of ionizing radiation or the use of equipment involved in the imaging [7,8]. Thus a need arises to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of dental imaging and appropriate radiographic protection among Indian dental students. In the present study, the clinical years 3 rd and4 th of BDS (Bachelor of dental surgery) students and the interns (house surgeons) were selected as they are more prone to radiation risks because of their little knowledge on radiation effects.
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In vivo study of nanoparticles as free radical scavengers for radiation protection

In vivo study of nanoparticles as free radical scavengers for radiation protection

dose. The administration of nanoparticles protected the skin cell against radiation-induced damages as revealed by histopathologcal examination of section of skin cell. When administered with nanoparticles at 1 hour prior to whole-body radiation exposure, skin cell were found protected from radiation-induced abnormalities in various cells.The present work will address the effectiveness of nanoparticles in radioprotection in animal models during radiation exposure which will encourage the development of innovative and new approaches to radiation protection, using nanotechnology.
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6 RADIATION DOSE, RADIATION PROTECTION AND THE IONISING RADIATIONS REGULATIONS

6 RADIATION DOSE, RADIATION PROTECTION AND THE IONISING RADIATIONS REGULATIONS

If you are installing a new DXA scanner or replacing an older machine, it is important to inform your local Radiation Protection Adviser early in the planning process. Advice should be sought on where to site the scanner and the writing of local rules on radiation safety. Although very compact room designs are possible (Figure 3), these are not desirable unless the patient workload is very light. With the room layout shown in Figure 3, the operator is about 1 metre from the patient during scanning. As discussed above, with older pencil-beam models such as the Lunar DPX occupational doses were extremely low and a compact room design such as this was acceptable. With fan-beam systems, however, greater care is needed with room layout to ensure the safety of staff and rooms should be large enough to ensure that the operator’s console can be placed a least 2 metres from the patient. If this is not possible then it may be advisable with some DXA models to consider the installation of a lead-plastic radiation barrier to protect the operator.
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CHAPTER 11 RADIATION PROTECTION SECTION.0100 GENERAL PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 11 RADIATION PROTECTION SECTION.0100 GENERAL PROVISIONS

(b) If, upon receipt of such notice, the Director of the Division of Radiation Protection determines that the complaint meets the requirements set forth in Paragraph (a) of this Rule and that there are reasonable grounds to believe that the alleged violation exists or has occurred, he shall cause an inspection to be made as soon as practicable, to determine if such alleged violation exists or has occurred. Inspections pursuant to this Rule need not be limited to matters referred to in the complaint. (c) No licensee or registrant shall discharge or in any manner discriminate against any worker because such worker has filed any complaint or instituted or caused to be instituted any proceeding under this Chapter or has testified or is about to testify in any such proceeding or because of the exercise by such worker on behalf of himself or others of any option afforded by this Section.
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Radiation Protection using Embedded Application

Radiation Protection using Embedded Application

Abstract: Several nuclear power plant accidents that occurred in the past cause not only great damage to us, but also the aftereffects persist for a long time. The purpose of this study is to protect the lives and property of individuals from radiation accidents by predicting the radiation diffusion path and the arrival time at nuclear power plant accidents. Oil prices, which have hovered around $50~60 per barrel for many years, rose to $75again. Therefore, experts are expected to maintain nuclear power plants as part of an energy policy due to soaring oil prices. In addition, countries are pushing to build nuclear power plants to meet the global energy shortage. With an increasing number of nuclear power plants worldwide, the possibility of accidents is also increased. In this paper, we analyze the current status of nuclear power plants in Korea and abroad and the accidents of nuclear power plants in the past. In this paper, we analyze the expected diffusion path of radiation contaminants using the Big Data on the homepage of the Korea Meteorological Administration and the weather data on the homepage of KHNP (Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power) at the time of radiation accident. For this purpose, this paper explains how to develop radiation protection apps using embedded system. By using this system, it is possible to evacuate quickly by anticipating the time when radioactive pollutants spread from the accident point to the point where the person is active in the case of a radiation accident at a nuclear power plant through his own smartphone. People can take quick precautionary measures, such as preparing protective masks and protective clothing. By using the radiation protection application based on the embedded system developed in this study, it is possible to more quickly grasp the spreading time of the radiation pollutant in the case of radiation accident at the nuclear power plant, and by taking preventive measures promptly and safely, people can protect his property.
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Image Gently: A campaign to promote radiation protection for children worldwide

Image Gently: A campaign to promote radiation protection for children worldwide

The second key principle of radiation protection is optimisation. Image Gently focuses on providing guidance so that imaging tests using ionising radiation are done to provide sufficient diagnostic information while at the same time limiting radiation exposure. For example, the Alliance worked with its members to create CT imaging protocols that can be adjusted for the size of the infant and child rather than a one-size-fits-all protocol. There are free training modules for CT technologists to learn how to apply a number of important physics and technical parameters when imaging children in order to use the lowest possible radiation dose to achieve the necessary image quality. Along these same lines, Image Gently provides members with periodic email updates on the latest educational modules, information from collaborative organisations, convenes summits and works with regulatory bodies (e.g. the Food and Drug Administration [FDA], Joint Commission, Nuclear Regulatory Commission) to develop and promote appropriate dose standardisation and dose limits. These outcomes are aligned with the third key principle of radiation protection. Dose limits in medicine are relative; surveys are used to develop dose reference levels for common imaging examinations, and audits should be performed to ensure compliance with good- quality practice. Image Gently efforts include partnering with equipment vendors and regulators to convene summits and discuss standard dose metrics across vendors, to explain the importance of accurate metrics for infants and children, and to have all stakeholders understand the consequences of radiation exposures in this unique population.
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Compliance with Radiation Protection Principles in Radiotherapy Units

Compliance with Radiation Protection Principles in Radiotherapy Units

9. Faggioni L, Paolicchi F, Bastiani L, Guido D, Caramella D. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey. 2017; 86:135-42.

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White paper on radiation protection by the European Society of Radiology

White paper on radiation protection by the European Society of Radiology

Abstract In the past decade, the medical effective dose per caput has increased in most European countries because of CT; it now ranges between 0.4 and 2 mSv/year. The biological impact of diagnostic imaging exposure is dominated by stochastic effects: based on the linear-no- threshold hypothesis, the risk of cancer induction is estimated to increase proportionally to organ dose, reaching around 0.5% at an effective dose of 100 mSv. The risk is higher the younger the age at the time of exposure, it is different for different organs, and women are more susceptible than men. Fluoroscopy-based imaging, above all intervention, may reach the dose threshold for deter- ministic effects, observed most often at the skin above around 3 Gy, and it is also the major source of occupational exposure in radiology. This white paper discusses the role of justification, evidence-based referral guidelines, optimi- zation, diagnostic reference levels, clinical audits and quality assurance programs. The ESR strongly supports education and training of the medical staff involved in imaging by ionizing radiation. It disseminates information regarding radiation protection, takes initiatives, cooperates with partners and supports projects in justification as well
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Common strategic research agenda for radiation protection in medicine

Common strategic research agenda for radiation protection in medicine

ACR, American College of Radiology; ADLs, Achievable Dose Levels; ALARA, As Low As Reasonably Achievable; ALLIANCE, European Radioecology Alliance; BMI, Body- Mass Index; BSS, Basic Safety Standard; CT, Computed Tomography; CONCERT, European Joint Programme for the Integration of Radiation Protection Research; DE, Dual- Energy; DRLs, Diagnostic Reference Levels; EANM, European Association of Nuclear Medicine; EC, European Commission; ECTS, European Credit Transfer System; EFOMP, European Federation of Organisations in Medical Physics; EFRS, European Federation of Radiographer Societies; EMICS, European Medical Imaging Coding System; EQF, European Qualifications Framework; ESR, European Society of Radiology; ESTRO, European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology; EU, European Union; EURADOS, European Radiation Dosimetry Group; EURAMED, European Alliance for Medical Radiation Protection Research; HIS, Hospital Information System; IR, Interventional Radiology; IT, Information Technology; KPIs, Key Performance Indicators; KSC, Knowledge, Skills and Competence; LINAC, Linear Accelerator; MC, Monte Carlo; MEDRAPET; Medical Exposures Directive’s Requirements on Radiation Protection Training of Medical Professionals in the EU; MELODI, Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative; MRI, Magnetic Resonance Imaging; NERIS, European Platform on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response and Recovery; NTCP, Normal Tissue Complication Probability; OPERRA, Open Project for European Radiation Research Area; PBPK, Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic; PET, Positron Emission Tomography; PTV, Planning Target Volume; RIS, Radiology Information System; RSNA, Radiological Society of North America; RTD, Research and Technological Development; SPECT, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography; SRA, Strategic Research Agenda; TCP, Tumour Control Probability
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Radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools

Radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools

has been conducted by radiation protection organiza- tions about radiation protection in dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the observance of these guidelines in educational clinics of all dental schools in Iran. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire, based on National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB) and European Commission guidelines, was conducted. The radiology departments of all dental school (18 schools) were surveyed in this study. The question- naire was consisted of 3 sections including intraoral radiography, extraoral radiography and implementa- tion of quality control programs. Results: In the case of the existence of radiation protection facilities (such as lead apron, thyroid shield and lead impacted walls) the use of high speed films and existence of auto- matic processor in dental schools, there was a proper condition. The main problem was related to lack of regular quality control and quality assurance programs. Digital radiography systems were employed in none of the schools and it was occasion- ally used for research purposes at some of them. Conclusions: This study has emphasized on the need for further consideration of radiation protection principles in dental schools, especially on the field of quality control and quality assurance programs. Iran. J. Radiat. Res., 2010; 8 (1): 51­57
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Education to a bachelor degree in the field of radiation protection in Saxony

Education to a bachelor degree in the field of radiation protection in Saxony

Up to 10 percent of the staff of the Gamma-Service Irradiation Facility Ltd. are graduates of Riesa. These graduates have good chances in the fields quality management, operation of irradiation facilities or radiation protection. However only about 50 percent of the job offers can be satisfied due to the lack of graduated radiation protection officer at the whole Germany.

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Radiation protection programme 1976-1980: synthesis of results.

Radiation protection programme 1976-1980: synthesis of results.

XII/919, 1979, 185 pages - Radiation Protection Programme, 1980-1984 Research Priorities and Scientific Documentation October 1979 The Commission of the European Community has prepared a[r]

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Radiation protection design for the Super-FRS and SIS100 at the international FAIR facility

Radiation protection design for the Super-FRS and SIS100 at the international FAIR facility

The main role of radiation protection consists in avoiding unwanted exposure of man and environment to ionising radiation. The German radiation protection ordinance has defined dose limits which affect the design of the planned accelerator facilities. The effective dose rate must not exceed 1 mSv per year for all areas and accelerator installations, which are within the premises and are freely accessible for workers and visitors. Since a working year is counted in this respect as 2000 working hours, the dose rate limit is 0.5 μSv/h. Thus for the shielding design the dose rate outside the shield must not be larger than this limit.
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Neutron spectrometry at low fluence rates for radiation protection at the AMANDE facility

Neutron spectrometry at low fluence rates for radiation protection at the AMANDE facility

The Laboratory for Micro-irradiation, Neutrons Metrology and Neutrons Dosimetry develops, operates and maintains various facilities producing neutron fields, in accordance with ISO 8529-1 [1]. These fields are dedicated mainly to the calibration of radiation protection devices according to the ISO 8529-2 standard [2]. Among these facilities, AMANDE [3] allows to study the response of measuring instruments to neutron energies between a few keV and 20 MeV. These mono-energetic fields are produced by means of nuclear reactions, involving incident particles of selected energy (ion beams) and target particles, in the form of a thin layer deposited on a metallic backing (the assembly being called "target "). Depending on the nuclear reactions and the current delivered on the target, neutron emission rates may be higher or lower and the ambient dose equivalent rates around the facility may vary by much, depending on the neutron energies produced.
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Radiation Protection Series

Radiation Protection Series

There is an increasing use of combined PET/CT or SPECT/CT scanners where the CT component is used to provide accurate data for attenuation correction purposes and for dual-modality images (often called fusion images). The effective dose to the patient from the CT component may be larger than that from the administered radiopharmaceutical. The CT exposure factors (kVp, mA, time per rotation and pitch) need to be optimised so that the absorbed dose from the CT component is minimised whilst still obtaining the required information. This is particularly important for examinations on paediatric patients, who may also be at greater risk from stochastic effects than the general population. Accordingly, protocols should be developed for all common procedures involving CT using Automatic Exposure Control wherever possible. (ICRP 2000b, ICRP 2007a). If the CT component of the apparatus is capable of producing diagnostic quality images, the guidance provided in the Safety Guide for Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (ARPANSA 2008c) should be followed.
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The future SwissFEL facility – challenges from a radiation protection point of view

The future SwissFEL facility – challenges from a radiation protection point of view

The new large-scale facility SwissFEL currently under construction at PSI leads to challenges from a radiation protection point of view. An online survey system, the DRPS, will be used to monitor the ambient dose and ensure that the legal limits are respected. In this context, a brief overview of the system’s concept, components and calibration has been provided.

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Radiation protection evaluation from radio diagnostic departments in Erbil hospitals

Radiation protection evaluation from radio diagnostic departments in Erbil hospitals

Results from table 7 indicate that the door that leads to the X-ray room was not efficiently lead lined; this inadequacy could have lead to the high dose rate at the reception and patient waiting area. The results also show that the cubicle is not efficiently lead lined. Interlock was not provided for the door and the door could not close automatically during the exposure to prevent intruders. It is necessary to note that controlled access to areas where radiation exposure may be taking place is required. It is also evident from table 7 that hazards warning light and personnel monitoring (TLD badges) were not provided in the majority of departments. In addition, qualified radiographer was not available and log books for keeping records of radiation protection activities in the unit were not available. The lead apron required to be worn by the radiographer during exposure was visibly missing. It therefore implies that in the X-ray unit of the hospi- tals, the issue of safety of personnel and patients are not adequately taken into consideration. This trend is an indication that the principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle was not adopted in the hospital 14 . As noted from the results, the quality control tests were out- side the acceptable limit. This inconsistent nature specially for kvp could have adverse effect on the image contrast and leads to repeated exposure of the patient. Since the length of exposure affects the total quantity of radiation (mAs) emitted from an
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RADIATION PROTECTION NO 174

RADIATION PROTECTION NO 174

“Medical Physics Experts will contribute to maintaining and improving the quality, safety and cost-effectiveness of healthcare services through patient-oriented activities requiring expert action, involvement or advice regarding the specification, selection, acceptance testing, commissioning, quality assurance/control and optimised clinical use of medical radiological devices and regarding patient risks from associated ionising radiations including radiation protection, installation design and surveillance, and the prevention of unintended or accidental exposures 4 ; all activities will be based on current best evidence or own scientific research when the available evidence is not sufficient. The scope includes risks to volunteers in biomedical research, carers and comforters” (Legido-Quigley H, McKee M, Nolte E, Glinos
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RADIATION PROTECTION

RADIATION PROTECTION

specificity of the search results. Where the scoping searches did not appear to identify relevant articles, or the search results identified to many non- relevant articles, the search strategies were refined following discussion (via email) with the team members. This process often took several rounds of discussion and refinement before we established sensitive search strategies. We searched MEDLINE (OVID BIOMED) for each topic back to 1966 except for the Dose & Risk topic group. With regard to Dose & Risk, it was felt that the International Commission on Radiation Protection report 60 (2), which changed the methodology of risk calculation in relation to radiation exposure, acted as an appropriate starting point. Previous calculations of risk would not be comparable. In addition the benchmark review paper by White (3)
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centre for radiation protection

centre for radiation protection

It administers and enforces the Radiation Protection Act and its subsidiary regulations through a system of licensing and inspection. Services provided through CRP’s 7 laboratories include personal monitoring for all radiation workers, testing of imported food for radioactive contaminants, testing of sealed radiation sources for leakages and calibration of radiation measuring instruments. Its import/export licences and endorsements are auto-processed through the TradeNet System.

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