Exploitation of variability displayed by wild Solanum species for breeding the cultivated potato (S. tuberosum) requires phenotypic and genotypic characterization of germplasm resources. In the present work, a collection of 15 wild So- lanum species was investigated for resistance to pathotype Ro2 of the nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Most of the genotypes reduced reproduction of the nematode, compared to the control variety Spunta, a highly resistant genotype being an accession of S. tuberosum spp. andigena. The genetic variability of the Gro1 gene cluster, which confers re- sistance to some pathotypes of G. rostochiensis, was then studied in the Solanum species used in this study. For this purpose, SCAR markers for eight paralogues of Gro1 gene were developed. No species showed the same pattern of the resistant control genotype. Moreover, wide-genome variability was also assessed by using AFLP markers, which al- lowed species-specific markers to be identified for each genotype analyzed
Cluster bean, one of the most important cash legume crop has played an increasingly important role in wide range of industries. Owing to the significance of molecular marker studies in numerous applications including in genetic improvement of crops, there is an obvious need to undertake such studies in cluster bean. In the present work, 35 genotypes of cluster bean were collected from different states of India and analyzed using RAPD and ISSR markers. Further SCAR marker system was introduced in order to in- crease the reproducibility of the polymorphism and specificity. For this polymorphic (RP-3, 1000 bp; RP-19, 1250 bp and 1100 bp) and geographical spe- cific bands (RP-9, 650 bp) from RAPD as well as ge- notype specific band (IS-8, 550 bp) from genotype RGC-1031 (Rajasthan) from ISSR were selected and converted into SCAR markers. The study revealed first set of sequence-based SCAR markers in cluster bean which found more specific information using RAPD and ISSR profiles. One genotype specific SCAR-20 for RGC-1031 (tolerant genotype against Macrophomina phaseolina), could be used to prove identity of the genotype for improvement as well for its genetic purity assessment. Another SCAR-8 was selected due to its specificity for cluster bean geno- types from Rajasthan which might be important for population admixture studies.
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Abstract: The dioecious property of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) prevents sex recognition via traditional observation at the juvenile stage, thus impeding breeding and economic cropping; RAPD and SCAR markers were used to identify the sexes. A total of 45 random decamer primers were used to screen genomic DNA pools of staminate and pistillate genotypes for genetic polymorphisms. One female sex-linked marker was identified. D15 (5′-CATCCGTGCT-3′) amplified a particular band of 885 bp, which showed polymorphism among staminate and pistillate genotype plants. The SCAR marker Hrcx-15 was obtained by sequencing the fragment. The alleles of 140 pistillate genotypes were examined but not of the 140 staminate genotypes discerned via taxonomy. Staminate and pistillate genotypes of sea buckthorn plants can be distinguished, using Hrcx-15 as a genetic marker for sex identification and for expediting cultivation for commercial applications.
Molecular biology offers various techniques that can be applied for plant identification. Genetic polymorphism in plants has been widely studied which helps in dis- tinguishing plants at inter- and/or intra-species level 6. PCR based methods including Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) 7 can be effectively used for the study of phylogeny and genetic diversity. RAPD markers have been used for the identification of cultivars and for assessing genetic diversity among cultivars of
genome. It has been developed for genetic mapping, fin- gerprinting, and is widely used in inter- and intra- specific population polymorphism analyses of different organ- isms . It has proved to be a powerful tool for dis- criminating different species or subspecies of organisms, and for genetic analysis or phylogenetic relationships among strains for a variety of microorganisms, plants, and mammals [11, 12]. In addition, it has been used for strain discrimination in various S. enterica serovars [13– 16]. However, this method has an underlying disadvan- tage of being less reliable due to its sensitivity to reaction parameters such as quality of DNA template, concentra- tions of PCR components and PCR cycling conditions [17, 18]. Sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) is derived by converting RAPD markers through clon- ing and sequencing the two ends of the amplified poly- morphic RAPD fragments . SCAR markers are more reliable, efficient and advantageous than RAPD markers because they are reproducible, less sensitive to reaction parameters and able to detect a single locus. Hence, these qualities allowed its use as a genetic marker [19–21].
Comparative analysis of PCR profiles obtained with the use of both SCAR markers demonstrates (Table 2) that the results are the same in 82% of genotypes: spe- cific amplification fragments were identified in 45 geno- types with the use of both SCS123F/R and SCS253F/R markers, which indicates that the Lr19 gene of resistance to brown leaf rust is present on 7D chromosomes of these genotypes. The existence of the Lr19 gene has not been proven in 5 of 61 genotypes used, because specific fragments amplified with any of the applied markers were not identified in these genotypes.
Molecular marker-assisted selection is widely utilized in crop breeding, especially for showing recessive or polygenic inheritance traits that are difficult to select directly (Chen et al., 2010). Sterility expression (gene expression) is influenced by the environment, but the environment does not alter the gene (Shifriss and Guri, 1979; Dhaliwal and Jindal, 2014). Some CMS molecular markers have been used for fertility selection in pepper. Kim and Kim (2005) developed sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers for the early identification of the CMS genotype in chili pepper. Two CMS-specific SCAR markers (coxII and atp6) were developed to distinguish normal (N) from sterile (S) cytoplasm using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Other molecular markers, such as accD-U7 (Jo et al., 2009) and orf456 (Kim et al., 2007), have been used to speed up CMS selection and application, and to improve breeding outcomes. However, a single molecular marker for determining S-cytoplasm has not yet been identified as reliable or correct. Recently, Ji et al. (2014) developed a new molecular marker, CMS-SCAR 130 , that could reliably distinguish S-cytoplasm in pepper CMS lines (130 bp) from the maintainer line (140 bp). The results indicated that CMS-SCAR 130 is more reliable than the orf507, Ψatp6-2, or accD-U markers. If the CMS-SCAR 130 and CRF-SCAR markers both work in the YBM-CMS lines, we can easily identify the best suited restorer lines, which is a key step to reduce the workload for the restorer line.
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and DIT-5 did not amplify any fragment where the genomic DNA of any plant hosts was used as template (Figures 5 and 6). Thirty cycles of PCR amplification using specific primers produced a sufficient amount of the predicted-size frag- ments (325 bp for DIT-2 and 245 bp for DIT-5) to visualize them on the ethidium bromide-stained gels, with one-fifth of the PCR reaction volume (5.0 µl) loaded on the gel. Previously, we described a PCR-based technique for sensitive identification of the stem nematode D. dipsaci in plant material (Marek et al. 2005). This technique was based on evolutionary divergent ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster (rDNA). The rDNA is multicopy, tandemly repeated array ac- cording in the nucleolar organizer region at one or several chromosomal sites (Szalanski et al. 1997), and is therefore very suitable for DNA amplification methods. However, Subbotin et al. (2004) pointed on the closest ITS rDNA sequence similarities between the stem nematode D. dipsaci and some species of Heteroanquina, Mesoanquina and Subanquina genera, which complicates de- velopment of molecular detection based on the rDNA cistron. Hence, this report shows the use- fulness of converting alternative RAPD markers into reliable SCAR markers. This study is the only second report of SCAR analysis on D. dipsaci. Esquibet et al. (1998) did previous SCAR analyses on the stem nematode D. dipsaci, but the authors did not solve DNA-diagnostics problems. In this study, we developed the first species-specific
Device development and standardization AutoCAD was used to design a scar stretch device that could easily attach and detach from skin. The components of the device include a skin adhesive mechanism and an extension force mechanism, allowing for reliable attachment and detachment of the device [Figure 1]. The device prototypes were constructed using inert materials purchased from Small Parts Inc. (www.smallpartsinc.com): steel spring (Stainless Steel 316 Compression Spring), polyvinyl tubing (White Translucent Miniature PTFE Tubing), Teflon rods (PTFE Round Rod), and an adhesive. Three different spring strengths for the scar stretch devices were created and labeled as 0.5×, 1× and 2× to investigate a dose response (1× = 0.96 Newton, as per manufacturer specifications). The devices were standardized to ensure similar extension force using a small force gauge (Jonard Industries, Tuckahoe, NY). Animal model
Although incisional endometriosis is after CS is rare, the rate of this clinical entity reported as high as 0.45% in a study . However, the incidence of this disease may increase in the course of time, if the number of CS operations increases. Malignant transformation of this type of endometriosis (adenocarcinoma or clear cell carcinoma) is exceptionally rare [15,16]. In the case of a mass in scar after caesarean section with pain or discomfort before or during menstruation, the clinician should always consider incisional endometriosis in differential diagnosis.
The coefficient of friction also correlates with the result of wear scar diameter, where the value of coefficient friction reduced until the concentration of ZDDP reaches 2.0wt%. The values for coefficient friction are sharply drop from 0.0551 at zero concentration to 0.0434 at 1wt% concentration of ZDDP. Then at 1.5wt% concentration of ZDDP the value of coefficient friction is steadily drop to 0.0430, and at 2.0wt% concentration ZDDP, the coefficient friction are slightly decrease until 0.0424. After which, at 2.5wt% concentration of ZDDP the value of coefficient friction start to increase until 0.0487, then the value of coefficient friction steadily increased to 0.0504 at 3.0 wt% concentration of ZDDP. For the mineral oil the value for coefficient friction is 0.0478.
For early intervention of the postoperative scar, three sessions of fractional CO 2 10,600 nm laser (Smartxide square, Deka, Florence, Italy) with 1-month interval were started after 4–6 weeks of surgery. The treatment areas were cleansed by using a mild cleanser. A topical anesthetic cream (eutectic mixture of 2.5% lidocaine hydrochloride and 2.5% prilocaine; eutectic mixture of local anesthetics; AstraZeneca AB, Sodertalje, Sweden) was applied. After an hour of application, the anes- thetic cream was gently removed to obtain a completely dry skin surface. Scarring sites were treated with fractional CO 2 using a power of 10–15 W according to the skin type, dwell time of 500 µs, stack 2, and 700 µm spacing. The application of a sunscreen was continued. Topical antibiotic cream was applied twice per day for 3 days following the session. Patients were instructed to use a full-spectrum sunscreen regularly.
fractional bipolar RF to treat mild to moderate acne scars. In this study, a single-pass 64-point multi-electrode bipolar RF device was used to deliver three treatment sessions at 4-week intervals. The scars were graded using the ECCA (Echelle d’Evaluation clinique des Cicatrices d’acné) grading system taking into account the significance of scar morphology and age of the scars. The study was able to show “much” improve- ment in 60% of patients and improvement in 30%. In addition to improvements in scarring, there were improvements in fine lines, wrinkles, skin tightness, and pigmentation. Patient satis- faction was high and tolerance of the treatment regimens was handled well with no erythema or pigmentation problems at 3 months’ follow-up. Of note, additional side effects not seen in other studies (bruising and transient erosions) were seen.
bean (Dolichos lablab) [11,12] and mungbean . It creates malformations in mungbean plants, which in turn inhibit photosynthetic efficiency and plant growth, ultimately leading to significant yield losses [7,14,15]. Khattak et al.  reported that YMD might lead to up to 32%–78% reduction in grain yield of mungbean. However, yield loss is more severe when the disease appears at early growth stages and may even lead up to 100% yield loss . Several approaches are adopted to manage YMD through the control of its vector, whitefly, such as the use of insecticide sprays and the application of different plant extracts; however, achieving 100% disease management remains very difficult. The wide host range, virus variation, and quantitative inheritance make it more challenging to breed YMD-resistant mungbean cultivars. Deploying resistant genotypes is an effective way to mitigate this disease. As such, there is a dire need to develop mungbean genotypes that are highly resistant to the specific viruses that cause YMD in them. In 2013, Panigrahi et al.  reviewed the recent development of molecular markers linked to YMD in Vigna species, identifying Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV)-linked markers that are useful for urdbean (also known as black gram, Vigna mungo). Recently, Naimuddin et al.  reviewed the current status of YMD in both mungbean and urdbean. They summarized the information on virus history, disease transmission, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based virus species detection, and the management of YMV through various approaches, such as cultural practices, integrated nutrient management (INM), integrated disease management (IDM), integrated pest management (IPM), and deployment of resistant genotypes.
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DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.812122 1208 Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology following vaginal delivery with episiotomy and in abdominal surgery scar areas following hysterectomy and Caesarean section . Scar endometriosis can be observed after procedures such as laparoscopy and amniocentesis  . The differential diagnosis are hematoma, suture granuloma, dermoid tumor, sarco- ma, abscess and metastatic malignancy. The incidence of malignant transforma- tion in scar endometriosis is 0.3% - 1% and it is diagnosed by histopathology af- ter the surgery. The most commonly seen malignancy is clear cell carcinoma. The possibility of malignant transformation of the lesion considered in cases that recurrency after surgery .
To validate the function of the AKAP12-positive cells in the fibrotic scar in vivo, histological differences in the fibrotic scar were compared between WT and AKAP12 KO mice after photo- thrombotic brain injury. The fibronectin staining data reveals that the scar structure of the AKAP12 KO mice was loosely assembled on day 21 after injury (Fig. 4A a/d). Consequently, more IBA1- positive immune cells infiltrated into the parenchymal tissues across the fibrotic scar (Fig. 4A b/e). Furthermore, IBA1-positive resident microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes near the fibrotic scar in the AKAP12 KO mice showed a hypertrophic morphology (Fig. 4A c/f), implying that inflammatory materials were discharged from the fibrotic scar. Immunostaining data shows that the expressions of ZO-1, Occludin and E-cadherin were significantly reduced in the fibrotic scar of the AKAP12 KO mice compared to the WT mice (Fig. 4B and C).When we analyzed lysates from the lesion tissues harvested as described in Fig. S3, the results of western blot revealed reduced levels of junction proteins in the lesion tissue of the AKAP12 KO mice similar to the result of immunostaining data, (Fig. 4D). These data suggest that AKAP12 is crucial for maintaining the junction complex of the cells which form scar barrier; and such breakage of the junction complex explains well the impaired scar structure (Fig. 4A a/d) and the scar barrier not functioning in the AKAP12 KO mice (Fig. 2C).
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Scholars are still looking for the indicators defining the view of the complete- ness of the uterine incision healing   . Are the fluid inserts at the scar location likely to be the signs of incomplete healing? The hypoechoic view in our cesarean delivery group tended to be more frequent from the beginning till the end of involution. Thus, the hypoechoic stripe within the scar does not mean any myometrial uncontinuity. The largest changes of the scar occur within the first month after C/S. It is difficult to compare the data as other authors deal with the monitoring interval ranging from week 1 to 6 after C/S or later   . We have measured the length and the width of the scar from the early pu- erperium, because the niche view (recorded by other authors) in our study starts to be determined just from 30 th or 42 nd postpartum days. Other authors recom-
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Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is defined as the implant- ation of a gestational sac within the scar of a previous cesarean surgery. If CSP is maintained, there are poten- tially higher risks that include uterine rupture, devastating hemorrhage, loss of subsequent fertility and even maternal mortality . Therefore, the standard protocol for CSP management is to terminate the pregnancy. Nevertheless, while the optimal management of CSP remains unclear, there is a variety of therapeutic strategies are currently in use, such as medical treatment with systemic MTX, medical treatment with systemic and local MTX, uterine curettage, hysteroscopy, resection of CSP through a trans- vaginal approach, uterine artery embolization, laparoscopy, and high-intensity focused ultrasound . Some compli- cated case may require combined application of several methods .
Outcome measurements: before and after pictures were qualitatively evaluated and compared for scar im- provement and acne improvement. Representative skin biopsies from two patients were taken before and after treatment and examined with standard hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain as well as Verhoeff’s Van Gieson (VVG) and Shikata stains for elastic fibers.
However in conclusion, comparing subcision to the other modalities of treatment of acne scars indicates that it is a simple procedure without much preparation. Only local anesthesia is required. It needs a maximum of 3 ses- sions. It is not complicated by hypo or hyper pigmentation noticed in other modalities such as chemical peel, dermobrasion and lasers . Also there is no potential for scarring following subcision in contrast to dermo- brasion and lasers . None of our patients in the present study evaluation of improvement was assessed by subjective as well as objective methods. New scoring system based on Sharquie’s method for grading acne scars was adopted. In addition to the total score of acne severity, individual parameters such as number, area, type, and color of scar in addition to the effect of scar on the psyche were evaluated and recorded before and after treatment to reflect the improvement in the quality of scars more accurately. These details were not mentioned previously in the literature. No one developed post-operative infection. Sun avoidance is not mandatory as in other surgical treatments of acne scars. All that was needed is a 2 - 3 day leave.