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Improving Soil Physical Indicators by Soil Amendment to a Saline-Sodic Soil

Improving Soil Physical Indicators by Soil Amendment to a Saline-Sodic Soil

The application of organic amendments can be an appropriate solution to reclaim and improve physical properties of saline-sodic soils. In this research, an experiment was performed under greenhouse conditions to study the effect of amendments to the physical properties of loamy saline-sodic soil. The five treatments were control (without amendment), municipal solid waste compost (MC), vermicomposting (VC), poultry manure (PM), and gypsum powder (G). They were carried out in a completely randomized design with three replications. Each treatment comprised 10 ton/ha of the specified soil added to the soil. The results showed that soil amendments decreased bulk density (p<0.05) and increased mean weight diameter of aggregates (MWD) (p<0.05) over the control. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) for the G treatment was significantly higher than other treatments (p<0.05). The addition of amendments significantly increased the S gi index, which is defined as the slope of the retention curve at its
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COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL

COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL

ABSTRACT:- Relative efficiency of gypsum, potassium silicate and their combinations at different levels for reclamation of saline sodic soil was tested. Treatments were replicated thrice. All pots were arranged according to completely randomized design and treatments were applied to the soil according to treatment plan. Appropriate time was given to achieve the reclamation of saline sodic soil and relative efficiency was assessed through laboratory analysis. After this, rice seedling (Shaheen Basmati) was transplanted in all the pots i.e., 3 plants per pot. Necessary N, P and K fertilizers were applied at the recommended rate. After crop harvest, soil samples were taken for analysis of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of soil. All the amendments when used alone or in combination with each other improved the chemical parameters of soil. All levels of gypsum (100%, 75% and 50% G.R) proved effective in lowering pH, EC, SAR and ESP of saline sodic soil. Similar trend was observed with the use of all levels of potassium
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Effects of biochar on sodium ion accumulation, yield and quality of rice in saline-sodic soil of the west of Songnen plain, northeast China

Effects of biochar on sodium ion accumulation, yield and quality of rice in saline-sodic soil of the west of Songnen plain, northeast China

salinity stress to crops (Thomas et al. 2013, Yang et al. 2014), supply minerals nutrients, increase soil organic carbon, cation exchange capacity and to better plant growth (Akhtar et al. 2015, Chaganti and Crohn 2015). Biochar is favourable to optimize root morphology and physiological characteris- tics in rice and increases rice yield significantly; this effect of biochar on crop yield has also been increased with time (Steiner et al. 2008, Zhang et al. 2013). Research about the beneficial effects of biochar has mostly focused on low latitude area, tropical soils or on soil physico-chemical param- eters and dry crop. There are a limited number of reports describing the effects of biochar on rice grown in saline-sodic paddy soil. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of biochar on yield, quality and sodium ion accumulation of different rice plant parts in saline-sodic paddy soil. It is anticipated that the study results will be useful for formulating novel management ways for improving crop production on saline-sodic soil.
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Impact of Gypsum Particle Size on Soil Physical Properties of a Saline-Sodic Soil from North Sinai, Egypt

Impact of Gypsum Particle Size on Soil Physical Properties of a Saline-Sodic Soil from North Sinai, Egypt

The saline-sodic soil used in this study was collected from the surface 15-cm layer of a field in Gelbana Village, Sahl El-Tina plain, Sinai. The soil had a history of irrigation with El-Salam Canal (EC 1.5 dSm-1). This region has an extreme continental climate with hot dry summer and rather-wet winter (100-mm of precipitation mainly from November to March). Main crops in this region are wheat, barley, beans and maize, fully dependant on Nile irrigation water of El- Salam Canal. Soil samples were physically and chemically characterized by the standard methods of Black et al. (1965) (Table 1). Soil columns were prepared by packing 8.20 kg of sieved (< 2 mm) and air-dried soil into polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cylinders of 40-cm height and 16-cm inside diameter and was set in a vertical position. Soil samples were packed in columns to make a 30-cm height with a bulk density of 1.36 Mg m -3 . A filter paper disc was put at the bottom of the cylinder with 5-cm layer of acid-washed inert sand (pre-washed with HCl then by distilled water) to form a sand layer in order to prevent removal of soil particles by the flowing water. The top 5-cm on the soil surface gave sufficient space for adding the leaching process. Before packing, the soils were mixed with three treatment of gypsum (CaSO 4 .2H 2 O) different in there diameter: T1"fine
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CROP RESIDUES AND PHOSPHORUS EFFECT ON YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF DIRECT SEEDED RICE AND WHEAT GROWN UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOIL

CROP RESIDUES AND PHOSPHORUS EFFECT ON YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF DIRECT SEEDED RICE AND WHEAT GROWN UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOIL

40 kg ha was broadcasted uniformly. Effective weedicides were used to control weeds and the crop was grown to maturity. All agronomic require- ments and plant protection measures were met throughout the growth period whenever required. Each crop was harvested at maturity and the data on paddy/grain yields of direct seeded rice and wheat were collected to compute the economic analysis. The economic analysis of crop residues incorporation and four P fertilizer rates applied to direct sowing of rice and wheat crops grown under saline-sodic soil was computed (CIMMYT, 1998).
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Growth Response of Sunflower to Potassium Sulphate Application in Saline-sodic Soil

Growth Response of Sunflower to Potassium Sulphate Application in Saline-sodic Soil

Use of potassium sulphate as fertilizer, especially in saline sodic soil provides assistance in growth to sunflower. Fresh mass is an indicator signifying the moisture having water and dissolved chemicals in it for binding the tissues [6]. The more the fresh mass of a plant, the more moisture it has. Further, under salt stress, water retention by tissue of glycophyte is low.

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Effects of nano iron oxide powder and urban solid waste compost coated sulfur on chemical properties of a saline-sodic soil

Effects of nano iron oxide powder and urban solid waste compost coated sulfur on chemical properties of a saline-sodic soil

The main limiting factors in saline-sodic soils are high amounts of salts, low soil organic matter (SOM) and low availability of macro and micro-nutrients. The effect of different amounts of nano iron oxide powder and urban solid waste compost coated sulfur (USWCS) on the chemical properties of a saline-sodic soil was investigated. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement and three replications, in a farm near Qom city. Treatments used in this study included USWCS (0 and 15 ton/ha) and nano iron oxide powder (0 and 20 mg/kg); treatments were applied to treated plots of 4 m 2 and sunflower seeds were sown. The results show that 20 mg/kg
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Rationalizing the Use of Water of Salinity Hazards for Irrigating Maize Grown in a Saline Sodic Soil

Rationalizing the Use of Water of Salinity Hazards for Irrigating Maize Grown in a Saline Sodic Soil

OILS of Fayoum depression are mostly salt affected and usually irrigated with water of EC around 1.2±0.2 dS m -1 . The current research was conducted to investigate the effects of gypsum, organic manure and humic acid applied to a saline sodic clay soil (EC 5.7 ±0.1 ) singly or in combinations under two irrigation systems (furrow and drip systems) at two levels of irrigation (100% of the water requirements (WR) and 75% of WR) on water saving in relation to maize productivity. The results indicated that amendments significantly increased grain yield; more upon using each singly than in combination. Increases were more pronounced with increasing the amount of irrigation water from 75% of the WR to 100% of WR. Grain yield was significantly higher in the second growing season than the first one which means a successful sustaining production of maize in the area of study. Protein content in grains ranged from 144.2 to 163.7 g kg -1 which is higher than the protein content of the maize imported by Egypt from other countries. Virtual water values (VWV) ranged between 0.60 to 0.89 m 3 kg -1 grains under drip system which was superior in the efficiency of using water for producing crop yield than values of 1.00 to 1.52 m 3 kg -1 under the furrow system.
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Sodium Adsorption Ratio-Exchangeable Sodium Percentage Relationships in a High Potassium Saline-Sodic Soil

Sodium Adsorption Ratio-Exchangeable Sodium Percentage Relationships in a High Potassium Saline-Sodic Soil

As the plot areas, including the checks and the non-treated border areas were irrigated with the low EC water (EC — 2001xmhos), and the excess salts were leached out, the areas with the[r]

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Assessment of a low rank coal inoculated with coal solubilizing bacteria as an organic amendment for a saline-sodic soil

Assessment of a low rank coal inoculated with coal solubilizing bacteria as an organic amendment for a saline-sodic soil

The results presented in Fig.  2a indicate that the activ- ity of the LiP enzymes in the second and fourth months for treatments C-P, C-AB and C showed significant dif- ferences (P  <  0.05) relative to the control. At the sixth month, significant differences between treatments C-P and C-AB with respect to the control were seen. Treat- ment C-P presented significant differences from the control and other treatments during the months it was treated with LRC and CSB. Treatment C-P presented significant differences from the control and other treat- ments during the months it was treated with LRC and CSB. According to these results, it is not possible to attribute the activity of the LiP enzymes to inoculum that was applied because the strains CSB25, CSB13, CSB3 used in this bioassay have not been reported as produc- ing LiP enzymes, which are most associated with fungi [13]. However, bacteria use non-enzymatic mechanisms for the solubilization of LRC, such as the production of surfactants, release of metal chelating compounds that bind the macromolecular structure of coal, and the pro- duction of alkaline substances that dissolve soluble mol- ecules and HS in the coal matrix [45]; possibly, this may stimulate the growth of native LiP-producing fungi or soil fungi found as accompanying flora in the pore spaces in the LRC-added soil. Due to its organic nature and con- tent of important elements for microbial nutrition such as nitrogen, sulfur, iron, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen and trace elements, it is a substrate for the colonization and growth of microorganisms, whose biological pro- cesses can be used as an energy source [9, 10].
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Fluoride Adsorption by a Saline Sodic Soil Irrigated with a High F Water

Fluoride Adsorption by a Saline Sodic Soil Irrigated with a High F Water

In a previous study 6 lysimeters filled with 0.7 m of saline sodic subsoil and 0.3 m of sodic surface soil and irrigated at 0.15 and 0.30 leaching fractions, retained over 98% of the app[r]

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Impact of Calcium Source on Modification of Properties of Saline-Sodic Soils

Impact of Calcium Source on Modification of Properties of Saline-Sodic Soils

Application of chemical amendments enhanced reclamation of the saline- sodic soil and caused more decreases in salinity as well as sodicity to a considerable extent. The studied treatments could be arranged in the following order, calcium chloride (CC) > Phosphogypsum (PG) > agricultural gypsum (AG). The solubility of these sources in water, particularly calcium chloride is a result of such effect. Phosphogypsum (PG) showed a relatively greater effect in decreasing soil EC, pH, SAR, ESP and bulk density compared with agricultural gypsum (AG) reflecting more Ca 2 released from the former, probably due to its acidity. This study suggests that leaching using Ca +2 sources amendments (i.e., AG, PG and CC) would improve the chemical and physical properties of saline sodic soils.
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Plants in Remediating Salinity affected Agricultural Landscapes

Plants in Remediating Salinity affected Agricultural Landscapes

Low cost of this tactic is one key strength. Phytoremediation is an in-situ, solar-driven technique. Moreover, the costs towards planting, fertilization, tillage, and harvesting are far less compared with associated administrative costs including regulatory reporting, on-site management, and analysis of data (Gaskin, 2008). By and large, phytoremediation is at least 10-fold cheaper than structural engineering- based remediation methods, such as soil washing or burning, soil excavation or pump-and-treat systems (Glass, 1999). It exploits the inherent capacity of plants in remediating saline soils and water, inflicting minimal disturbance to other related systems (Dickinson et al., 2009). Use of in-situ plants avoids significant environmental impacts resulting from land disturbance associated with soil preparation for planting. Further, these disturbances may cause additional, downstream impacts, for example, the mobilization of salts into waterways.Plants used in this method also help stabilization of soil, reduction of soil erosion, and protect humans from the inhalation of fine-soil particles (Frick et al., 1999). This provides two key benefits to farmers who struggle with salinity in the farming landscapes: The necessity to procure chemical amendments such as gypsum is defeated. Overall benefits enhance both financially and at the farm during and after reclamation (Qadir et al., 2007). These methods provide additional benefits by increasing nutrient availability in the reclaimed soil over any other reclamation strategy. For example, after phytoremediation of salinesodic soil, the levels of N, P, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn have been found to increase in the reclaimed soil (Malik et al., 1986; Qadir et al., 1997). In Australian alkaline–sodic soils, availability of N (from urea) became a problem because of low urease activity at >8 pH (Naidu and Rengasamy, 1993). However, the activity of urease and
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Potential Use of Halophytes in Combination with Gypsum to Reclaim and Restore Saline-Sodic Soils in Egypt

Potential Use of Halophytes in Combination with Gypsum to Reclaim and Restore Saline-Sodic Soils in Egypt

A halophyte is a hydrophobic plant that is capable of surviving in a highly saline environment. Halophytes can grow in salt marshes, live on cliffs and dunes near the oceans, and adapt to the desert environments. Nevertheless, Custódia Gago et al. (2011) found that 20% of halophytic plant species, mainly glycophytes, cannot survive in saline environments. Halophytes adopt salinity tolerance mechanisms such as salt exclusion, uptake, compartmentalisation and extrusion (Holly, 2004). While the physiological uniqueness of halophytes is often expressed in morphological features such as salt glands, salt hairs, and succulence, they evolve different mechanisms to deal with excess sodium and other salts in their environments (Holly, 2004; Naidoo and Naidoo, 1999). Some vascular halophytes accumulate high levels of salts in their above-ground parts (Gorham et al., 1987). Thus, functioning halophytes are ion accumulators and ion excreters, to be able to phytoremediate excess soil salinity and sodicity. Rush and Epstein (1981) found that, as an adaptation mechanism to saline environments, ion accumulators (hyperaccumulators) absorb high amounts of ions. The accumulation of salts reduces the requirements for increased wall extensibility, leaf thickness, and water permeability required to maintain positive growth and turgor at low soil water potentials. The objective of this study was to examine amelioration of a saline-sodic soil in Egypt using halophyte plants and gypsum.
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5. Morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of crop plants to salinity: an updated review

5. Morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of crop plants to salinity: an updated review

The measure of harvest yield diminishment relies on upon such components as product development, the salt substance of the dirt, climatic conditions, and so forth. In amazing situations where the convergence of salts in the root zone is high, edit development might be altogether anticipated. To enhance crop development in such soils the abundance salts must be expelled from the root zone. The term recovery of saline soils alludes to the strategies used to expel dissolvable salts from the root zone. Saline-sodic soils may be reclaimed through the addition of amendments to alter the soil pore system and hydraulic functions, therefore allowing salts to be leached from the soil. Shaygan [33] suggests that a slower water movement (an increased percolation time) and a greater rate of cation exchange were associated with the greater leaching efficiency. Therefore, addition of bentonite improves and accelerates the reduction of salinity and sodicity. Mahmoodabadi [34] concluded that in absence of sulfuric acid, pistachio residue was the best amendment in reducing soil EC and SAR. Furthermore, they found synergistic or antagonistic behaviors between gypsum and organic amendments in particular for the monovalent cations [34]. Furthermore, remediating salinesodic soils with organic amendments is increasingly seen as a cheaper and sustainable alternative to inorganic materials. The reclamation potential of biochar, biosolids and greenwaste composts applied to a salinesodic soil was evaluated in a laboratory leaching experiment using moderate SAR reclaimed water. Chaganti [35] reported that although individual organic
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Effect of dispersed clay and soil pore size on the hydraulic conductivity of soils irrigated with saline-sodic water

Effect of dispersed clay and soil pore size on the hydraulic conductivity of soils irrigated with saline-sodic water

The application of RW to the soil columns after treatment with saline-sodic water caused a more severe reduction in areal porosity and macroporosity. These reductions were related to a combined effect of high ESP and reduced EC in the soil solution as soluble salts leached out of the soil profile. Leaching the saline-sodic soils with RW resulted in a decrease in ionic concentrations (Na + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and K + ) of the soil solution and where coupled with the high ESP resulted in an expansion of the diffuse double layer leading to clay dispersion (Naidu and Rengasamy, 1993; Tanji, 1990; Qadir and Schubert, 2002). Hence, degradation of saline-sodic soil aggregates is expected to be more severe at the soil surface due to the more rapid decrease in EC and the high ESP at the surface. Under field conditions the impact of entrapped air release and the stirring action caused by water application will also increase dispersion of soil aggregates at the soil surface (Shainberg and Letey, 1984; Shainberg et al. 1992; Oster and Jayawardane, 1998). Images of the soil surface after applying RW show almost complete breakdown of the soil aggregates and soil structure (Figure 6-26). Aggregate breakdown might have resulted from osmotic potential differences between the bulk soil solution and the interior of the soil aggregates leading to water flow into the micropores causing clay swelling and dispersion (Ayers and Westcot, 1976; Hanson et al. 1999).
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EFFECT OF BORON NUTRITION ON PADDY YIELD UNDER SALINESODIC SOILS

EFFECT OF BORON NUTRITION ON PADDY YIELD UNDER SALINESODIC SOILS

1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha ) on growth, yield and ionic concentration of fine rice (Supper Basmati) under saline sodic soil at SSRI, Pindi Bhattian was studied during 2009 and 2010. The treatments were arranged in rando- mized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treat- ments under investigation were: con-

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GROWTH AND YIELD OF DIFFERENT BRASSICA GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE SODIC CONDITIONS

GROWTH AND YIELD OF DIFFERENT BRASSICA GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE SODIC CONDITIONS

addition of crop yields. Among all genotypes under study, Dunkled and Sultan Raya produced comparable more seed yield. These results lead to conclude that Dunkled and Sultan Raya may be superior and could successfully be cultivated on saline-sodic soils having an Ece =

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Comparative effects of different soil amendments on amelioration of saline sodic soils

Comparative effects of different soil amendments on amelioration of saline sodic soils

Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the potential of different soil amendments in saline-sodic soils reclamation; to affect the growth response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants grown on two saline-sodic soils; and to evaluate the comparative efficiency of different soil amendments for their effects on salinity, sodicity, and pH levels of the soils. To achieve these objectives, two highly saline-sodic soils were selected (Abees, Typic torrifluvents and Elhammam, Typic calciorthids). Different soil amendments were used (compost, anthracite coal powder, water treatment residuals, ferrous sulphate, and a combination of them). The results of the study indicated that pH of Elhammam soil was less affected than pH of Abees soil after the amendment application because of the high calcium carbonate content which acted as a buffer and resisted any appreciable change in soil pH in the alkaline range. The positive effects of all treat- ments followed the order: T16 > T12 > T13 > T14 = T5 > T11 = T15 > T7 > T8 > T4 = T6 > T9 = T10 > T2 >T3> T1 >T0. The most effective amendment in reducing SAR e in the experimental soils was T16. This was due to the presence of Al in WTRs and Fe in ferrous sulphate which enhanced the leaching process, and the presence of high adsorptive capacity materials like WTRs and compost which adsorb more sodium. The positive effects of all treatments for reducing SAR e in Abees soil followed the order: T16 > T15 > T14 > T13 > T11 > T12 .While, in Elhammam soil, the order was: T16 > T15 > T14 > T13 = T11>T12 = T5. The removal sodium efficiency (RSE) or percentage of Na-removed from the soils at the end of the experiment was significantly reduced after the application of the amendments. RSE of T16 proved the highest value (76%) among the treatments for the two soils used, followed by T15 and T14. The yield of biomass at T16 significantly increased, the increase being 959% in comparison with T0 in Abees soil, while the increase in biomass yield was 1452% in comparison with T0 in Elhammam soil. However, field tests are necessary to draw the final conclusions.
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Application of electro-kinesis for saline-sodic irrigation management

Application of electro-kinesis for saline-sodic irrigation management

The soil pH adjacent to the electrodes was rapidly and significantly altered by EK application (Figures 4-3, 4-4 & 4-11). The effect was consistent with the expected oxidation and reduction (electrolysis) processes occurring at the electrodes (Section 2.6.1) with pH decreased near the anode (surface) due to the generation of H + ions and increased near the cathode (bottom) due to generation of OH - ions. The pH at the anode was generally highly acidic (<4) while the area adjacent to the cathode was highly basic (~12). In both cases, these extreme pH values could be expected to have an impact on the availability (and solubility) of other ions in the solution and adversely affect plant root growth. The acidic region generated near the anode (surface) was observed (e.g. Figure 4-11) to migrate downwards in the column (presumably due to electro-osmosis, electro-migration, diffusion and/or gravitational drainage). The highly acidic pH extended throughout the sand column (except for within 10 cm of the cathode) after only 48 h of EK in the short (30 cm columns) but required longer (e.g. >96 h) EK in the longer (50 cm columns). In contrast, the region of basic pH generated adjacent to the cathode did not advance far (<10 cm) from the cathode in either column length possibly because of the downward movement of the irrigation water restricting the migration of OH - ions upward from the cathode.
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