supplemented by balanced development in urban and rural religions in the state. Use of software such as Hec-HMS or simple and advanced statistical models should be applied. These ambitious suggestions must be strengthened with adoption of a policy directed against desertification through stakeholders, including NGOs and association with awareness spread, being the well known tools that help in (IWRM) in the state. These last ambitious changes which are adopted in this research are considered the keys leading to solution of the problems and fulfilling the objectives to create an integrated water management body in the River Nile State pilot area, to travel parallel with the expected present and future population growth. Using the collected data and analysis, applying simple correlation regressions analyzing the results of the analysis and its effects on the River Nile State problems, further in depth discussion was found necessary. More advanced analysis was conducted, and discussed in relation with (IWRM). The advanced discussion included some simple and advanced statistical model analysis. These included beside the means, standard deviations, the more sophisticated statistical parameters such as coefficient of variation, skewness and their corrections. They involved use of the famous statistical tables of Foster Hazin and Fuller equations. The use of these model equations together with the known statistical coefficient and parameters has paved the road of fulfilling the study objective together with their inherently knitted problems.(Murray R.Spiegel,1972,New York,Schaums Series).Table Hazin ,together with Foster table (I) and Foster table (III),are given in appendix (I).are available in many hydrological text books.
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The River Nile State has great potentials of water that is not exploited. The River Nile State is the state that has the greatest area of desertification in the Sudan. The data to be collected in IWR consisted of and included precipitation data, ground water level,drawdown or pumping lift data, and flood or discharge measurement data. The population data is essential forming the main beneficiaries of the study objective. It is fortunate that the quality of the three types of water rain surface and ground water in the River Nile State was tested according to the Sudan by laws and World Health Organization (WHO) and was perfectly suitable for use.
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spread in the River Nile State. They found that wind erodibility of these farms ranged from 0 to 470.4 tons/ha. They found that these agricultural farms lie within the high erodibility class. Abdi et al. (2013) studied the impacts of desertification, degradation and drought on both the natural resources and man's livelihood in the Sudan and to suggest appropriate forest resource management interventions. Results showed that in rain-fed agricultural zones deep ploughing and leveling of the surface soil caused increases susceptibility of soil to wind erosion, beside decline in its fertility and in some places, enhance the formation of sand dunes. The implications of these trends on the natural resource base include environmental degradation, food insecurity and aggravation of income inequalities among the Sudanese producers. The study has suggested agroforestry technology as a potential solution to this continued problem of declining rural agricultural production in the Sudan. Dawelbait et al. (2013) identified changes in ground cover of endangered range plant species in north Kordofan state. They found changes in range attributes were clearly noticed and some important plants are being endangered so the study recommended a strategy for range land rehabilitation to be adopted in relation to composition of important, palatable endangered plant species. These studies are very important due to determination the trends of range land so as controlling degradation in plant and natural vegetation composition furthermore carrying capacity should be calculated to avoid the negative impact of overgrazing. Biro et al. (2013) analyzed and monitor the land use land cover (LULC) changes using multi- temporal Land sat data for the years 1979, 1989 and 1999 and ASTER data for the year 2009. In addition, efforts were made to discuss the impact of LULC changes on the selected soil properties. Three main LULC types were selected to investigate
affected the country economic and social stabili- zation. This was aggravated by the sanctions en- forced on the country by the USA. Many sectors in the country, especially agriculture and industry, were affected and the country was at the edge of economic collapse but suddenly new hopes ap- peared by the discovery of gold at everywhere in Sudan. Traditional gold mining has flourished and hundreds of thousands of people, most of whom were laymen, were engaged in gold extrac- tion. The economy witnessed migration from in- side and outside Sudan into the new open source of income. The new source of revenue added to the treasury as much as the loss in the petroleum revenue (Sudanow Magazine, 2014), (African Mining Brief, 2014). Gold extraction does not require much finance or advanced technology (Massaro & Theije 2018). Therefore, it suited the unskilled workers to reap high levels of income (Betancur-corredor et al. 2018). Gold extraction processing had hazardous effects on the human health and environment through its use of mer- cury (Rava & Ramirez 2018). The present paper investigates the effect of the mercury use in the extraction of gold by traditional gold mining on human health and natural environment in Alebe- dia area, Berber Locality in the River Nile State.
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This is a nutritional hospital - based study. The study was conducted on 220 children (110 males and 110 females), among whom were 40 children at the age between (0-6 months), 60 children at the age between (7-12 months), 60 children between (13-18 months) and 60 children at the age between (19-23 months) respectively. The study samples were selected from Sudan- River Nile State’s Major Hospitals (Aldamer, Atbara and Shendi) to assess the effect of therapeutic nutritional formulae on malnourished children under two in River Nile State Hospitals. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire which was filled by children mothers and secondary data was collected from different books, journals, internet and other related research reports. The primary data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).
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“Children should be the first target group for intervention because of the detrimental effects of the disease on their growth and develop- ment” (26). Therefore, the objective of the pre- sent study was to investigate the situation of uri- nary schistosomiasis infection among school- children in the Alsaial Alsagair village at Al Matama Locality, River Nile State, Sudan. The study’s findings will provide a baseline of infor- mation used in future control strategies.
family and M. oleifera is the most widely studied and cultivated as a multi-purpose tree. Moringa oleifera is among plants that can be used as a cheap protein supplement to improve digestibility of other Diets.As well as medicinal plant, Moringa oleifera Lam. also can be used as an absorbent and coagulation. The seeds also have antimicrobial activity and are utilized for wastewater treatment. In some developing countries, the powdered seeds of Moringa oleifera are traditionally utilized as a natural coagulant for water purification because of their strong coagulating properties for sedimentation of suspended undesired particles. The seed extract contains very interesting behaviour in removing anionic surfactants from surface water. Medicinal uses stem from the fact that the entire plant has high protein, vitamins, mineral, and carbohydrate content. It is, thus, of high nutritional value for both humans and livestock. Moringa leaves are rich in minerals such as iron, potassium, and calcium as well as vitamins, essential amino acids, and a number of glycosides.In the Sudan, dry Moringa oleifera seeds are used in place of alum by rural women to treat highly turbid Nile water.  various parts of M. oleifera such as leaves, roots, seeds, barks, fruits, flowers and immature pods act as antipyretic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities M.oleifera leaves are a good source of β- carotenes, amino acids, phenolic compounds, vitamins, and minerals, especially calcium and iron.
Geographical Information Science (GIS) technologies have been used increasingly for ecology and epidemiology of water-borne diseases, providing approach for animal health issues. This study was set up to investigate the geographical distribution of Bovine that was affected by Leptospira hardijo, in River Nile state, on October 2012. Locations of targeted cattle were delimited using GPS. Fifty three (53) of blood samples were collected, and screened in the laboratory for Leptospira hardijo specific antibodies using indirect ELISA. 15.09% had evidence of infection as determined by the presence of anti-leptospira antibodies. It was inferred that no incidences were recorded in 45 locations out of the 53 selected locations in the state. Leptospirosis risk area for transmission was mapped using 5 km buffer distance. Animals’ movements routes were mapped with their contacts area and posi- tive samples locations, hafair locations where animals contacts were mapped. This study demonstrated the value of GIS and GPS in disease mapping for animals’ health, and this might help veterinary authorities to implement strategic interventions for animal disease control.
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The Nile River developed toolbar is used for analyzing the Spatial Relationships for all structures along Nile River. The developed system is integrated with the developed base map, which it has the ability to analyze geographic location and the information linked to those locations. In a dynamic process; maps can be created, information can be linked to a map, and data can be visualized and analyzed in new ways. The cardinality which represents the record relationships between tables describes how individual record values relate to each other. Such as Nile River km, water pump stations, and Hydro-power stations a one-to-many cardinality, which means that individual records from km may be repeated for many related records in water pump stations and Hydro- power stations. For Nile River, monitoring and evaluating morphological changes during time period by using Hydrographic maps produced and designed by Nile Research Institute NRI which stored in developed geo- database indicates trends and patterns.
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or less than − 0.5 ◦ C, it is considered a non-neutral condition; otherwise, it is considered a neutral condition. Similarly, a ± 0.3 ◦ C value is used as a threshold between non-neutral and neutral years in the southern Indian Ocean using the SIO in- dex. This value is also about two-thirds of 1 standard devia- tion for the anomalies of the SSTs over this region. Thus, if both ENSO and SIO indices are used together, four different combinations can be defined based on these classifications. The first is when both ENSO and SIO indices are neutral (29 out of 100 events), the second is when both ENSO and SIO indices are non-neutral (19 out of 100 events), the third when SIO is non-neutral and ENSO is neutral (26 out of 100 events) and, finally, when SIO is neutral and ENSO is non- neutral (26 out of 100 events). Each of these combinations is considered a mode of natural variability in the flow of the Nile River. Then, the Nile flow is calculated as a predictand using multiple linear regression, with the ENSO and SIO in- dices of each mode as predictors.
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Abstract. In the present study, spatial and temporal patterns of rain event properties are analysed. These event properties are rain event depth, event duration, mean event rain rate, peak rain rate and the time span between two consecutive rain events which is referred to as inter-event time (IET). In addi- tion, we assessed how rain event properties change when the period over which rainfall data is aggregated changes from 1 to 6 min and when the minimum inter-event time (MIT) changes from 30 min to 8 h. Rainfall data is obtained from a field campaign in two wet seasons of June–August (JJA) of 2007 and 2008 in Gilgel Abbay watershed that is situated at the source basin of the Upper Blue Nile River in Ethiopia. The rainfall data was automatically recorded at eight stations. The results revealed that rain event depth is more related to peak rain rate than to event duration. At the start and to- wards the end of the wet season, the rain events have larger depth with longer duration and longer IET than those in mid- season. Event rain rate and IET are strongly related to ter- rain elevation. Sekela which is on a mountain area has the shortest IET while Bahir Dar which is at the south shore of Lake Tana has the longest IET. The period over which rainfall data is aggregated significantly affected the values of rain event properties that are estimated using relatively small value (30 min) of MIT but its effect diminished when the MIT is increased to 8 h. It is shown that increasing the value of MIT has the largest effect on rain event properties of mountain stations that are characterised by high rainfall intermittency.
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The loads which our system is subject to are of different kinds. The understanding of the way that these loadings operate on the wind and the river current turbines are of paramount importance to avoid their catastrophic failure (Xu & Ishihara, 2014). Therefore, the most basic types of loads need to be described, whereas the ones with the highest impact on our structure are thoroughly explained and calculated. The aim of this procedure was to ensure that our system can withstand the external forces acting on it without deformation or significant displacement of its equilibrium position and that its dynamic responses to the imposing loads are within the permissible limits, resulting in its safe operation .
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and 0.4 – during the B–A is rather low compared with ob- served values for Libya and does not further support this hypothesis (Fig. 5a). The observed sedimentological char- acteristics tend to indicate Tunisia/northern Algeria as the main dust provenance (Formenti et al., 2011a). According to previously published data, the mineralogical composition is indeed consistent with a source from northern or cen- tral Algeria (Fig. 7a), but the low content in palygorskite ruled out any major contribution from Tunisian loess (Bout- Roumazeilles et al., 2007). The development of humid condi- tions during the B–A is evidenced by an increased contribu- tion of river vs. eolian supply in the Aegean Sea (core SL128, Fig. 1) (Hamann et al., 2008), by pollen association from the Alboran (ODP976, Fig. 1) and Adriatic Sea (Combourieu- Nebout et al., 1998, 2002; Fletcher and Sanchez-Go˜ni, 2008) and by a speleothem record from the eastern Mediterranean (Bar-Matthew et al., 2003), contrasting with the clay min- eral record from the Sicilian–Tunisian Strait. The sea surface temperatures (SST, Fig. 3) – as reconstructed from plank- tonic foraminifera at site MD04-2797 – are high during the Bølling–Allerød (Ellassami et al., 2007), consistently with general warm oceanic conditions, relatively high humidity and temperatures compared with present-day in Sicily and central Mediterranean (Ramrath et al., 2000; Allen et al., 2002; Zielhofer et al., 2008). The dominance of semi-desert plants at site MD04-2797 (Desprat et al., 2013) confirms the persistence of dry continental conditions over Africa during the B–A. These results tend to confirm contrasting climatic evolution (e.g. Roberts et al., 2008), with humid conditions in the northeastern and eastern Mediterranean but aridity still persistent in the southern Mediterranean.
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total area of Egypt (Amin, 2008). Soils of Assiut Governorate have an irregular relief, whereas, the land surface varies from smooth to almost flat and slightly slopes toward the west. The predominant climate is arid. The daily temperature varies from 5 to 21°C in winter and from 20 to 41°C in summer. The rainfall in the area is practically nil, except some light showers that rarely fall during winter and some unrecorded flash floods coming from the eastern desert. Assiut governorate area in the eastern part of the Nile valley was divided into
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This paper aims to suggest a strategic project to adapt climate changes impacts in water resources irrigation. This could be achieved by use pipeline in irrigation rather than fossil fuel pumps in Egypt. The case study is the eastern reach between Aswan High Dam and Esna barrage. The agriculture lands there are higher than Nile level, so irrigation pumps are used to lift water. These irrigation pumps could be replaced be pipeline at high level lands. The RS application was carried out to get spatial distributions of cultivated lands nearby irrigation pipeline outlets. The Modis was used to develop vegetation map for the east side of the river at the study reach. This map provides spatially detailed cultivated land distribution that support future plans of irrigation. It was estimated that the total cultivated areas are 206692 feddan at year 2015. The GIS module was used to assemble the collection data of the existing irrigation pump stations at the study reach in different layers through geo-database. Depending on the available data, it was established 34 outlets nodes on the pipeline route to supply the water for different cultivated land zones. The future water irrigation demands of the outlets nodes were computed according to the available data. The hydraulic modeling of the pipeline was carried out. The pipeline was divided to four segments according to its design flow rate and diameters. The model simulation of the ultimate system was performed to properly size the pipeline based on its proposed alignment, and future water irrigation demands. The results of the study show that the proposed solution would provide more reliable, less cost effective
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Aswan city is found in the south of Egypt; located at ~ 24°05N 32°53E. It has a rich aquatic ecosystem with the main course of the Nile River along with many irrigation and drainage canals. Data of the seasonal distribution of Polygonum senegalensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton crispus and P. perfoliatus were collected at different sites (Fig. 4; Table 1). These sites represent different environments regarding water quality status, e.g., non-polluted and polluted conditions as described in Table 1.
Seven sampling sites were selected by considering nature and velocity of the flowing river, accessibility, interference by human beings and other farm animals and substrate type of the sediments and suitability for setting gillnets, the coordinates of the sampling sites were determined using GPS (Figure 1 and Table 1). Data was collected both in dry season (April 2012) and wet season (October 2011). Fish was sampled by an overnight setting of multifilament and monofilament gillnets. Multifilament gillnets had mesh sizes 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 cm stretched bar mesh and a length of 25 m and a depth of 1.5 m. Whereas monofilament gillnets had mesh sizes of 5 mm - 55 mm and a length of 25 m and a depth of 1.5 m. Fish were identified to the species level using the keys developed by Nagelkerke (1997). After taking the entire necessary information, individual specimen were preserved with 4% formalin and put in plastic jar and was transported to the laboratory of Bahir Dar Fisheries and other Aquatic Life Research Center for further identification and to serve as a reference specimen.
ecological integrity (El-Shibini & Rydzewski, 1977). AbuZeid and El-Shibini (1997) argues that the High Aswan Dam is the main source for sustainable irrigation, hydropower and navigation improvement. They also confirm that the dam has saved Egypt twice: (a) from a dangerous flood series, which occurred in the late 1970s, and (b) from severe droughts in the mid-1980s. Other scholars see the Aswan high dam as an obstacle to ecological process. Rosenberg (2017) confirms that before the building of a dam at Aswan, Egypt experienced annual floods from the Nile River that deposited four million tons of nutrient-rich sediment, which enabled agricultural production.
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In the study area, coal is used in smelters that repre- sent a major source of environmental pollution with HMs. On the other hand, the natural sources of pollu- tion are the drains of the watersheds in the upstream and the Eastern Desert rocks during the seasonal flash floods. Also, the study area contains huge canal/drain networks. These networks facilitate the dispersal of pollutants into the river. The irrigation system in this region is by surface irrigation; therefore, the excess water containing these organic and/or inorganic chemical compounds migrates to the drains by infiltration or seepage. The aims of this work were the determination of the River Nile water quality and spatial as well as tem- poral variation in its inorganic chemical contents be- tween Qena and Sohag districts.
Worldwide, RCM’s are used for a variety of applications related to the hydrology and water resources of river basins (see e.g. a review of Giorgi and Mearns, 1999). Bonan (1995) and Sun et al. (1999a) used RCM’s to study the influence of the Nile source water (Equatorial lakes) on the regional climate. They demonstrated a strong atmosphere-lake inter- action that significantly modulates the regional climate of East Africa. Sun et al. (1999b) also showed that there is a strong positive correlation between the Upper Nile precipita- tion (over lake Victoria) and the warm El Ni˜no-Southern Os- cillations ENSO. This is also confirmed by Farmer (1988), Nicholson (1996) and others. Results from Global Climate Models (GCM) were used to study the impact of climate change/variability on the Nile water resources, e.g. Conway and Hulme (1996). The IPCC Third Assessment Report, Working Group II (Watson et al., 2001) gives a review of the possible impacts of climate change on the Nile water re- sources. The report shows the difficulty in predicting the Nile response to global warming because of the fact that different simulations give conflicting results. Unlike the Amazon and the Mississippi basins, no RCM study has been made to in- vestigate the impact of land use changes on the Nile climate. In the present study, the Regional Atmospheric Climate MOdel RACMO (Lenderink et al., 2003) is run over the Nile for the period 1995 to 2000. The objective is to obtain a bet- ter understanding of the water cycle over the Nile and the em-
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