Several computational models of reading have been developed to explore AoA effects (Ellis & Lambon Ralph, 2000; Monaghan & Ellis, 2010; Zevin & Seidenberg, 2002). Monaghan and Ellis (2010) developed a connectionist model that demonstrated clear AoA effects in naming in addition to cumulative frequency effects. The key for the model to capturing the AoA effects was that it was trained with a cumulative learning process. The model started to learn to read a small set of words, akin to a child beginning to learn to read, and gradually learned to build up an entire adult vocabulary. The process mimics the natural reading development that allows the model to capture the characteristics of AoA. Their findings provided evidence for the representation mapping theory. However, these models did not include semantic representations so they were limited in their ability to test the effect of the role of semantics in the size of AoA effects.
In this paper, we propose a multi-glance mecha- nism in order to model the habit of reading. When we read a text, we may read it several times rather than once in order to gain a better understanding. Usually, we first read the text quickly and get a general idea. Under the guidance of this first im- pression, we will read many times until we get e- nough information we need. What’s more, based on the multi-glance mechanism, we also propose two glance models, glance cell model and glance gate model. The glance cell model has a special cell to memorize the first impression information we obtain and add it into the current calculation. The glance gate model adopts a special gate to ig- nore the less important words when we read the text at the second time with multi-glance mecha- nism. The experimental results show that when we use the multi-glance mechanism to read the tex- t, we are able to get a better understanding of the text. Besides, the glance cell model can memo- rise the first impression information and the glance gate model is able to filter the less important word- s, e.g. the, of. We will continue our work as fol- lows:
However, importantly this convergence was dependent upon the model’s preliteracy training. Only when the model had high accuracy in its mappings between phonology and semantics was it able to transfer performance from OP training trials to perform well on reading comprehension. This pattern of performance from the OP training focused model with high oral language skills was similar to the behavioural data reported in Taylor et al. (2017). Our computational results demonstrate that the advantage of OP focused training only pertains in cases where good oral language skills are present. This is because the transfer from OP training trials to OS task performance requires effective mappings from phonology to semantics. If these are not present then the effective learning of OP mappings in the model stops just there – any high fidelity representation of phonology cannot then accurately activate the target semantic representation. OP training, then, is only advantageous for reading comprehension when the learner has good oral language knowledge, consistent with the view that addresses the role of oral language in reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Harm & Seidenberg, 2004; Plaut et al. 1996). The results are thus far compatible with empirical evidence of the benefit of both print to sound decoding skills and oral language skills on reading ability (e.g. Curtis, 1980; Nation & Snowling, 2004; Ouellette & Beers, 2010; Ricketts, Nation, & Bishop, 2007), which relate to the two segments of the indirect route from orthography to semantics via phonology. Further investigation of the model’s performance will enable us to determine whether this is the way in which the model functions to solve the mapping tasks. We suggest that, for reading aloud, the direct OP pathway is likely to be most effective for performing the task regardless of the training focus, because the systematic mappings are easier to learn compared to the indirect OSP pathway which requires two arbitrary mappings. Thus, more
Work in psycholinguistics has shown that recent experience with one of these variants increases the probability of producing that variant (Bock, 1986; Kaschak et al., 2006) as well as the likelihood of predicting it in reading (Tooley and Bock, 2014). To test whether our adaptation method can repro- duce this behavior, we generated 200 pairs of da- tive sentences similar to (3). We shuffled 100 DO sentences into 1000 filler sentences sampled from the Wikitext-2 training corpus (Merity et al., 2016) and adapted the model to these 1100 sentences. We then froze the weights of the adapted model and tested its predictions for two types of sen- tences: the PO counterparts of the DO sentences in the adaptation set, which shared the vocabulary of the adaptation set but differed in syntax; and 100 new DO sentences, which shared syntax but no content words with the adaptation set. 5
This sequential, integrated approach to designing the individual studies also enabled the triangulation used in the combined analysis reported here whereby their findings could be compared and contrasted. Firstly, it offered the opportunity to consider the issues in question from different perspectives, and ‘to understand the topic in a more rounded and complete fashion than would be the case had the data been drawn from just one method’ (Denscombe 2003, p.132). Secondly, the research data could be questioned and corroborated by comparing one dataset to another (Rudestam and Newton, 2001; Gorman and Clayton, 2005). This allowed the researchers to identity consistencies and differences across the studies in order to develop a more holistic understanding of the phenomena under investigation – and ultimately to build the model of fiction genre reading presented below.
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behavioral data, it was observed that readers did make significantly more errors on these types of words, suggesting that the readers were impacted by misleading information provided as the result of the non-lexical computation. However, in general, the readers managed to assign stress properly even to those words that the model assigned the incorrect stress to. Therefore, similar to the dual-route theory of reading (Coltheart et al., 1993) and to the stress assignment algorithm by Rastle and Coltheart (2000), the model expressed here must incorporate an assumption that stress pattern information may be retrieved via a lexical route as well as being computed following the principles of the Bayesian model of stress assignment. Unlike the algorithm by Rastle and Coltheart, which is rule-driven, stress assignment in the Bayesian model is not governed by pre- defined linguistic rules, but rather by a combination of different cues that are statistically associated with stress patterns. A reliance on non-lexical cues that are probabilistically associated with stress patterns is also implemented in the connectionist model of stress assignment by Seva et al. (2009). However, the model proposed in this thesis differs from the connectionist model of stress assignment because the former model allows that stress assignment may happen via the retrieval of localized lexical representations, while the latter model denies such a possibility.
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In the present study, effect of visual-perceptual exercises based on Frostig model on reading improvement in dyslexic students was taken into account. Statistical population of this study involves dyslexic primary students in Tehran in 2011. According to population under consideration, available sampling method was used. A sample with size of 12 people from dyslexic students referred to Yousef Abad Special Learning Center who had highest standards in dyslexia and weakness in field of visual perception were selected based on visage test and Andre Rey's complex figures test. The findings of research suggests that visual-perceptual exercises based on the Frostig model have had maximum impact on reading words, words chain and minimum impact on calling image, letter sign, category mark and voices removal and no impact on comprehension of text
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The two most successful models of eye move- ments in reading are E-Z Reader (Reichle, Pollat- sek, Fisher, & Rayner, 1998; Reichle et al., 2006) and SWIFT (Engbert, Longtin, & Kliegl, 2002; Engbert et al., 2005). Both of these models charac- terize the problem of reading as one of word iden- tification. In E-Z Reader, for example, the system identifies each word in the sentence serially, mov- ing attention to the next word in the sentence only after processing the current word is complete, and (to slightly oversimplify), the eyes then follow the attentional shifts at some lag. SWIFT works simi- larly, but with the main difference being that pro- cessing and attention are distributed over multiple words, such that adjacent words can be identified in parallel. While both of these models provide a good fit to eye tracking data from reading, neither model asks the higher level question of what a ra- tional solution to the problem would look like.
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An effective reading comprehension measurement demands robust psychometric tools that allow teachers and researchers to evaluate the educational practices and track changes in students ’ performance. In this study, we illustrate how Rasch model can be used to attend such demands and improve reading comprehension measurement. We discuss the construction of two reading comprehension tests: TRC-n, with narrative texts, and TRC-e, with expository texts. Three vertically scaled forms were generated for each test (TRC-n-2, TRC-n-3, TRC-n-4; TRC-e-2, TRC-e-3 and TRC-e-4), each meant to assess Portuguese students in second, third and fourth grade of elementary school. The tests were constructed according to a nonequivalent groups with anchor test design and data were analyzed using the Rasch model. The results provided evidence for good psychometric qualities for each test form, including unidimensionality and local independence and adequate reliability. A critical view of this study and future researches are discussed.
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Due to the paucity of research on struggling adult readers, researchers rely on child-based reading constructs and measures when investigating the reading skills of adults struggling with reading. The purpose of the two studies in this investigation was to evaluate the appropriateness of using child-based reading constructs and assessments with adults reading between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The first study examined whether measurement constructs behind reading-related tests for struggling adult readers are similar to what is known about measurement constructs for children. The sample included 371 adults, including 218 native English speakers and 153 English speakers of other languages. Using measures of skills and subskills, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test three theoretical measurement models of reading: an achievement model of reading skills, a core deficit model of reading subskills, and an integrated model containing achievement and deficit variables. Although the findings present the best measurement models, the contribution of this study is the description of difficulties encountered when applying child-based assumptions to developing measurement models for struggling adult readers. The second study examined the usefulness of the
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The current study was modeled after a quasi-experimental study conducted by Tilstra et al. (2009). The study included 271 students, although none of the students were gifted or special education students. The Tilstra study examined the Simple View of Reading and the effect of linguistic comprehension and decoding (oral reading fluency) on reading comprehension for students in elementary, middle, and secondary school. The participants were assessed in a pre- test/post-test model using the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Comprehension test (MacGinitie, MacGinitie, Maria, & Dreyer, 2000), the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) Listening Comprehension subtest (Hoover, Heironymus, Frisbie, & Dunbar, 1996) and a Curriculum- Based Measurement (CBM) maze reading task (Deno, 1985; Espin & Foegen, 1996). Tilstra et al. concluded that (a) the Simple View of Reading is a relevant communication tool to help educators understand the factors that influence reading comprehension, (b) the model helps identify the factors and how they may shift as readers develop, and (c) the Simple View of Reading explains a large portion of variance in reading comprehension from elementary to secondary settings.
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In this paper, we introduce a summarization task for testing reading comprehension of learners and present several automated systems to assess the quality of the learner summary. We collected sum- maries from members of our university and from the real learners to evaluate our systems. We pro- pose and compare three approaches to assess the summaries, including the feature extraction-based model, the CNN-based model using similarity ma- trix, and the LSTM-based model. The best system, built using a combination of three models, yields an accuracy of 75.3% on the simulated learner data, and P CC = 0.665, RM SE = 0.97 on the real learner data. Although not directly compara- ble to other studies, we note that these results are higher than those reported in previous work.
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While not participating in the facilitating of Reading Workshop itself, Gulla (2012) conducted an ethnographic study of one ninth-grade literacy classroom located in a South Bronx vocational high school in New York City. The inclusion class had two team teachers who were using Reading Workshop to build independent reading stamina within 27 students: 23 male and 4 female. Even though the students were older and in a vocational high school, the workshop model allowed the secondary teacher to ignite a passionate interest in reading but still support emergent readers. The need to support struggling readers is a must at the vocational school because as the author stated, “students have said that they were encouraged by their school counselors to apply to Urban because they lack a strong academic record and might not be accepted by a more selective high school” (Gulla, 2012, p. 57). However, they are required to read and comprehend high levels of technical literacy in manuals and textbooks and could be setting themselves up for failure by attending a vocational, career, and technical school. Concluding the study, the author noted the findings were positive and success could be seen in the conferring of students, reading achievement and advancement of students. With this said, this study had overarching conclusions that were not matched with data represented.
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How well does the phonological-core, variable-difference model account for dyslexia in other languages? Where reading accuracy is the primary source of difficulty, the model is clearly valid and evidence from an imaging study suggests that the effect is universal (Paulesu et al., 2001), although the nature of the language being learned appears to play a part in the course of brain development (Habib et al., 2000). Where fluency rather than accuracy is the primary source of difficulty, the model’s validity depends on whether or not fluency is understood as a measure of efficiency in phonological processing. Evidence suggests that people learning to read in nonalphabetic scripts may have deficits in processing phonological information, just like their alphabet-learning counterparts (Ho et al., 2000). Evidence from languages with alphabetic scripts suggests that a phonological deficit is a serious problem in more opaque spelling systems such as English and French but that it is less of a problem in German (Wimmer & Goswami, 1994), Greek (Goswami et al., 1997), Italian (Tressoldi et al., 2001) and Welsh (Ellis & Hooper, 2001), where the orthographies have greater spelling-to-sound consistency. In Finnish, where the spelling system is almost perfectly transparent,
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Being a member of the poor-reader class has major nega- tive impact in all reading outcomes, showing that this group has more reading difficulties than the not-so-good readers. For the accuracy of words ( β = - 11.12, P , 0.0001; in other words, a significant difference of 11 correctly read words per minute between both latent groups of readers) and accuracy of nonwords ( β = - 6.50 P , 0.001), we used Tobit regression due to the floor effects in both continuous outcomes (children who read zero words/nonwords correctly) and, therefore, we specified one left-censoring limit of 1 correctly read word per minute. For the accuracy of text reading ( β = - 11.27, P , 0.01), a linear-regression model was used, showing that there is an effect of being class 1 or 2 on the outcome. More precisely, comparing not so good readers and poor readers, we expected that the worst indicators of reading would be achieved from poor readers (class 2).
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preferences in the African context. Some may tout the benefits of information technology, but communities may not be able to achieve those benefits without basic numeracy and literacy abilities (Wessels 139). Engaging reading materials encourage the local “reading culture” which in turn increases literacy rates and allows access to a larger body of information, while also avoiding burdening African libraries with uninteresting and irrelevant books. While there are many other aspects of African libraries that may need to be adapted to best fit the needs of their communities, because books are already in place as an aspect of literacy development, it is more efficient to make them more culturally relevant. This research addresses one key shortcoming of the current public library model and justifies the efforts of alternative library models to provide culturally relevant reading materials.
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Even every young child is able to use various media to present their concepts of understanding. Furthermore, through the representation of their knowledge, knowledge itself is increasing (Edawards, Gandini, & Forman 1993; Malaguzzi 1993; Forman 1994). Re- presence of sensory modalities (reading the five senses) and the media also varies according to the age of the child. For example, most babies and children who are just learning to walk mostly learn using the five senses and motor, but 2-year-olds use one thing to do one thing in play (a box to call or use a spoon as a guitar).Development and learning occur in and are influenced by multiple social cultural contexts. Bronfenbrenner (1979, 1989, 1993) provides an ecological model for understanding human child development. Bronfenbrenner explained that child development is best understood in the context of the family, educational settings, community, and wider society. These diverse contexts relate to each other and all have an influence on developing children. For example, even a child is cared for in a family that loves and supports him, a healthy community is influenced by broader community biases, such as racism or sexism, and possibly shows the negative influence of negative stereotypes and discrimination.
Morton (1989) gave an account of the information processing systems behind Frith's sequence of stages. He proposed that logographic recognition units for words initially map directly onto picture semantics, a hypothetical system thought to mediate between the visual world of objects and action. This system is said to have an established link to verbal semantics, a system set up for speech recognition and production. Knowledge about letters is gradually built up and as children gain a better appreciation of the elements within phonological representations of words, grapheme > phoneme mapping rules are created. Thus, reading is no longer mediated by pictorial semantics and logographic reading has been abandoned. Meaning is procured via feedback from a response buffer to the verbal semantic system. The development of orthographic reading is separate and signifies that input representations have been constructed which take account of both letter position and morphological structure and these map directly onto verbal semantics providing an alternative route to word recognition. This model gives an intriguing account of logographic reading and suggests that phonological awareness, in some form, stimulates alphabetic reading. Unfortunately, it does not give similar insight into the processes which might lead to orthographic reading. While Morton's model is appealing because it liaises very well with a model of skilled reading, namely the Dual Route Model, it also shares certain of the drawbacks associated with this model which were discussed earlier.
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While the current study took a direct approach to examining the CC, we were not able to in conjunction, examine other regions of the reading system in a network model without reducing the sample size. It would have been difficult to also test other brain areas because of the commonality of metal artifact (e.g., shunts) or enlarged ventricles that exclude some participants from cortical analyses or analyses involving spatial normalization. However, by analyzing the mid-sagittal corpus callosum, we were able to include potentially more severe cases to the sample increasing the generalizability to a broader range of survivors. Given that the CC boundaries were determined based on the percent white matter in each voxel, the volume results are limited by the potential bias introduced measuring the CC volume based on the white matter segmentation of the T1 image.
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III. READING AND READING COMPREHENSION It is necessary to comprehend some general ideas on reading to understand the place of reading strategies in an EFL context .There are two different views of reading here which can explain the theoretical divergences. Firstly, the Simple Reading View (SVR), in which reading is paired with two different elements: decode and linguistic comprehension (Hoover & Gough, 1990, p.128). Decoding requires phonological and spelling comprehension (Silverman, Speece, & Harring, 2013, p.108). Linguistic comprehension relates to the derivation of concepts on the basis of definitions of sentences, words, and/or whole texts (Hoover & Gough, 1990, p.131). SVR maintains that both of these are necessary, but not sufficient on their own to be readable. The interpretation of a text requires that awareness of vocabulary and syntax. Therefore, the student is receiving information passively from a text in this model;' context resides in the text itself, and the reader seeks to replicate the