Substance abuse treatment among homeless people had been investigated extensively. While 235,823 homeless individuals were admitted to treatment programs in 2009, research findings suggest that services are still lacking for substance abuse treatment overall and particularly among homeless populations (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMSHA], 2006; Tucker, Wenzel, Golinelli, Zhou, & Green, 2011). Some of the most notable research findings in this area suggest: (a) substance abuse treatment can be effective and lead to sustained recovery in homeless individuals (Dietz, 2007; Zerger, 2002), (b) substance abusing homeless populations are underserved and often overlooked by treatment programs and outreach efforts (Maguire, Sheahan & White, 2012), (c) substance abuse treatment programs must use a different set of skills to engage and retain homeless clients as opposed to those who are not homeless and, (d) effective engagement and retention of homeless individuals in treatment includes providing housing and case management (Stahler & Stimmel, 1995; Zerger, 2002).
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In this study, the mild to severe pain on ambulation (NRS score >4) could not affect early discharge of patients. Reduction of pain-related postoperative compli- cations and speedy recovery are indispensable for ERAS implementation. 20 In a previous study, we reported that the incidence of mild pain was 75.6% on post-TS ambulation, and we managed acute postthoracoscopic pain with intra operative use of a single-shot ICB and postoperative use of tramadol. 9,21 Wurnig et al, reported that compared to thor- acic epidural anesthesia and a paravertebral block, an ICB seems to offer poorer pain control, yet it is favored for its lower incidence of adverse events. 22 Multimodal analgesic management should contribute to ERAS post-TS because of analgesic ef ﬁ cacy and fewer side effects.
From the management perspective as a whole, they are allowed to view all vital information related to disaster recovery services and test include clients’ account, clients’ contact, staffs contact, disaster recovery service’s accounts, disaster recovery test calendar, disaster recovery test results and clients’ satisfaction assessment result. Data Centre Services Manager as particular is able to manage shared resources own by HeiTech Padu. In addition, Service Delivery Manager is able to approve disaster recovery test application by clients.
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The United Nations estimates that approximately 100 violent conflicts have come to an end across the world. The economic challenges faced by post-conflict countries are way severe than those faced by poor but peaceful developing countries. They include degradation of land, destroyed human and social capital, access denial for livelihood area due to landmines, loss of income and widespread poverty. These conditions cause land uneconomical with gradual loss of fertility due to reduction in nutrient levels. Therefore, economic policy priorities for post-conflict countries should take these differences into account. If sustainable land management (SLM) is neglected or not properly addressed, further land degradation will occur. This paper reflects on the gaps of rebuilding livelihood and economic recovery in a selected post-conflict destination in Sri Lanka and offers a practical and cost-effective approach to secure a more stable future. In Northern Sri Lanka, through interviews and observations we found that livelihood has started in post clearance land following a longstanding ethnic war. The current land use trends are influenced by immediate commercial motives and SLM is overlooked which continues damage to the land. The study suggests a framework to integrate SLM for post-conflict economic recovery.
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planting arable or perennial crops in previously unplanted and degraded soil. This experiment showed the rapid increase in SOC arising from plants, and the associated return of mesofauna which are an essential part of nutrient cycling in soil, in the grassland conver- sions. It also demonstrated that soil microbial numbers had started to increase after 2 years and key groups such as nitrifiers and denitrifiers were responding to changes in management and the addition of N fertilizer. Prokaryote biodiversity overall changed more slowly than the specific subgroups responding to N additions or the mobile mesofauna. In contrast, fungal communi- ties, distinctive in permanent grassland, became more similar to the other treatments after conversion. Importantly, after 4 years, soil C concentrations had risen significantly after planting grass or wheat in the bare fallow soils and it will be interesting to see how rapidly these return to the C levels present in the corre- sponding permanent plots. Finally, results confirm that soil biota is resilient and that plants can provide degrad- ed soils with the potential for rapid recovery.
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Every year life and lively hoods of Pakistan severely hit by flood caused by over-flowing of rivers. Rajanpur is situated on the Indus river bank and faces destruction of flood every year. Status of Dams and Barrages on Indus River clearly show the hazardous situation of flood as years of sedimentation has reduced their water storage capacity. From the past experience, it is quite evident that there is lack of coordination in relief activities due to absence of a central coordination body. This paper presents an idea of establishing of a Central Disaster Fund Bank to help collect, manage and utilize the funds for disaster management and recovery plans most effectively and efficiently. This will also facilitate decision making bodies and stakeholders in allocating funds for recovery and management plans.
The scope of this work is to present a model for optimizing the location of a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facility in a rural area. The optimization is performed in financial terms, in order for the system developed to present the highest investment yield for the investor, or equally bear the least cost for the stakeholders, who are mainly the citizens of the region examined. The model includes several aspects of a waste management system, such as technical constraints (e.g. minimum heating value of the fuel used in the energy recovery unit), logistical operations, distance from existing inhabited areas etc. Furthermore, more than one fuel sources may be examined, as in rural areas large quantities of seasonal agricultural waste (biomass) exist, which could be used in the same facility, securing its year-round operation and fuel supply, as well as ameliorating the fuel mix characteristics.
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The World Health Organization (WHO) defines malnutrition in children as ‘a state in which the physical function of a child from birth to five years is impaired due to either overnutrition or undernutrition’ whereby ‘the latter is the result of poor or insufficient nourishment, poor absorption, or poor biological use of nutrients consumed’ (WHO, 2006, p24). Malnutrition is the single greatest threat to child survival, and is measured by three main indicators: underweight, stunting and wasting. Underweight is an indicator for recent weight loss or the combined effect of wasting and stunting. Stunting is an indicator of long-term or chronic malnutrition, while wasting indicates acute deficiency in nutrient intake or disease (UNICEF, 2009). Of these three, wasting poses the greatest risk to mortality in children under five (Black et al., 2008, 2013). The condition is associated with a lack of body fat and wasting of skeletal muscles. Malnutrition is preventable and treatable, and there are appropriate guidelines developed by the WHO and other bodies for managing acute malnutrition in humanitarian emergencies to prevent the risk of mortality (UNICEF, 2009, 2013). This review is funded through the Humanitarian Evidence Programme, a UK Aid-funded partnership between Oxfam and Feinstein International Center (FIC) at the Friedman School of Nutrition at Tufts University. We plan to conduct a systematic review of evidence to understand what works in the management of acute malnutrition in emergency relief settings. The review primarily will focus on reviewing evidence from published and unpublished/grey literature to understand the relationship between recovery and relapse, and default rates and/or repeated episodes of default, following the management of acute malnutrition in children aged under five-years-old in humanitarian emergencies.
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Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a standard- ized psychosocial intervention with a strong empirical foundation in illness self-management and recovery, and is based on the stress-vulnerability model [5, 6]. It was developed during the National Implementing Evidence- Based Practices (NIEBP) project in the USA  and is designed to help people with serious mental illnesses manage their illness and achieve personal goals . Five strategies form the basis of the IMR programme: psychoeducation to improve knowledge of mental ill- ness, relapse prevention to reduce relapses and rehos- pitalisation, behavioural training to improve medication adherence, coping skills training to reduce the severity and distress of persistent symptoms, and social train- ing to strengthen social support. Clinicians teach these strategies through a combination of educational, moti- vational, and cognitive-behavioural techniques [5, 9]. IMR is organized into 11 modules with different topics. A workbook with educational handouts has been devel- oped and is taught weekly to service users individually or in groups, for 10–12 months. A review  showed IMR is advantageous to treatment as usual, according to observer ratings of psychiatric symptoms, as well as consumer and clinician ratings. Two randomized stud- ies with active control groups have found significant improvements but no significant differences between the groups [10, 11]. However, the studies had weaknesses such as low participation rates, non-blinded staff and high drop out rates.
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While Bali has a unique context, it presents many lessons of value to any popular tourist destination. As Australian tourists comprised a significant proportion of victims in both terrorist attacks, the Australian Government and national tourism authorities have also been forced to face the reality that terrorism can happen to anybody, anywhere and anytime. The most apparent message from this experience is that no destination should consider itself immune to crisis and that preparation and proactive capacity building are more effective than complacency. Irrespective of the type of hazard agent or crisis trigger, there are some universal tenets to effective crisis management. Consistent with the recommendations of peak industry bodies such as the WTO, WTTC and PATA - safety and security, communication, promotion and marketing are integral to positive image and consumer confidence. It may not always be possible to prevent a crisis yet the duration and adverse impacts may be minimised.
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The tests using multi-grade filter, activated carbon filter and ultra-filters using commercial unit of plant scale revealed that the performances were, i) the MGF was quite effective with removal of suspended solids with 80 to 83 % and turbidity removal of 93%. Verification of power consumption by various membranes were done in an attempt to determine which membrane configuration is ideal for field installations. The spiral would membranes had shown an average power consumption of 1.435 kWh/m 3 for desalination of raw to finish effluent and overall energy consumption of the entire section including pre-filters and UF/RO was 2.52 kWh/m 3 . For better functionaing it would be better to have a system with physico- chemical treatment biological treatment, softening, pre- filtrations and ultra-filters with two stage spiral RO reject management system will be a better choice.
Post-fire management can therefore affect plant re- generation, and thus, alter plant community structure. In our site, control and seeding treatments were domi- nated by seeders while the logging and log-barrier treat- ments were dominated by resprouters. Resprouting species seem to be more resistant to post-fire activities as has also been observed by Stuart et al. (1993). Post-fire logging can encourage colonization of several native ruderal spe- cies (Abrahamson 1984, Greenberg et al. 1994). Cutting down burned trees, removing twigs or leaving them in the burned area had only a marginal influence on total spe- cies richness or cover of resprouting species (Ne’eman et al. 1995). Removal of burned Pinus pinaster trees, one year after fire, had a minimal effect on vegetation structure, and only legumes increased in logged sites (Perez and Moreno 1998).
According to Mahadevan and Asafu-Adjaye (2007), energy use is low in countries with low GDP. This analysis encompasses most countries in the Sub-Saharan region as most of the countries are faced with energy deprivation. Uganda has a total energy demand of 173,287 GWh (Lee, 2013) of which 90% is cartered for by biomass in form of firewood,charcoal and to a small extent crop residues. The other 10% is cartered for by electricity (1.4%) and oil products at (8.7%). The challenge in the available energy sources is the sustainability. Due to the high reliance on forest products, there is a high rate of defforestation which is detrimental to the environmnent. In addition to the reliance on firewood, energy utilisation is done at low efficiencies of 10%-12% (Okot-Okumu and Nyenje, 2011). Electricity as an energy alternative would be viable but only 15% of the population in uganda has access to electricity majorly because of the high power tariffs and low coverage of the electricity grid. Oil products are expensive to purchase and their contribution to the environmnet is so highly negative. Due to the increasing energy demands with the increase in waste generation, sustainable solid waste technologies would aim at energy recovery from the waste. This paper seeks to review, analyze, assess and put forward resources and sustainable technologies that are likely to succeed in the context of developing countries.
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• The opportunity to comprehensively re-plan the city is not often fulfilled due to the costs involved in a time of uncertainty. It is from these observations that planners most often critique current emergency management practice from the perspective that long term mitigation and resilience efforts should be integrated most effectively in disaster recovery efforts. Consequently, the trade off between speed versus deliberation in the post-disaster recovery planning environment is regularly emphasised. Robert B. Olshansky from the Department of Urban and Regional Planning at the University of Illinois is a key author on this topic, and has published extensive research on post-disaster planning. Olshansky analyses the extent to which holistic, sustainable and collaborative activities can be played out in the high pressure recovery period. Although speed is important in recovery, taking a step back to look at the big picture in order to plan for community betterment in the early stages of recovery is incredibly important to ensuring a holistic recovery and future resilience (Olshansky et al., 2005). Post-disaster recovery is without a doubt, an incredibly high-pressure process in which both timely and accurate decisions are critical. A need for speed is understandable: the importance of speed implies that decisions are made quickly and the road to recovery begins without delay allowing people’s lives to get back to normal as soon as possible. Although speed can also imply that in acting quickly, vital steps in the process toward a sustainable recovery can be overlooked, or become less of a priority to decision makers and money spenders who just want to see some sort of progress. There is a huge amount of pressure felt by governing bodies to appear as if progress is quickly being made, and in many cases, it is what is expected of the community. But the importance of considering a deliberated, big picture approach is essential to a holistic, integrated recovery. Deliberation implies that more time is taken to consider all aspects of a decision in the big picture before following through. Typically, deliberation is associated with the desire to build back better with a longer term vision in mind. While there are pros and cons to each scenario and a successful recovery really comes down to a perfect balance of the two – both speed and deliberation are important, however, in practice it is hard to do both at the same time (Olshansky et al., 2005).
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reason is that when the nurses are confronted with high demands at work, they may be more likely to constantly think about their job in order to ﬁ nd the solutions to the problems originating from job demands. 29 They cannot com- pletely get away from work physically and mentally, 29,42 as a result, psychological detachment cannot be realized. Moreover, Shimazu ’ s research indicated that being a workaholic would inhibit psychological detachment in the off-job domain. 45 Therefore, these nurses may be af ﬂ icted with sleep problems caused by lack of psychological detachment, and ultimately resulting in prevalence of depressive symptoms. Besides, mastery experiences refer to the challenging activities outside of work that can stimulate interests in acquiring knowl- edge and give rise to a sense of accomplishment. 25 Although taking part in these activities requires effort and energy, mas- tery experiences could provide opportunities and challenges for female nurses to recover from job-related strains and replenish positive resources which may contribute to health and well-being improvement, 25 and this would help female nurses protect against the sleep disturbance and could stop the progression of depressive symptoms. Additionally, the indivi- duals with control can decide the degree of what to do, when and how to do. 25 At the same time, it can be used as a positive resource to improve recovery from work. Sonnentag and Fritz indicated that mastery experiences and control had been demonstrated to have negative associations with emotional exhaustion, 25 they might help alleviate sleep disturbance, thus, resulting in the protection from depressive symptoms. Meanwhile, Sonnentag indicated that control had negative correlation with depressive symptoms. 25 Therefore, control could alleviate the negative effects of sleep disturbance on depressive symptoms. Psychological and educational implica- tions are debated in the light of the results of this study, proposing interventions on the recovery promotion especially on the management of psychological detachment and enhance- ment of mastery experiences and control are necessary to ameliorate the effect of sleep disturbance on depressive symp- toms among female nurses in China.
Abstract: Backgrounds: To investigated the application value of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) in laparo- scopic nephron sparing surgery (LNSS). Methods: As a retrospective case-control study, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 147 patients whom suffered kidney cancer underwent LNSS between Jun, 2015 and Dec, 2016. The 69 patients who received ERAS management were allocated into the ERAS (enhanced recovery by optimizing perioperative management options) group and 88 patients who received traditional perioperative management were allocated into the control group. The post-operative recovery indicators, length of stay (LOS) and hospitaliza- tion expenses between the two groups were compared. Results: The time for the first water intake, first out of bed activity, first anal exhaust, catheter indwelling, pelvic drainage tube indwelling, LOS and hospitalization costs for the ERAS group were 2.5±0.6 h, 1.5±0.4 d, 8.6±1.9 h, 1.1±0.2 d, 2.4±0.3 d, 3.0±0.2 d, 31,000±2,000 RMB, while for the control group were 28.1±10.6 h, 7.4±0.6 d, 35.1±15.5 h, 7.0±0.6 d, 7.2±0.5 d, 8.2±0.6 d, 42,000±1,000 RMB. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (t=-21.246, -69.253, -15.010, -76.464, -67.280, -58.727, -41.800, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the overall postoperative complication rates (8.7%, 16.7%, X 2 =0.151) or pain scores 2 h (0.75±0.67, 0.74±0.69, t=0.089) after surgery between the two
A cloud computing model offers SPSs access to a virtu- ally unlimited number of virtual machines (VMs). To gain widespread adoption, however, cloud-hosted systems must hide the complexity of data parallelism and failure recovery from users, as evidenced by the popularity of parallel batch processing systems such as MapReduce. Therefore cloud- hosted SPSs face the same two fundamental challenges: 1. On-demand parallelism. To reduce financial costs un- der “pay-as-you-go” pricing models in public cloud environ- ments such as Amazon EC2 and Rackspace, an SPS should acquire resources on demand. It should request additional VMs at runtime, reacting to changes in the processing work- load and repartitioning query operators accordingly. 2. Resource-efficient failure recovery. A cloud-deployed SPS with hundreds of VMs is likely to suffer from failure. It must therefore be fault-tolerant, i.e. be able to recover from failures without affecting processing results. Due to the size of deployments, the per-machine resource overhead of any fault tolerance mechanism should be low. Since failures are common, recovery must not affect performance adversely.
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of all efforts to develop more sustainable and safe ways of organizing life on the planet. They also said that disasters are no more gender blind than the economic, political, social and environmental development decisions that produce them. Ariyabandu  showed in her writing, how the relation of gender and sex in societies invariably augment the vulnerability of women in disasters. However, the needs of women are generally overlooked in the relief and recovery processes and their capacities and skills are not used as a resource in emergency management and planning .But, it is evident that women can act of agents of change, who are generally marginalized.Thus, the need of the hour is to ensure gender equality in disaster reduction policies and measures by promoting women to be increasingly involved in roles such as leadership, management and decision making as well as recognizing women’s position in their community and the larger society .
From Catastrophe to Recovery: Stories of Fishery Management Success. Edited by Charles C. Krueger, William W. Taylor, and So-Jung Youn. 2019. American Fisheries Society. 530 pages, 79.00 USD, Paper. Fishes of the Salish Sea. Volume One: Puget Sound and the Straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. By Theodore Pietsch and James Wilder Orr. Illustrated by Joseph R. Tomelleri. 2019. Heritage House. 1032 pages, 179.00 CAD, Cloth.
that, the canker of waste is as a result of human behavior and therefore the remedy lies in changing behavior . In Botswana, it was realized in a study that, though the people were aware of recycling and other sustainable waste management practices, that did not necessarily culminate in the people undertaking pro-environmental activities such as recycling initiatives . In the work of , they pointed out that, people sometimes become used to indiscriminately throwing their waste onto the streets and other wrong places due to the absence of a proper disposal systems in their communities. Such people become adamant to change out of pure habit and custom when changes are instituted. It is therefore important for effective behavior change communication strategies be adopted to drive change in people’s behavior towards the environment in a responsible manner. As suggested by , the conscience of individuals needs to be raised through environmental awareness and concern, inculcation of sustainable consumption practices and education on waste management. Authorities must also ensure that, a reorientation of the mindset starts with children by inculcating behavior change programs and environmental programs at the basic schools through to the tertiary institutions.
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