Research is collecting data. It is also known as the systematic approach to obtaining and confirming new and reliable knowledge”. It is also a systematic and orderly (following a series of steps). The purpose is new knowledge, which must be reliable. As stated by Baxter and Babbie (2003), research is the systematic effort to secure answers to questions. Research questions deal with issues requiring data and information. This article gives an outline of researchmethods that were followed in the study. It provides information on the participants, that is, the criteria for inclusion in the study, who the participants were and how they were sampled. The researcher describes the research design that was chosen for the purpose of this study and the reasons for this choice. The instrument that was used for data collection is also described and the procedures that were followed to carry out this study are included. The researcher also discusses the methods used to analyse the data. Lastly, this paper will help researcher to explain how to choose the proper method and will guide researchers to write their methodology in academically.
the course has led the overall development of the module. One important element however had been overlooked. Whilst previous on-line courses had been delivered to either on- campus full time students or off-campus part- time students that had signed up to study, i.e. volunteers, on this occasion placement students could be best described as ‘conscripts’, as they had little choice in the matter. ‘Conscripts’ however need to be given the equipment to undertake the task that is asked of them, in this case access to (a) a computer and (b) the internet. Whilst the institution was willing to provide a limited supply of laptop computers to plug any gaps, lack of accessibility in larger numbers than had been anticipated led to the postponement of the e-Learning version of this module for at least a year. This underlines the contention by authors such as Azer (2001) and Kaufmann and Holmes (1996) that contextual factors, particularly institutional support, are important in any innovative approaches to learning. Attention has now turned to the campus based delivery of the module to 750 students across the business school. Whilst obviously not the issue of this paper, it is worth noting that organisationally this has proved extremely difficult as the business school is simply not structured for the delivery of such a module. At the practical end however, the on campus form has been developed through a process of dialogue and discussion with colleagues across the school. As a consequence, all teaching staff now consider that students will be given an appropriate course of study in researchmethods that is relevant to their own subject areas. This is largely based upon a core lecture programme and subject contextualised seminars i.e. we have a set of seminar headings but tutors will use their own learning materials. Some divisions have chosen to base their seminar programmes around many of the e-Learning activities developed for the off-campus module and some of these activities are now also being used on the business school MRes programme. This should allow some feedback to be gained from the actual activities that have been developed.
The research process is usually presented as a sequence of between seven and ten distinct stages all of which must be completed for any piece of research to be credible (see Table 1 for a typical list) (Saunders et al, 2015). It is easy to get lost in the welter of detail required to successfully carry out the individual steps. By taking each step separately, Business Researchmethods text books (Saunders et al, 2015; Bryman and Bell,2015; Easterby-Smith et al, 2018), lectures, classes and workshops tend to support this outcome. But it is not a linear process. Researchers will iterate between these steps, perhaps revisiting various stages many times, as their understanding of the research problem develops and changes as a result of the findings from other steps such as data analysis and writing up. As table 1 shows, choices are involved at every step, but these are not independent of each other. The final decisions must ensure that the work carried out at each stage forms part of an integrated whole, both supporting and consistent with work carried out at all other stages. It is by writing up the work as it progresses that the researcher develops a more profound understanding of the contribution of each step. This deepening understanding may be one of the triggers for a rethink of work carried out at other perhaps previous stages. The process of writing up is critical to the project (Saunders et al, 2015) - for the researcher in progressing the work and for the ultimate audience in explaining what has been done, why it has been done and what has been found out. Writing skills are tested at every stage of the research process.
It was observed (Figure 2) using questionnaires from the involved in research activities pupils (39 respondents), that introduction of research studies method in training of natural sciences results in increasing the interest of pupils for chemistry, public health and environ- mental protection. The significant growth of knowledge and improvement of skills referred more than 90 % of respondents, confirming the suitability of used approach for training of the pupils in natural sciences. Respondents also indicated the high interest to the investigated objects (more than 90 %). It can be explained by the unaided selection of the objects for studies by the pupils and characterization of the objects, taking into account that the studies objects were from the each day’s life of pupils. Final evaluation of used researchmethods shown, that 69 % of all respondents recognized that used methods were interesting approach to the training of chemistry (see Figure 2). As a result, the advancement of pupils in chemistry increases, also for the pupils, who for different reasons have problems to master the chemistry in the school. The actuality of investigations positive valued 57 % of all respondents which also can be recognized as a good estimate.
At first glance ResearchMethods may look like a technical course alongside the more abstract sociological subjects you have encountered thus far. In some sense, this is true –being able to do research is indeed a practical skill! However, an introduction to researchmethods must encompass more than practical know-how. This is because the domain of social research speaks to key issues around the production of truth. In fact methodology speaks to the heart of academic life, looking at the systems which scholars have come up with over time to gather information about people and social organisation. As you will come to see –methodology is itself a very complex field with many abstract questions which arise from the diverse ways in which new knowledge is produced. Research is an integral part of what C. Wright Mills called our “intellectual craftsmanship”. It is in this spirit that social researchmethods will be introduced!
describes the challenge of teaching researchmethods to a diverse and multi-disciplinary group of students, who may or may not conduct scholarly research in practice. Through this collaboration in both teaching and writing, we were able to address for ourselves some of the paradigmatic differences between qualitative and quantitative research, and offer evidence for our students that perhaps this dichotomy is not always a useful one. In addition, we have documented an example of simple collaboration at the post-secondary level from which we hope other instructors might benefit. We feel that, based upon our own experiences and a (albeit non-random) sampling of comments made by students at the end of the classes, that we were successful in these areas. We believe that through our collaboration, students were supported in and confident enough to pursue their unique research agendas (as either consumers or producers of research), even when these agendas were outside of each author’s individual comfort zone. The diversity of student needs was manageable when the authors worked together. Collaboration within the context of a researchmethods class allows both the teachers and students the opportunity to better understand the variety of tools available to answer questions which pertain to educational problems and issues. If not for this collaboration we believe we would have had a lesser experience, as would the students. When we return to our initial question, what can a statistician and an arts-based researcher learn from one another? the answer is, indeed, plenty.
Effective planning must take a holistic perspective, a wide view of how systems interact. However, this approach can preclude an understanding of individual perspectives and lived experiences. Participatory researchmethods pioneered outside of the field of planning have been designed to document and address community needs and priorities at a localized level. Among these methods is photo elicitation, a mode of qualitative and visual data collection that involves having participants take photographs that portray a particular concern, and then using the images and a starting point for discussion around how to address those concerns. While photo elicitation and other CBPR methods are becoming increasingly common in fields such as sociology and public health, they are rare in the field of urban planning, despite their applicability and potential value.
This session provides a comprehensive introduction to qualitative researchmethods in social sciences and international relations. The session covers criteria in social research, theoretical, epistemological and ontological considerations in research, and discusses values and positionality of the researcher. It provides an overview of the step by step process in developing a research project from the formulation of a research question, conducting a literature review, and the selection of appropriate researchmethods to the selection of approaches to data collection and analysis and the formulation of conceptual and theoretical frameworks. The session provides an in-depth introduction to ethical issues in research and obligations to human
Recommending good websites that cover researchmethods in psychology is difficult. The problem is not a shortage of such sites — quite the contrary. Most of the websites devoted to particular, specific methods (naturalistic observation, surveys, case histories, etc.) have been authored by instructors for use in their classes. Although many are quite excellent, there are at least a couple of problems with my recommending any to you. First, these are not truly in the “public domain.” They’ve been created for the specific purpose of reaching a specific audience — students in that instructor’s classes. Second, because they are created for specific classes for a given semester, they tend not to have staying power. They come and go, and their website addresses come and go as sites and web pages get revised from one semester to the next.
Business History, generally, shows corporate organizational problems and, consequently, the degree of modernization of firms, but also issues of entrepreneurial character and related dynamic, of substantial importance for the analysis of the economic development of each country. Finally, the discipline studies the cases of the leading companies for each territory, giving the chance to discover its path and process of internationalization. In summary, Business History represents an independent form of research, can enhance the quantitative reconstruction of Economic History, with valuable qualitative informations, in a context not limited to issues of microeconomic framework. One of the starting points for research in Business History is fixed in relation to a primary orientation, faced to: the diffusion of technological innovation (of process, product, distribution and organizational), its coordination, its efficiency and effectiveness (based on business strategy); the examination of entrepreneur's personal characteristics (the family, training, motivation and relationship networks); the identification of the origin of capital (both as growth and diversification of the activities above, than as bank loans, support or patronage). Another reference to the initiation of studies in Business History is the organizational evolution, both in terms of the institutional context, within which business decisions are taken regarding the allocation of corporate resources, both from the side of changing conditions in which decisions are taken and alternatives evaluated one for the purposes of each company. Another starting point of the analysis is the managerial enterprise, which is subject to a coordination unit and a centralized planning of the strategic objectives, as well as for formal organization and a constant flow of information regarding costs, finance and production company. The company does not simply represent an activity aimed at the production and/or exchange of goods and services, but is also an associative structure, of great importance for social and economic organization, since the interaction between people who are part of it favors the creation of new wealth, that can spill over a wide range of players: in this way, the company acquires a value entirely unprecedented, beyond the dimension of “selfish” of the exclusive advantage of privatization and assuming the function of an interpretative model, or, rather, a “historical paradigm” of contemporary reality (see G. Roverato, L’impresa come paradigma storico. Profilo di storia d’impresa, Padova: Edizioni Libreria Rinoceronte, 2010).
Methods: and methods: We carried out a prospective, randomised, double-blind, split mouth controlled trial. Thirty- seven patients, who had bilateral impacted third molars of similar surgical difficulty, were recruited, with thirty-four successfully completed the study. We compared partial closure using one suture to the suture- less technique. Surgical sites were divided into two groups, Group A: one suture, and Group B: suture-less. Each patient received both treatments at the same time. During the first post-operative week, all patients were asked to daily assess pain, facial swelling, and bleeding, using self-assessment scales. All patients attended follow-up appointment at one week, to objectively assess facial swelling and wound healing, and at one month, to assess wound healing.
achievement test are assigned to remedial training designed to improve their performance. The low frequency of use may be attributable to several factors. Certainly, the design is a relative latecomer. Its first major field tests did not occur until the mid-1970s when it was incorporated into the nationwide evaluation system for compensatory education programs funded under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. In many situations, the design has not been used because one or more key criteria were absent. For instance, RD designs force administrators to assign participants to conditions solely on the basis of quantitative indicators thereby often impalatably restricting the degree to which judgment, discretion or favoritism may be used. Perhaps the most telling reason for the lack of wider adoption of the RD design is that at first glance the design doesn't seem to make sense. In most research, we wish to have comparison groups that are equivalent to program groups on pre-program indicators so that post-program differences may be attributed to the program itself. But because of the cutoff criterion in RD designs, program and comparison groups are deliberately and maximally different on pre-program characteristics, an apparently insensible anomaly. An understanding of how the design actually works depends on at least a conceptual familiarity with regression analysis thereby making the strategy a difficult one to convey to nonstatistical audiences.
Rossman (2006) mentioned in his study that in qualitative study data collection and data analysis go hand in hand to build a logical interpretation. Guest et al., (2012) have been mentioned different approaches to data collection for qualitative and many techniques for analysis such as epistemological, disciplinary and theoretical viewpoints. The selection of suitable method for data analysis is important part of research process because to attain a clearer picture on the basis of smaller amount of information/ experiences of participant (Guest et al., 2012). This field going to select one method for analysis from following methods; grounded theory, discourse analysis, (IPA) interpretive phenomenological analysis, and finally thematic analysis. According to Holloway and Todres (2003), overlap exist in above mentioned qualitative methods especially thematic and interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) but Johnson et al., (2004) stated that the choice of appropriate approach for analysis is based upon the objective and research question of this field (Johnson et al., 2004). Furthermore, Wilkinson and Silverman, (2004) mentioned that thematic analysis is appropriate for smaller sample size and delivered a qualitative context for exploratory (Guest, MacQeen and Namey, 2012). Thematic analysis has few similarities with interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) such as both explored in detail, covered the lived experiences of participants, and entering in to the field for depth data gathering. Some scholars have been challenged these similarities (e.g. Collins and Nicolson, 2002), they think that interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) is different from thematic analysis. Here are few differences between thematic analysis and IPA, which leads to choose the thematic analysis rather than interpretive phenomenological analysis. Guest et al., (2012) stated that in IPA exclusively…focuses on subjective human experiences…, …It concerned with individuals’ subjective reports…, …enter the life world of each participant… and create a narrative account (Kay and Kingston, 2002; Brocki and Wearden, 2006), while selected approach can focus broader scope. …thematic analysis involves the searching across a data set – be that a number of interviews or focus groups, or a range of texts – to find repeated patterns of meaning… (Braun and Clarke, 2006) and the primary focus of thematic analysis is on commonalities/themes through entire data set than the depth of single participants interview/experience (Huxley, Clarke, and Halliwell, 2011). Therefore, evaluate the thematic analysis is better fit for this field and interpretive phenomenological analysis is unsuitable.
We chose to ask a single question on a topic that had been fielded in two nationally recognized surveys for a representative sample of the U.S. internet population. The question we selected originated from the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project (PEW) and a similar question was also found in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Figure 1 shows the question preview of our survey provided by Google during the creation process. To account for the differences between benchmark survey response options, the results were grouped prior to analysis into three categories: most or all cell phone, some cell, some regular, and most or all regular phone
liver toxicity antagonism, it has good antioxidant effect on an important mechanism of garlic antagonistic sub-chronic liver damage caused by alcohol consumption, which including glutathione detoxification system has an important role significance . The experimental results show that garlic can block the aminopyrine, sodium nitrite formation on dimethyl nitrosamine in rats, it has been caused by its significant preventive effect . It has reported that oral administration of garlic to lead workers at home and abroad for the treatment of chronic lead poisoning, it has a good effect . Pharmacopoeia of the famous "Compendium of Materia Medical" a detailed description of garlic detoxification, anti- inflammatory effect, modern medical research has proved that garlic and garlic preparations have a good natural disease prevention efficacy . After feeding garlic oil, it promotes a significant increase in lead poisoning rabbits urination, fecal lead content. Garlic is the brain lead better displacement agent, it may serve as a good drug poisoning encephalopathy, garlic oil is ideal for the treatment of drug poisoning .
Rajib Das received MBA in Apparel Merchandising from BGMEA University of Fashion and Technology, Bangladesh and also accomplished of his B.A. (Honors) in Apparel Manufacturing Management and Technology from Shanto-Mariam University of Creative Technology, Bangladesh and also doing his MSS in Industrial Relations and Labor Studies from University of Dhaka. He is functioning as a Lecturer and Student Advisor, Department of Apparel Manufacturing Management and Technology at Shanto-Mariam University of Creative Technology, Bangladesh and engaged with Accord Alliance as an Assistant Research Analysis to develop RMG Compliance Development Programme for last two years. His area of interest is Tools and Techniques of Merchandising, Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing, Social Compliance, Fashion and Apparel Marketing, Apparel Production Planning and Control. He has a blog about Garments Merchandising .He participated in a number of professional Trainings and Workshops and frequently participates as a Trainer to contribute the business phenomenon. He engaged with several types of social and cultural activities. He attained some Conferences, Trainings and Workshops in, Thailand and India.
During the same period, (i.e. over the past ten – fifteen years), psychology and social science journals, such as the British Journal of Psychology, Journal of Health Psychology, Social Science and Medicine etc., as, indeed, did the British Medical Journal, began to include qualitative research papers, indicating that a qualitative approach, in parallel with the quantitative scientific paradigm, can illuminate important areas in the behavioural sciences and psychology. In the early days there was some debate about academic ‘rigour’ and validity suggesting some unease about using qualitative methods, both in psychology and related areas. This is now much improved as researchers address these issues (Bloor, 1997; Henwood, 2004; Yardley, 2008). However, this is less of a challenge today, with increasing acceptance of these methods and the introduction of appraisal checklists. Nevertheless, as with any research, poor understanding of the methodology and what it can offer, or the inappropriate selection of a method, is likely to lead to poor quality results and the resultant lack of any real insight into the area being explored. Today, the introduction of evidence- based tools such as the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) based at the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, University of Oxford, include a qualitative paper checklist on their websiteproviding evidence of a much greater acceptance of these methods
Make sure that the original data, data dictionary, final database and analysis output are archived with copious documentation so that months later, when you need to respond to journal reviewers’ comments, you or other investigators can return to the project to check the data integrity and the analyses you did, or even perform further analyses requested by those pesky reviewers. You may even decide to return to the dataset years later to answer new research questions.